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Assignment 1 Part One: INTRODUCTION TO BRIEF COUNSELLING Megan Walkhouse, Justine Sharpe, Jasmine Baker, Hanan Baalbaki, Biju Aryal, Manpreet Brar Macewan University Authors’ note: This presentation was prepared for SOWK 305: Individual and Family Practice, taught by Hellen Gateri WHAT IS BRIEF COUNSELLING? ● Is a short-term process focused on helping the client to resolve or effectively manage a ● can help in them to be optimist about change is possible ● exceptions together and help in reducing the desired change. ( feeling of isolation. therapy/brief-therapy/) ● A caring and empathic counsellor can encourage clients to get on track, explore for specific problem or challenge, or to make a ● Small change on thought process of a client Is typically solution-oriented and sessions ● Goal setting is the hallmark of this approach are more geared towards here-and-now ● The techniques for brief counselling are : Pre- aspects of the problem than on exploration of counselling Change, The Miracle Question, historical material Helping Clients Get on Track, Looking for The major emphasis of brief counseling is Exception, Finding Strength in Adversity, focusing on strengths, resources, problem Using Solution Talk, and The Change solving, solutions and collaboration with Continuum clients ● (Shebib, 2017, p. 216-221) SOLUTION-FOCUSED APPROACH ● ● ● This approach takes the perspective that clients already possess the strength and resources to solve their problems It is the counsellors role to assist clients in discovering these and then build upon them with the client in a collaborative way This approach looks at what tools the client has, not what they don’t have WHAT IS IT? (Corcoran, 1999, p. 462-463) ● HOW IS IT USED? ● ● Joining: Counsellors build a foundation to aid in attaining solution-focused goals in brief counselling settings (Corcoran, 1999, p. 463-465) Exception Finding: helping clients realize they are the source of successes they experience rather than external forces (Corcoran, 1999, p. 467-468) Using solution talk: ask questions that highlight client past successes, celebrate them, and use these instances as opportunities to foster the client’s sense of self-efficacy (Shebib, 2014, p. 268) STRENGTHS-BASED APPROACH The Strengths Approach is: (Early & GlenMaye, 2000) ● ● ● ● Based on the perspective that people have capacity for growth and change (p. 119) Attempts to understand clients in terms of their strengths (p.119) Honors the clients expertise in their own lives and issues-social worker and clients are partners (p.119) Focus on identifying strengths and mobilizing resources that improve situations (p.123) How is this used in Brief Counselling? (Shebib, 2017) ● ● ● The Miracle question- “if you woke up and your problem was solved what would your life look like?” (p.217) Finding strength in adversity (p.219) Looking for Exceptions (p.218) BENEFITS OF BRIEF COUNSELLING ● Brief counselling shares a value base similar to that of social work, especially in child welfare (Corcoran, 1999, p. 461) ● Does not dwell in a client’s past since digging in to the past seems to have limited usefulness in changing the future (Corcoran, 1999, p. 463). ● Focuses on acting to improve or solve a problem within a short duration (Corcoran, 1999, p. 463). ● Provides measurable short-term goals by focusing on that one thing that the client can do at the current moment (Elliot, 2011, p. 44). PITFALLS OF BRIEF COUNSELLING ● ● ● ● The nature of the client relationship usually depends on the client goal who might be unwilling to change (Corcoran, 1999, p. 465) The counsellor may not be aware of the problems so that he/she can remedy the problems which affect the clients. (Corcoran, 1999, p. 464) Discards other information that seems important in other treatment modalities (Corcoran, 1999, p. 465) Makes those in the therapy feel misunderstood and not et on their emotional level (Elliot, 2011, p. 44) LEADING AUTHORS De Shazer Carpetto Major Arguments: (Shebib, 2014, p.216) Major Arguments: (Shebib, 2014, p.217) -Putting time and energy into “finding the root causes of a problem” is unnecessary -Change is already occurring through the process of seeking counselling -Excessive information about the issue is also not needed -Focus on “change and solution possibilities” Major Theories: (Trepper et al. 2006, p. 133) -Focus on the next step for the client -Focuses on the positive aspects within the client and reaffirming that energy back to them -Transferring goals into forms of action - “Future focused” & “goal-directed” Major Theories: (Shebib, 2014, p.217-218) 1 2 3 Brief Counselling - Techniques The Miracle Question Look for Exceptions Strength in Adversity DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE A question that asks the