How did the Patricians (Aristocracy) maintain their power and what happend when it was challenged?

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PSA responses need to be in an essay format: introduction with a main argument underlined, body paragraphs, and a conclusion (2-3 sentences) and follow standard formatting: 12 point font, Times New Roman, doubled spaced, and at least 1.5 pages long. Must include at least four citations from the sources attached.

PROMPT: HOW DID THE PATRICIANS (ARISTOCRACY) MAINTAIN THEIR POWER AND WHAT HAPPENED WHEN IT WAS CHALLENGED? (DOC 1) THE ROLE OF THE ROMAN STATE (44 BCE), CICERO The man who undertakes the role for public office in the state must make it his first priority to see that every person can continue to hold what is his and that no inroads are made into the goods or property of private persons by the state. It was a bad policy when Philippus, when he was tribune of the plebs [about 104 BCE], proposed an agrarian [land] reform law. When his law was defeated, he took it well and was moderate in his response. In the debates themselves, however, he tried to curry popular favor and acted in a bad way when he said, “In our community [plebians] there are not more than two thousand men who have real property.” That speech ought to be condemned outright for attempting to advocate equality of property holdings [between the patricians and plebians]. What policy could be more dangerous? It was for this reason---that each person [patricians] should be able to keep his own property---that local states and governments were founded. Although it was the leadership of nature herself that men gathered together in communities, it was for the hope of keeping their own property that they [patricians] sought the protection of states… Some men want to be known as popular patricians and for this reason they engage in making revolutionary proposals about land, with the result that owners are driven from their homes and money lent out by creditors is simply given free to borrowers with no need for repayment. Such men are shaking the very foundations of the state. First of all, they are destroying that goodwill. (Doc 2) Tacitus Annals 14.42-44 Pedanius Secundus, the city-prefect, was murdered by one of his own slaves (perhaps as the slave had been denied his freedom, despite making a deal with his master? perhaps he and his master were rivals in love?). According to ancient custom, all the slaves living in the household should be executed.* [About 400 slaves lived in Pedanius’ household] A great uprising of the people however, who wanted to save a large number of innocent lives, made for trouble in the city. In the Senate too, opinions were divided - though the majority of votes were opposed to changing the custom. One of those men was Cassius Longinus, who argued the following: “I have often been present when the Senate passed new laws that went against ancient traditions. I have always kept silent at those times. I did not doubt that the ancient ways were better and fairer and all changes were for the worse, but I didn’t want to undermine my influence by acquiring a reputation for bickering. But today I must speak up. An ex-consul has been murdered in his house by the treachery of his slaves - none of whom hindered the murderer or revealed him. If you vote for them to go free, in heaven’s name, who will be protected by his rank, when even the city prefect isn’t protected? Which of us will be saved by his slaves, if they won’t even think about our welfare when they’re under threat of punishment? Do you all want to go around arguing about something that has been carefully weighed up and decided upon by men wiser than we are? Do you think that a slave could muster the courage to murder his master without giving himself away at some point by muttering a threat, or uttering a rash word? Alright, let’s say he concealed his plan and got hold of a weapon without his fellow slaves knowing it. Could he pass the night-guard, open the open the doors of the bedroom, carry in a light and carry out the murder, all without anyone noticing? There are lots of signs that come before a crime. So long as our slaves disclose them, we may live solitary among their numbers, secure because of their worry of punishment, and finally — if die we must — certain we will be avenged. Our ancestors were always suspicious of the temper of their slaves, even if they were born in the household and had a natural affection and loyalty for their masters. Nowadays, we have in our homes people of many nations, with different customs, foreign religions (or none at all) - and it is only by terror you can control such a motley rabble. ‘But some innocent lives will be lost!’ it will be said. All great examples carry some injustice, bringing about suffering of individuals - but this injustice is compensated for by the advantage to the community.” (Doc 3) Plutarch, Life of Crassus, viii-xi: The Last Great Slave Revolt. In 73 B.C. the "Speaking Tools" - as the Romans called their slaves, especially those upon the great estates of Southern Italy--burst loose in a terrible insurrection [Arkenberg: the third such in fifty years], to quell which taxed the whole power of the government. Despite the sympathy one must have for these slaves and their gallant leader, their success would have been a calamity to civilization. An army of such brutalized wretches could only destroy; they could never have erected a firm and tolerable government. After these outbreaks and the havoc and terror spread by them, the Romans out of sheer fear seem to have begun to treat their slaves less harshly than before. The insurrection of the gladiators and the devastation of Italy, commonly called the war of Spartacus, began upon this occasion. One Lentulus Batiates trained up a great many gladiators in Capua, most of them Gauls and Thracians, who, not for any fault by them committed, but simply through the cruelty of their master, were kept in confinement for the object of fighting one with another. Two hundred of these formed a plan to escape, but their plot being discovered, those of them who became aware of it in time to anticipate their master, being seventy-eight, got out of a cook's shop chopping knives and spits, and made their way through the city, and lighting by the way on several wagons that were carrying gladiators' arms to another city, they seized upon them and armed themselves. And seizing upon a defensible place, they chose three captains, of whom Spartacus was chief, a Thracian of one of the nomad tribes, and a man not only of high spirit and valiant, but in understanding, also, and in gentleness, superior to his condition, and more of a Grecian than the people of his country usually are. …After many successful skirmishes with Varinus, the praetor himself, in one of which Spartacus took his lictors and his own horse, he began to be great and terrible; but wisely considering that he was not to expect to match the force of the empire, he marched his army towards the Alps, intending, when he had passed them, that every man should go to his own home, some to Thrace, some to Gaul. But they, grown confident in their numbers, and puffed up with their success, would give no obedience to him, but went about and ravaged Italy; so that now the Senate was not only moved at the indignity and baseness, both of the enemy and of the insurrection, but, looking upon it as a matter of alarm and of dangerous consequence, sent out both the consuls to it, as to a great and difficult enterprise. The consul Gellius, falling suddenly upon a party of Germans, who through contempt and confidence had straggled from Spartacus, cut them all to pieces. But when Lentulus with a large army besieged Spartacus, he sallied out upon him, and, joining battle, defeated his chief officers, and captured all his baggage. As he made towards the Alps, Cassius, who was praetor of that part of Gaul that lies about the Po, met him with ten thousand men, but being overcome in battle, he had much ado to escape himself, with the loss of a great many of his men. … This success, however, ruined Spartacus, because it encouraged the slaves, who now disdained any longer to avoid fighting, or to obey their officers, but as they were upon their march, they came to them with their swords in their hand, and compelled them to lead them back again through Lucania, against the Romans, the very thing which [General] Crassus was eager for. For news was already brought that Pompey [Crassus' rival for military glory] was at hand; and people began to talk openly that the honor of this war was reserved for him, who would come and at once oblige the enemy to fight and put an end to the war. Crassus, therefore, eager to fight a decisive battle, encamped very near the enemy, and began to make lines of circumvallation; but the slaves made a sally, and attacked the pioneers. As fresh supplies came in on either side, Spartacus, seeing there was no avoiding it, set all his army in array, and when his horse was brought him, he drew out his sword and killed him, saying, if he got the day, he should have a great many better horses of the enemies, and if he lost it, he should have no need of this. And so making directly towards Crassus himself, through the midst of arms and wounds, he missed him, but slew two centurions that fell upon him together. At last, being deserted by those that were about him, he himself stood his ground, and, surrounded by the enemy, bravely defending himself, was cut to pieces.

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