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I have attached couple of questions below about stress management and i have attached the textbook below as well. Let me know if you need anything else.

Part 1: Time Management

Review the section on time management in the Goal Setting and Time Management Tutorial, and Connections, Ch. 5.

Respond to the following bulleted items in a brief 100- to 200-word paragraph:

  • What time management skills did you recognize in the tutorial and the reading that can apply in your academic and professional situations?
  • What is the importance of time management in any (online or face-to-face) learning environment?
  • What additional benefits will successful time management produce in your life?
  • How do these time management skills help you reach the goals you have set for yourself?

Part 2: Stress Management

College can be a stressful experience, and the reasons are varied (Shields, 2001). Almost all students are juggling school with a variety of other life demands, such as work, family-related responsibilities, or health concerns. Review the beginning of Connections, Ch. 12 prior to responding to the discussion below.

Write a 75- to 100-word summary addressing how we can avoid the pitfalls of stress and ensure academic success.

Include discussion of the following in your summary:

  • The sources of stress in your life
  • Positive coping strategies to manage your stress level
  • A plan to help manage stress and promote academic success

Part 3: Other Obstacles

Select two of the three following common student problems. For each problem you select, write a 75- to 100-word response of your proposed solutions.

  • Problem 1: Accessing the Class Resources

On the day that an assignment is due, you have trouble accessing the student portal and your class. What are your steps to a successful resolution?

  • Problem 2: Internet Connectivity in Your Primary Location

Your home computer is unable to connect to the Internet. What is your back-up plan so that your success is not deterred?

  • Problem 3: Finding Time to Complete Assignments

Your co-worker is out sick, and with a looming project deadline, you are required to work additional hours this week. How will you ensure that your schoolwork responsibilities are met?