client to view their life based on the occurence of a miracle that solved their problems... “How do you suppose your life would look if you woke up tomorrow and, by some miracle, your problems were solved. What would indicate to you that your problem has been solved?” Helping the client recognize instances wherein they were successful at managing their problems… “Can you identify what is different in those moments when you are open to feedback from your boss?” Focusing on the client’s strengths and problem solving abilities as a result of past experiences/challenges... “In what ways do you think you have become stronger as a result of the challenges you have faced?” Shebib, 2017, p. 216-221 4 5 Solution Talk Change Continuum Encouraging the client to take control of their problem by focusing on their skills and expertise.... “Think about a time you have successfully coped with a problem; what did you do in that instance?” A tool used to motivate the client in the direction of positive change by highlighting possible outcomes… “What could be the worst possible outcome for you? Now, what about a great outcome, what does that look like?” Negative Outcomes ● ● ● ● Jail time Criminal record Unable to find a job Homeless Positive Outcomes Clients location ● ● ● Reconnect with family Get my diploma Get a good job Shebib, 2017, p. 216-221 REFERENCES Alexander Street, a ProQuest Company. (2011,Dec 6th ). Solution Focused Therapy: An Adolescent Client [video File]. Retrieved from Cognitive Therapy Associates: retrived from Corcoran, J. (1999). Solution-Focused Interviewing with Child Protective Service Clients. Child Welfare League of America, 78, 461-479. doi: 0009-4021/99/040461-19 Early, T. J., & GlenMaye, L. F. (2000). Valuing families: Social work practice with families from a strengths perspective. Social Work, 45(2), 118-130. Retrieved from Elliott, Joanne L. "a review of choices: interviewing and counselling skills for canadians." Journal of Employment Counseling 48.1 (2011): 43-44. Shebib, B. (2017). Choices: Interviewing and Counselling Skills for Canadians. (6th ed.). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Pearson., 216-220. Shebib, B. (2014). Choices: Interviewing and Counselling Skills for Canadians. (5th ed.) Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc Trepper, T., Dolan, Y., McCollum, E., & Nelson, T. (2006). Steve De Shazer and the Future of Solution-Focused Therapy. 32, 133-139. DHARAMVIR SINGH BRAR #B 12, 392 Thompson Drive ,THOMPSON, MB | (C) 2046796179 | Career Objective; Seeking the position where my work experience and skills will contribute towards achieving the goals and objectives of the organization Work History; Security Guard Safeway –THOMP SON, MB SEP 2016 to FEB Sandwich Artist SUBWAY – THOMPSON, MB MAY 2016 to AUG GDI Cleaning Vale Inco – THOMPSON, MB AUG 2016 to till date HANDY TAXI Driftwood Nickel Taxi- THOMPSOM,MB DEC 2016 to till date 2017 2016 Welding Engg. New Guru Nanak Engg Works –Talwandi Bhai, PUNJAB JULY 2012 to APRIL 2016 Education; Sacred Heart School (Grade 10) MOGA, PUNJAB 2005 Certificate course in Tool & Die Technology LONGOWAL, PUNJAB 2007 Diploma in Maintainance & Plant Production LONGOWAL, PUNJAB 2009 Degree in Welding Technology LONGOWAL, PUNJAB 2012 Skills; • • • • • Strong team working, leadership and communication skills. Ability to ensure quality control, compliance and completion on work on time. Good understanding of the emergency situations and know the roles. Good written and verbal communication. Expertise in MS OFFICE • • • • Excellent knowledge about computer and software life cad/cam, internet applications. Computer repair skills include hardware skill and installation like drivers, motherboard ,memory upgrade etc. A valid class 4F driver license. Very quick learner and physical fit to perform different tasks. Strength Based Approach Amber MacKay, Graham Witten, Shaylagh Stevenson & Antonina Zarnoch Strength Based Approach According to Shebib (2017) a strength approach is a counselling perspective used, which assumes that individuals and communities have assets and resources that can be helpful in solving their own issues. It emphasizes a clients positive attributes and skills to help counsellors guide their clients in combating learned helplessness, highlighting their specific strengths over their perceived weaknesses (p.185). It is important for counsellors to establish a positive relationship with their clients as “the goal of the strength-based practitioner should be not only to learn about client strengths but also to understand something about the contexts which allow them to be present” (Bozic, Lawthorn & Murray, 2017. p.29), for the client to draw on. In the Strength based approach counsellors are charged with assisting clients to discover how they can best help themselves, “Treatment