Science
water measurement

Question Description

Design a data table with the columns for pH measurement, conductivity, specific gravity, CO2 concentration, and dissolved O2 concentration.Record the data for each water sample in the table.Write a formal lab report [intro, M&M, results, discussion, conclusion, lit cited (4- 6 pages)] comparing the different water samples, interpreting the results in your data table.Are the results for the different water samples what you expected?


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Lab 5: Physical and Chemical Analysis of Water In this lab we will focus primarily on chemical characterization, examining some of the factors that impact the quality of water, both for drinking and as a habitat for aquatic organisms. Additionally, two physical properties, conductivity and specific gravity, will also be measured. Each student will research, analyze, and compare (using the World Wide Web) eight water samples; 1) Tap water: Tap water is the water that you get directly from your faucet, it may or may not be suited for drinking purposes. 2) Mineral water: Mineral water is the water that naturally contains minerals. It is obtained from underground sources, which makes it rich in minerals like calcium, magnesium, manganese, etc. 3) Spring water: In some places, rainwater accumulated underground tends to “leak” out at the surface as a spring, or puddle. Natural springs are not passed through a community water system and are yet considered suitable for drinking as it comes from under the ground. 4) Well water: When it rains, water trickles down and travels through the inner crevices of the soil, beneath the ground to form underground lakes. This happens over a period of time. In rural areas, one of the primary sources of water is what is dug out from deep wells. Deep wells directly tap groundwater and bring it to the surface from which people can take their water. 5) Purified water: A purified water is the water which after deriving from its source has underwent purification treatment in a plant. 6) Distilled water: Distilled water or demineralized water is one where the water has been subjected to a treatment that removes all its minerals and salt by the process of reverse osmosis and distillation. 7) Sparkling water: Sparkling water is the water that has undergone carbonation which makes your water fizzy just like your sodas. 8) Salt water: Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. Physical properties 1) Conductivity Conductivity is an expression of the ability of a water sample to carry electrical current. This number depends on the total concentration of ionized substances dissolved in water and the temperature at which the measurement is taken. The mobility of each ion, their charge and their concentrations with respect to each other also affect conductivity. Ions in water are usually substances such as salts; therefore the conductivity is also a measure of the salinity (saltiness) of the water. Conductivity is measured in micro Siemens (S). 2) Specific Gravity This physical property is a measure of the density of the water sample. Pure water at 25 oC has a density of 1.000 g/ml (or g/cc); a value different from that suggests the presence of material that increase the density of the water sample. Chemical properties (Dissolved Materials) 1. pH: The pH of a material is the measure of its acid or base properties. As you might recall from last week’s lab, acids are materials with hydrogen ions present that dissolve in the water and release those H+ ions. Bases produce hydroxide (OH-) ions when dissolved in water. (Note that acids and bases, by definition, do not exist in any other form except dissolved in water. It is the presence of H+ or OH- in a water solution that defines the acid or base.) When exposed to each other acids and bases undergo "neutralization" in which the H+ and OH- combine to make water. 2. Carbon Dioxide: Carbon dioxide readily dissolves into water producing carbonate and bicarbonate salts like baking soda (sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3) or calcium carbonate CaCO3, the material responsible for what we refer to as water hardness. 3. Dissolved oxygen: The quantity of oxygen gas dissolved in water is extremely important, as it is the main constituent to determine the presence of aquatic life. Underwater life relies on water to absorb oxygen gas for their use. Too little or too much oxygen interferes with this process. To turn in: Design a data table with the columns for pH measurement, conductivity, specific gravity, CO2 concentration, and dissolved O2 concentration. Record the data for each water sample in the table. Write a formal lab report [intro, M&M, results, discussion, conclusion, lit cited (4- 6 pages)] comparing the different water samples, interpreting the results in your data table. Are the results for the different water samples what you expected? ...
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