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Chapter 5 Organization and Time Management Get Organized Take Control of Your Time Overcome Procrastination and Minimize Distractions Use Organization and Time Management at Work My Personal Success Plan © Rudy Sulgan/Corbis Do you know people who are very organized — people who label every drawer in their house, arrange their socks by color, or schedule each week down to the minute? If so, you may be tempted to dismiss those behaviors as excessive or over the top. After all, taken to extremes, any behavior can be unhealthy. But to a degree, the skills of being organized and managing your time are not only healthy, they’re essential for succeeding in college. These skills help you take control of your environment by clarifying what tasks you have to do, when you have to do them, and what resources you’ll need. When you’re in control, it’s easier to stay focused on your goals and minimize distractions that threaten to derail your plans. Take Marcus and Tim. Marcus puts all of his classes and study times, his work schedule, and even his regular pickup basketball game into the calendar on his smartphone. When he and Tim meet to study chemistry, Marcus has a neatly organized binder full of notes, practice problems, and the assignment due each week. Tim is always a few minutes late to their study sessions and sometimes even forgets to show up. Occasionally he can’t find the assignment in the jumble of papers in his backpack. He often leaves his notes at home and asks to share Marcus’s notes. In this scenario Marcus is more likely than Tim to succeed in college and in the workplace. By staying organized and managing his time, Marcus keeps his academic life on track. And he’ll make an attractive job candidate because managers want employees who arrive at work on time, show up for meetings, and keep track of important documents. With these realities in mind, this chapter examines how you can take control of your environment and manage your life effectively. We start with organization — how you can get a handle on your course materials. Then we explore strategies for improving your time management, including reflecting on how you spend your time, setting priorities, and using a scheduling system. Next, we discuss how to deal with procrastination and distractions. Finally, we look at how organization and time-management skills translate into a successful career. Reflect On Your Organization and Time Management Take a moment to reflect on your Organization and Time Management score on ACES. Find your score and fill in the blank below. This score measures your beliefs about how organized you are and how well you manage your time. Do you think it’s an accurate snapshot of your current skills in this area? Why or why not? MY ACES SCORE: _____ High Moderate Low To find your Organization and Time Management score, go to the LaunchPad for Connections. IF YOU SCORED IN THE HIGH RANGE and you feel this score accurately reflects your skills, you’re probably quite organized and manage your time well. That’s great news! As with all skills, however, you can improve on your strengths. For instance, if you already use a weekly schedule to organize your time, you might add a to-do list for each day so that you can track your progress and stay on target. Trying new organization and time-management strategies will keep you at the top of your game. IF YOU SCORED IN THE MODERATE OR LOW RANGE, don’t be discouraged. You can get more organized and manage your time more effectively. This chapter is filled with ideas for getting a better handle on your class materials and your commitments. Read on to get started! Get Organized Think about your life: Does it sound more like Marcus’s or like Tim’s? If you have to fish through piles of papers to find a syllabus, a class assignment, or a project file, you may identify more with Tim. If that’s the case, consider how you feel when you can’t find a book when it’s time to study, or when you show up at a meeting without the documents you were supposed to bring. Do you feel out of control? Embarrassed? Incompetent? If so, you can make positive changes. Getting organized can be challenging, particularly if you’re juggling competing demands of school, work, and family. But with practice and commitment, you can learn to manage your many priorities. And once you do, you’ll feel calmer — and you’ll be more productive. Create a Clean Study Space The first step in getting organized is to find a clean space where you can study. When your study space is clutter-free, you can concentrate better on what you’re doing and quickly find documents and other items that you need. There’s no one “right” way to create a clean work area — pick what works best for you. Choices, Choices. You’re ready to sit down and read a textbook chapter, and you have two choices: the room on the left or the room on the right. Which room will you pick? Better go for the neat one. A clean, organized space helps you stay focused when you’re studying. © Richard Morrell/Corbis Description Do you have an office space at home or a quiet room in a residence hall? If so, fix it up to make it inviting. Find a place to stash your books and papers, and give yourself plenty of room for your computer. Set aside a drawer or some cups for pens and pencils, and pick an area to spread out books and notes. Does your study space serve as the kitchen table during the day and then become your desk when the kids go to bed? If so, consider using totes or a rolling cabinet to organize everything you need to study. When the dishes are done and the kitchen table is clear, you can pull out your materials and get to work. Do you study in the break room at work? In the coffee shop between your job and school? In the library because things are too chaotic at home? If you study in any or all of these places, organize your backpack so you can easily find your pens, highlighters, notebooks, and other tools and still have room for your laptop, books, and class assignments. Organize Your Documents To keep your study space clean, you’ll need to keep track of all the documents you collect and generate for your classes. If you set up a system for organizing and storing your documents, you can easily