is not just fixing what is broken; it is nurturing what is best within ourselves” (Smith, 2006). Smith (2006) argues that strength-based counselling methods are born out of positivist psychology, which is “an optimistic thinking style [that] helps one to maintain hope, increases one’s resilience, and improves one’s chances of a successful outcome” (p.21). (Pulla, 2017. p.106) Influences ● ● ● ● ● ● Counselling Psychology Prevention Research in Psychology Positivism Social work Solution Focused Therapy Movement Narrative Therapy Movement Strength-Based counselling is rooted in positive psychology which “emphasizes individuals’ well-being, [and] helps clients to construct positive cognitions about the future through optimism, hope, and faith” (Smith, 2006. p. 22). As well as in the Social Work Practice which guided practitioners in placing an emphasis on looking at the experiences their clients had gone through, helping them to identify the skills which supported their survival through these experiences (Smith, 2006. p. 22-23). (Nicholson, 2018) Important Practice for Social Workers Using a Strength-Based Approach - Hope and reflection are two essential underlying components of strength-based approach (Pulla, 2017. p.111). - It is crucial that social workers continuously engage in Reflection. Through reflection you are better able to understand yourself, and your strengths. Being able to Identify your own strengths will aid you in the process of helping individuals identify strengths within themselves. - When using a strengths perspective, it is important for social workers to understand the importance of experiencing feelings such as hope within their own lives. It is hard to support a client through their journey, when you haven't experienced these emotions yourself. Having hope will also help you to continue to believe in the resilience of people, their ability to heal, and their potential bounce back against all odds (Pulla, 2017. p.111). - It is crucial that the practitioner using a strength-based approach truly believes that the individual seeking help has the capacity to change their reality. - Acknowledging the importance of being aware that issues the individual is dealing with have the potential to overshadow personal strengths (Pulla, 2017. p.99-100). Using a Strength-Based Model to Educate Parents with Autistic Children - Steiner (2011) designed a study in which the objective was to observe the outcomes of two situations involving autistic children and their parents. In one condition, the therapist spoke to the parents focusing on their child’s deficits, and in the other the therapist spoke to the parent’s highlighting the child’s strengths (p.180-182). (Staff2orcommissionasd, 2018) - The results supported the idea that using a strength based approach to educate parents with autistic children can improve the quality of child-parent relationship interactions, and supported positive parental influence (Steiner, 2011). - It was found that when the therapist focused their comments on the child’s deficits, the parents would accept these comments and even go on to make more negative statements. Where as when the therapist made comments about the child’s strengths, the parent affirmed these statements and even used the opportunity to express more of their child’s strengths. Using a strength-based approach in this situation enhanced a more positive view on child behaviour (Steiner, 2011. p.186-187). - Although this study demonstrates the potential positive impact that a strength-based approach can have, it is important to acknowledge that this study did not measure impact over time. It would be unethical to prolong treatment that focused on the child’s deficit (Steiner, 2011). Leading Authors “Practicing from a strengths perspective requires that we shift the way we think about, approach, and relate to our clients. Rather than focusing exclusively or dominantly on problems, your eye turns to towards possibility. In the thicket of trauma, pain, and trouble, you see blooms of hope and transformation” -- Dennis Saleebey (Shebib, 2017, p. 187) Bertha Reynolds Dennis Saleebey ● (Steyaert, 2009) Started social work in 1920s, began promoting strengths based ideas in 1940s (Kaplan, 2002) ● Influenced many of the strength based thinkers today (Hall, 2014, p. 8) ● Addressed power imbalances in social worker/client relationships (Kaplan, 2002) (Pegg, 2013) ● Focused on applying strength based theory to mental illness (Oza, p. 379) ● Developed 8 categories of strength based questions that can be asked to clients: survival, change, meaning, perspective, support, exception, possibility and esteem (Oza, p. 377) Major Tenets - - Focuses on Empowerment, and stays clear of “Rescuing” (Pulla, 2017). Focuses on getting the client to discover their own strengths, virtues, and