Patterns of Organization

timer Asked: Oct 4th, 2018
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Question description

Use your graphic organizer to analyze the following reading: Art History (file attached) PDF. Based on your graphic organizer, answer the following questions in a 300-400 word response: What pattern of organization did you identify? In what paragraph did you find the pattern? What are the signal words? How did knowing the pattern help you understand the information? How does this fit into the visual that you created for this pattern?

Submit your graphic organizer and response in a Microsoft Word document using the link below.

Grading Criteria


Graphic Organizer: A graphic organizer was created with the required information: pattern, definition, signal words, and visual.


Application: A 300-400 word response is completed adequately answering the required question.


Conventions: Writing is clear with few grammar and spelling mistakes.


Total Possible Points


Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 1 of 10 Search Subjects Contribute Log in Art History / Textbooks / Boundless Art History / Prehistoric Art / The Paleolithic Period Concept Version 11 Created by Boundless Paleolithic Cave Paintings Paleolithic cave paintings demonstrate early humans' capacity to give meaning to their surroundings and communicate with others. LEARNING OBJECTIVE • Identify the types of images found in cave paintings in Europe dating from the Paleolithic era KEY POINTS • Cave paintings can be grouped into three main categories: animals, human figures, and abstract signs. • Animals depicted include familiar herbivores and predatory animals. • The most spectacular examples of cave paintings are in southern France and northern Spain. • Interpretations vary from prehistoric star charts, accounts of past hunts or mystical rituals for future ones, and shamanism. TERMS • Parietal Art 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 2 of 10 Paintings, murals, drawings, etchings, carvings, and pecked artwork on the interior of rock shelters and caves; also known as cave art. • shamanism A range of traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world. • polychromy The art or practice of combining different colors, especially brilliant ones, in an artistic way. • chiaroscuro An artistic technique developed during the Renaissance, referring to the use of exaggerated light contrasts in order to create the illusion of volume. FULL TEXT The Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age, ranges from 30,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE and produced the first accomplishments in human creativity, preceding the invention of writing. Archeological discoveries across a broad swath of Europe (especially southern France and northern Spain) include over two hundred caves with spectacular paintings, drawings, and sculpture that are among the earliest undisputed examples of representational image-making. Paintings and engravings along the caves' walls and ceilings fall under the category of parietal art. Themes and Materials The most common themes in cave paintings are large wild animals, such as bison, horses, aurochs, and deer. The species found most often were suitable for hunting by humans, but were not necessarily the typical prey found in associated bone deposits. For example, the painters of Lascaux, France left 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 3 of 10 mainly reindeer bones, but this species does not appear at all in the cave paintings; equine species are the most common. Drawings of humans were rare and were usually schematic in nature as opposed to the detailed and naturalistic images of animals. Tracings of human hands and hand stencils were very popular, however, as well as abstract patterns called finger flutings. The pigments used appear to be red and yellow ochre, manganese or carbon for black, and china clay for white. Some of the color may have been mixed with fat. The paint was applied by finger, chewed sticks, or fur for brushes. Sometimes the silhouette of the animal was incised in the rock first, and in some caves many of the images were only engraved in this fashion, taking them out of a strict definition of "cave painting." Main Examples of Cave Paintings: France and Spain France Lascaux (circa 15,000 BCE), in southwestern France, is an interconnected series of caves with one of the most impressive examples of artistic creations by Paleolithic humans. 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 4 of 10 Cave paintings in Lascaux, France The most famous section of the cave is "The Great Hall of the Bulls," where bulls, equines, and stags are depicted. Discovered in 1940, the cave contains nearly two thousand figures, which can be grouped into three main categories—animals, human figures, and abstract signs. Over nine hundred images depict animals from the surrounding areas, such as horses, stags, aurochs, bison, lions, bears, and birds—species that would have been hunted and eaten, and those identified as predators. The paintings contain no images of the surrounding landscape or the vegetation of the time. The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave (circa 30,000 BCE) in the Ardèche department of southern France contains some of the earliest known paintings, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life. The Chauvet Cave is uncharacteristically large, and the quality, quantity, and condition of the artwork found on its walls have been called spectacular. Hundreds of animal paintings have been catalogued, depicting at least thirteen different species—not only the familiar herbivores that predominate Paleolithic cave art, but also many predatory animals, such as cave lions, panthers, bears, and cave hyenas. 