find what you need, instead of wasting time hunting for things and getting stressed out. Pick a storage system that’s easy to use and that works with your personal preferences. Do you like to pull up documents on your smartphone or tablet? Would you rather have documents in paper form? Many people use some combination of electronic and paper storage systems. Electronic Systems. You’ll create most of your school papers and projects electronically, and you’ll need a way to organize them. You can save these documents in folders on your computer, or you can use a cloud-based system. Available on the Internet, cloud systems let you store files online and access them from your laptop, tablet, or smartphone or even from an on-campus computer lab. You can also save documents and other materials in an electronic portfolio. Many colleges use portfolio systems as a way for students to store and showcase documents and projects they create for their courses, including papers, blogs, and videos of classroom presentations. Keep your next job interview in mind if you develop an e-portfolio of your coursework; showing an electronic version of a stellar project could help you stand out in a field of applicants for the job of your dreams.1 Cloud: A place on the Internet where you can store your files. CONNECT TO MY CLASSES How organized are your school materials? If your answer is “Not very,” write down one thing you could do this week to organize your assignments, syllabi, and other documents. Paper Systems. Depending on your preferences or those of your instructors, you might also want a system for organizing documents in paper form. Many instructors hand out syllabi on the first day of class, and a paper-based system helps you store these syllabi so you can find them easily. Also, people often feel secure using a paper-based system because they don’t have to worry about computer problems. (Paper files can’t get viruses.) To store paper documents, use an alphabetized filing cabinet or tote, or binders and folders that you can carry with you. Pick something that works with how you’ve arranged your study space and how mobile your materials need to be. Labeling and Color-Coding. Whether your system is electronic, paper, or a combination, develop a labeling system for your documents. Here are some ideas. Use color. Differentiate materials for different courses by using colors — for instance, green folders, highlighters, and notebooks for biology; yellow for sociology; blue for English; and so on. You can also use colors to signify priority: for example, a red font or pen color for your highest-priority to-dos; yellow for moderate priority; and green for low priority. Create meaningful file and folder names. Use file and folder names that are consistent and easy to decode. For example, for each class, create folders with the names “Syllabus,” “Notes,” “Exams,” “Papers,” and “Projects,” and then name your files based on the folder in which they belong: “Notes from Sept 5,” “Project — Voting Rights,” and so on. This way, you can easily track down documents when you need them. How Organized Are You? Whether it’s your computer or a binder on your bookshelf, here’s how to stay on top of your schoolwork: Organize all your materials. Then store and label them in a logical way so you can find what you need, when you need it. Create “In Progress” and “Complete” folders. In the “In Progress” folder, store documents for projects you’re actively working on. As you finish an exam or a paper, move it to the “Complete” folder so you can focus on documents that need your active attention. File Backup. If you’ve ever spilled coffee on a document or crashed your computer, you know how crucial it is to back up your files. Your syllabi, papers, and presentations demonstrate what you’ve learned in school, and you’ll want to retrieve them when you apply for jobs or internships. To keep paper files safe, scan your documents and save them in an electronic format you can access if the originals get lost or destroyed. For electronic files, use an external hard drive or a thumb drive to store backup files separately from your computer or cloud system. Whatever system you create to get organized, take time each day to keep it working smoothly. For instance, spend just five minutes every night putting papers into folders or organizing your electronic files. Keep clutter and confusion from creeping back into your life! Take Control of Your Time Video Resource: Time Management Watch the video below Organizing your class materials is a great first step, but to really set the stage for success in college and work, you also have to take control of your time. To see why these two skills make a powerful combination, picture yourself in the following two scenarios. Scenario 1: You check your calendar and see that you’ve planned to spend two hours tonight working on a paper that’s due in four days. You walk into your study space, pull the exact course materials you need from a shelf, and sit down to begin working. Clearly, you’ve organized your course materials and taken control of your time. Scenario 2: You never scheduled time to work on an assigned paper. The night before it’s due, you suddenly remember that you haven’t even started on it. You paw through a mound of papers on your desk, searching for the syllabus to see what the assignment is. When you finally find it and read the instructions, you realize that you’re unprepared and have little hope of finishing the paper on time. You’re so stressed out that you try to distract yourself by playing your favorite online game. An hour slips by before you force yourself to start working on the paper. What can you do to avoid scenario 2? Get organized using the strategies in this chapter, and master the art of time management using the four-step process shown in Figure 5.1: First, track your time, by documenting how you spend your time during the course of a week. Second, identify your priorities — the activities that matter most to you — based on your values and goals. Third, build a schedule that focuses on your priorities. And fourth, use tools to track your progress on all of your assignments. Let’s explore each of these steps in detail. Step 1: Track Your Time If you’re like most college