positive characteristics, while offering support while needed (Pulla, 2017). The key elements are centered around the notion that all people possess strengths, virtues and the ability to change themselves; stays clear of the clients problems which can hinder their ability to see their own strengths; and that the client is their own expert at solving their problems (Pulla, 2017). “Strengths-based practice in simple terms present approaches that promote resilience as opposed to dealing with deficits” (Pulla, 2017, p. 100). Major Tenets Advantages: 1) 2) 3) Understands mental health in a more holistic way by focusing not only on mental illnesses, but also focusing on the individual’s ability to grow and reach their maximum potential (Wong, 2006). Leads to better care using the belief that all individuals have the potential for positive change. This also leads to health promotion and prevention by reducing levels of stress (Wong, 2006). Leads to more possible outcomes and allows the counsellor to focus more on the client’s needs and goals. (Wong, 2006) Disadvantages: 1) 2) Tends to focus mostly on westernized ideologies of strengths, failing to acknowledge other cultural ideologies of strengths (Wong, 2006). Focuses mostly on current, scientific definitions of the accumulation of knowledge, rather than a broader scope that is inclusive of various perceptions of strengths and character-traits (Wong, 2006). An Example of Strengths-Based Model in Social Work Practice - - Strengths-based models are used quite often in community social work practice when offering support to clients in their role as a family and community member, and involves safeguarding intervention (Fox, et. al., 2014) Adopting a strengths-based approach in a community can be as simple as volunteer work (Foz, et. al., 2014) Helping clients find their place and role within their community is important, as individuals who experience isolation are more at risk for health problems (Fox et. al., 2014) Safeguarding involves empowering the at-risk person through the development of relationships (Fox, et. al., 2014). Group Care facilities utilize strength based assessment tools with their clients. To assist them in confidence building and self esteem development. References Bozic, N., Lawthom, R., & Murray, J. (2017). Exploring the context of strengths – a new approach to strength-based assessment. Educational Psychology in Practice, 34(1), 26-40. doi:10.1080/02667363.2017.1367917 Fox, A., Gollins, T., Romeo, L., Thomas, J., Walker, B., Woodham, B. 2014. Developing a wellbeing and strengths-based approach to social work practice: Changing culture. Think Local, Act Personal. Retrieved October 2, 2018, from Hall, J. C. (2014). How Social Constructionism Could Inform the Education of Social Work Practitioners: An Interview with Dennis Saleebey. Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping. 20(4), 8-15. Kaplan, C. P. (2002). An early example of brief strengths-based practice: Bertha Reynolds at the National Maritime Union. Smith College Studies in Social Work. 72(3), 403-416. References Nicholson, J. (2018). Top 3 Positive Psychology Exercises [Digital image]. Retrieved September 30, 2018, from Staff2orcommissionasd. (2018). Celebrate the Spectrum of Strength [Digital image]. Retrieved September 30, 2018, from Oza, M. (2017). Strengths based approach in mental illness-need for a measurement scale. Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing. 8(5), 376-381. Pegg, M. (2013). S is for Dennis Saleebey: Focusing on strengths in social work. The Positive Encourager. Retrieved from: Pulla, V. (2017). Strengths-Based Approach in Social Work: A distinct ethical advantage. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 3, 97-114. Retrieved September 21, 2018. References Shebib, B. (2017). Choices: Interviewing and counselling skills for Canadians. Toronto: Pearson. Smith, E. (2006). The Strength-Based Counselling Model. The Counselling Psychologist, 34(1), 13-79. doi:10.1177/0011000005277018 Steiner, A. M. (2011). A strength-based approach to parent education for children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13, 178-190. Steyaert, J. (2009). 1934 Bertha Reynolds. History of Social Work. Retrieved from: Wong. J. (2006). Strength-Centered Therapy: A social constructivist, virtues-based psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Research, Theory, Practice, Training. 43, 2, 133-146. Retrieved September 30, 2018
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In comparing the two PowerPoint presentations, my group focused on brief counseling as a
counseling model that focuses on helping a client to resolve their problems in a quicker way
through solution-oriented sessions that do not dwell on the client’s past....

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