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 5 of 10 Drawings of horses from the Chauvet Cave in France The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the earliest known cave paintings. As is typical of most cave art, there are no paintings of complete human figures in Chauvet. There are a few panels of red ochre hand prints and hand stencils made by spitting pigment over hands pressed against the cave surface. Abstract markings—lines and dots—are found throughout the cave. The artists who produced these unique paintings used techniques rarely found in other cave art. Many of the paintings appear to have been made after the walls were scraped clear of debris and concretions, leaving a smoother and noticeably lighter area upon which the artists worked. Similarly, a threedimensional quality and the suggestion of movement are achieved by incising or etching around the outlines of certain figures. The art also includes scenes that were complex for its time—animals interacting with each other. For instance, a pair of wooly rhinoceroses are seen butting horns in an apparent contest for territory or mating rights. Spain Altamira (circa 18,000 BCE) is a cave in northern Spain famous for its Upper Paleolithic cave paintings featuring drawings and polychrome rock paintings of wild mammals and human hands. The cave has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 6 of 10 Painting of a bison in the Great Hall of Policromes, Altamira, Spain Altamira's famous Upper Paleolithic cave paintings feature drawings and polychrome rock paintings of wild mammals and human hands. The long cave consists of a series of twisting passages and chambers. Human occupation was limited to the cave mouth, although paintings were created throughout the length of the cave. The artists used polychromy—charcoal and ochre or haematite—to create the images, often diluting these pigments to produce variations in intensity, creating an impression of chiaroscuro. They also exploited the natural contours in the cave walls to give their subjects a three-dimensional effect. Interpretations Like all prehistoric art, the purpose of these paintings remains obscure. In recent years, new research has suggested that the Lascaux paintings may incorporate prehistoric star charts. Some 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 7 of 10 anthropologists and art historians also theorize that the paintings could be an account of past hunting success, or they could represent a mystical ritual to improve future hunting endeavors. An alternative theory, broadly based on ethnographic studies of contemporary hunter-gatherer societies, is that the paintings pertained to shamanism. PREV CONCEPT NEXT CONCEPT Create Question Referenced in 1 quiz question Which of the following images have not been found in Paleolithic caves? KEY TERM REFERENCE Paleolithic — Appears in these related concepts: Mesolithic Art, The Stone Age, and Paleolithic Sculpture Pigment — Appears in these related concepts: Painting in the Vijayanagar Empire, Block Books, and Illustrated Books in the Early Middle Ages abstract — Appears in these related concepts: Photography in America, Introduction and Thesis, and Precision aurochs — Appears in these related concepts: Art in Western Europe and Neo-Babylonia engraving — Appears in these related concepts: Tombs of the Middle Kingdom, German Painting in the Northern Renaissance, and German Woodcuts etching — Appears in these related concepts: Single Sheets, Monotypes, and The Southwest ethnographic — Appears in these related concepts: Primitivism and Cubism, Paleolithic Architecture, and Architecture of Aksun and Lalibela incised — Appears in these related concepts: Sculpture of the Cyclades, Ceramics in Early South America, and Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture intensity — Appears in these related concepts: Italian Architecture in the Baroque Period, Spanish Painting in the Northern Renaissance, and Color 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 8 of 10 ochre — Appears in these related concepts: African Art, Sculpture of the Old Kingdom, and Paleolithic Artifacts outline — Appears in these related concepts: Managing Information, The Rough Draft Outline, and Reasons to Outline panels — Appears in these related concepts: Bronze Age Rock Carvings, Burial Goods of the Han Dynasty, and Architecture and Art in the Unified Silla Period representational — Appears in these related concepts: Art History Methodology, Space, and Figurative and Abstract Art ritual — Appears in these related concepts: Rituals, Dogon, and The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective SOURCES Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. This particular resource used the following sources: "Boundless." Boundless Learning CC BY-SA 3.0. "Parietal Art." Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0. "Cave painting." Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0. "Cave of Altamira." Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0. "Chauvet Cave." Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0. "polychromy." Wiktionary CC BY-SA 3.0. "chiaroscuro." Wiktionary CC BY-SA 3.0. "Lascaux." Wikipedia CC BY-SA 3.0. "Jack Maxfield, Europe: A.D. 1801 to 1900. September 18, 2013." OpenStax CNX CC BY 3.0. "shamanism." Wiktionary CC BY-SA 3.0. "Chauvethorses." Wikipedia Public domain. 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 9 of 10 "AltamiraBison." Wikipedia Public domain. "Lascaux painting." Wikipedia CC BY-SA. COPY CITATION Source: Boundless. "Paleolithic Cave Paintings." Boundless Art History Boundless, Invalid Date Invalid Date. Invalid Date. Retrieved 10 Apr. 2018 from Subjects • Accounting • Algebra • Art History • Calculus • Chemistry • Communications • Economics • Finance • Management • Marketing • Microbiology • Physics • Physiology • Sociology • Statistics • U.S. History • Political Science • Psychology • World History Products • Biology • Business • Writing Boundless Follow Us Questions? • For Students • About Us • Facebook • Visit Support • For Educators • Approach • Twitter • Email Us • For Institutions • Partners • Blog • Quizzes • Press • Integrations • Community Legal • Terms of Service • Privacy • Accessibility 4/10/2018 Paleolithic Cave Paintings Page 10 of 10 Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. 4/10/2018

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