students, you sometimes (maybe even often) feel as though you have too much to do and not enough time to do it. That’s not surprising: You’re probably juggling lots of different demands, such as going to class, caring for kids or elderly parents, or holding down a job. If you’re just out of high school, you might also be setting your own schedule for the first time, a responsibility that can feel overwhelming. Whatever your situation, before you can take control of your time, you have to figure out where your time is currently going. What do you actually do as the hours tick by every day? To get a complete picture of how you’re spending your time, you need to record — in writing — what you do every day and how long each activity takes. Why bother writing all this down? Your perceptions about how much time you spend on daily activities could be quite different from reality. By recording specifics, you’ll build a more accurate picture of where your time goes. To begin, use a calendar or write down on a piece of paper exactly what you do each day and how long each activity takes (see Figure 5.2). Do this for an entire week. As you collect this information, ask yourself: FIGURE 5.1 Four Steps to Effective Time Management Description What activities are taking up most of my time? Am I spending too much time on unproductive or distracting activities? If so, what are they? When am I most productive? Least productive? Then give your critical thinking skills a workout: Examine the patterns you see in your time tracker, and analyze your responses to the questions. Use all this information to draw conclusions about how you’re spending your time and how you might manage it more effectively. For example, let’s say that before you started this exercise, you believed that your many obligations left you little time to study. As you evaluate the information you’ve gathered, you realize that you spent twenty-five hours gaming. Because you’re studying English literature, not videogame design, you conclude that you could (and should) free up time to study by cutting back on your gaming. You’ve uncovered a wealth of time that you didn’t realize was available. Once you understand where your time is going, you can start thinking about better ways to allocate it. After all, there are only so many hours in a day (and a night). It’s up to you to spend this precious resource wisely. Step 2: Identify Your Priorities Once you’ve tracked your time for a week and analyzed the results, consider whether you’re allocating enough time to the things that matter to you most. Are trivial tasks eating up too many hours each week? Does your current use of time reflect how important your education is to you? With numerous obligations and activities competing for your attention, you have to make choices about where to focus your energies. In other words, you have to prioritize your commitments and use these priorities to decide how much of your time an activity deserves. Monday Tuesday 7:00 am :30 woke up woke up 8:00 am drove to campus/breakfast breakfast/streamed TV show :30 ↓ | 9:00 am Biology 101 ↓ :30 ↓ drove to campus 10:00 am coffee, texting Algebra 115 :30 read for Algebra class | 11:00 am First-Year Experience 100 ↓ :30 ↓ Biology study group 12:00 pm surfed online ↓ :30 lunch lunch with friends 1:00 pm Economics 125 | :30 ↓ ↓ 2:00 pm drove to work (10 min) went to library to study :30 work texting 3:00 pm | read for Econ (10 min)/texting :30 | texting 4:00 pm | Biology lab :30 ↓ ↓ 5:00 pm drove home read for Algebra/did problems :30 dinner ↓ 6:00 pm TV texting :30 read for Biology ↓ 7:00 pm | dinner/drove to work :30 ↓ work 8:00 pm did problems for Algebra | :30 | | 9:00 pm ↓ | :30 read for First-Year Exp. ↓ 10:00 pm ↓ drove home :30 down-time/texting studied for Econ quiz (10 min) 11:00 pm ↓ crashed — fell asleep on couch :30 went to bed FIGURE 5.2 Sample Time Tracker Look at this excerpt from one student’s time tracker. On Monday, the student had some downtime — just the right amount. But on Tuesday, she streamed a long TV show, had a leisurely lunch, and texted a lot, even while she was reading. When it finally came time to study that night, she fell asleep. Had she made different choices earlier in the day, she could have finished studying and still made it to bed at a reasonable hour. Now she has the information she needs to make a change. Prioritize: To give an activity or a goal a higher value relative to another activity or goal. Prioritizing commitments is a deeply personal process that depends on your values and goals. For one person, earning a degree while also spending time with family may be top priorities. For another person, completing college and getting a promotion at work may be most important. When you’re clear about your priorities, you make smarter choices about how to use your time. For instance, if doing well in your classes is a top priority, you’ll probably choose to study for an exam the night before, instead of going out with friends who don’t have a test tomorrow. To practice prioritizing, review your one-week time tracker, and write down the activities that currently take up most of your time (see Figure 5.3). Describe these activities in broad terms, such as “attending class,” “studying,” and “working.” Determine how important each activity is to you personally, and indicate that importance using the following four-point scale: 4 = critically important 3 = highly important 2 = moderately important 1 = of little or no importance Critically important activities (those you’ve rated 4) are those that you’ve decided you must do because they relate directly to your values and responsibilities. For instance, each week you may need to go to work, attend all of your classes, and be home by 3:00 p.m. when your children get off the bus. Highly important activities (rank = 3) will also have an impact on your success — such as doing five extra problems for math each evening. Activities you’ve rated 4 and 3 may not always be fun or exciting, but you consider them crucial for achieving your goals or living your values. Activities you view as moderately important (rank = 2) or of little or no importance (rank = 1) are less essential to your values or goals. To define your priorities, you need to think critically about what’s most important to you. And to honor your priorities, you sometimes have to make tough decisions, such as giving up activities that you enjoy or disappointing someone who wants some of your time. For example, what if your niece’s school play is the same day as your statistics exam? What if your boss needs you to work Tuesday night, but you’re supposed to meet with several classmates from your history course to start a group project? These kinds of choices are never easy, but we all face them and have to learn how to manage them. If you know what your priorities are, you can make the tough calls and be at peace with your decisions. Activity Importance Attending class 4 Working 4 Studying 4 Spending time with family 4 Coaching daughter’s softball team 3 Exercising 3 Meeting with study group for biology class 3 Regular Saturday lunch with friends 2 Watching TV 1 4 = Critically important 3 = Highly important 2 = Moderately important 1 = Of little or no importance FIGURE 5.3 Prioritizing Your Commitments When you prioritize, you identify what’s most important to you, a process that helps you allocate more time to your top priorities. For this student, attending class, working, studying, and spending time with family are critically important. CONNECT TO MY RESOURCES Many time-management apps are available for smartphones and tablets. Find the three highest-rated options in the Apple or Android app store. Write a pros-and-cons list for each one; then try out your preferred option for a week. In writing, explain how well this tool worked for you. Will you use it again? Step 3: Build Your Schedule Once you’ve tracked your time and clarified your priorities, you can build a schedule that reflects the most important commitments in your life. Find a scheduling method and tools that work for you — whether it’s a paper planner, an app on your phone, a calendar tied to your e-mail system, a calendar hanging in your kitchen, or a mix of these. You can also create schedules that cover different time frames — terms, months, weeks, and days. (For an example of a fiveday schedule, see Figure 5.4.) The activities you put on your schedule will depend on your priorities, but because you’re in college, we assume that one of your top priorities is graduating. So you’ll need to think about and plan for the following responsibilities: Classes. Include class time in your schedule. If your class is on campus rather than online, plan to arrive a few minutes early so that you can get settled and prepare to learn. Study time. Set aside two hours of study time for each hour of class time. The most common college class format is about three hours of class time a week, which involves six hours of studying outside of class. If you’re taking four three-hour classes this term, you should budget twelve hours of class time and twenty-four hours of study time each week. Research shows that full-time students spend an average of a little less than fifteen hours per week studying.2 That’s not nearly enough time. If you can find two hours to study for each hour of class time and if you use that study time wisely, you’ll likely get much better grades than students who invest less time in studying. Also, arrange your study time in a way that maximizes your learning. Spacing out your study time across multiple days and studying in small blocks of time is the most productive way to learn new material.3 Exams and assignments. In your schedule, include the time needed to take exams, to complete regular assignments and major projects, and to develop presentations for class. Work. Add your work hours to your schedule. If you commute between home, work, and school, factor in travel time. Family. Include high-priority family time in your schedule, such as having dinner together each evening or blocking off an afternoon to celebrate a loved one’s birthday. These relationships can be a source of support as you manage the many demands of being a college student. School events. Schedule time for high-priority events at school, such as attending tutoring sessions and study groups for difficult classes, going to important cultural events, or participating in student organizations. While it can be difficult for busy students to make time for these activities, it’s worth it: Active involvement on campus can strengthen your commitment to college and help you develop teamwork and communication skills. Exercise and leisure. To do well in college, you have to be healthy — both physically and mentally. So be sure to schedule time for regular exercise and leisure activities to balance out the great amount of time and effort you’ll be devoting to your coursework. Monday Tuesday 7:00 am BREAKFAST DRIVE TO CAMPUS :30 DRIVE TO CAMPUS YOGA 8:00 am CHEMISTRY 101 :30 COFFEE/BREAKFAST 9:00 am STUDY: CHEM 1 HR. ENGLISH 1 HR. ALGEBRA II (QUIZ!) :30 10:00 am :30 FREE TIME 11:00 am ENGLISH 124 :30 12:00 pm :30 LUNCH LUNCH 1:00 pm FIRST-YEAR EXPERIENCE (FYE) 102 SOCIOLOGY CLUB MEETING :30 STUDY: FYE 1 HR. 30 MIN. SOCIOLOGY 1 HR. 30 MIN. 2:00 pm :30 CHEM STUDY GROUP 3:00 pm :30 4:00 pm DRIVE HOME :30 FREE TIME 5:00 pm DRIVE HOME :30 FREE TIME 6:00 pm DINNER WITH COUSINS STUDY: ALGEBRA 1 HR. CHEM 30 MIN. :30 7:00 pm STUDY: ALGEBRA 1 HR. CHEM 30 MIN. :30 EDIT ENGLISH PAPER 8:00 pm :30 FREE TIME 9:00 pm FREE TIME :30 10:00 pm BED :30 BED 11:00 pm :30 Wednesday Thursday 7:00 am BREAKFAST DRIVE TO CAMPUS :30 DRIVE TO CAMPUS YOGA 8:00 am CHEMISTRY 101 :30 COFFEE/BREAKFAST 9:00 am STUDY: CHEM 1 HR. FYE 1 HR. ALGEBRA II :30 10:00 am :30 STUDY: ALGEBRA 1 HR. 15 MIN. SOCIOLOGY 45 MIN. 11:00 am ENGLISH 124 :30 12:00 pm :30 LUNCH LUNCH 1:00 pm FIRST-YEAR EXPERIENCE (FYE) 102 STUDY: CHEM, ENGLISH, FYE 1 HR. EACH :30 2:00 pm :30 STUDY: ALGEBRA 1 HR. 30 MIN. SOCIOLOGY 1 HR. 3:00 pm :30 4:00 pm FREE TIME :30 5:00 pm DRIVE TO WORK :30 WORK DINNER 6:00 pm SOCIOLOGY 105 :30 7:00 pm :30 8:00 pm :30 DRIVE HOME 9:00 pm DINNER DRIVE HOME :30 FREE TIME FREE TIME 10:00 pm BED :30 11:00 pm :30 BED Friday 7:00 am BREAKFAST :30 DRIVE TO CAMPUS 8:00 am CHEM LAB :30 9:00 am :30 10:00 am DRIVE TO WORK :30 WORK 11:00 am :30 12:00 pm :30 1:00 pm :30 2:00 pm :30 3:00 pm :30 4:00 pm :30 5:00 pm :30 6:00 pm DINNER :30 DRIVE HOME 7:00 pm TIME WITH FRIENDS :30 8:00 pm :30 9:00 pm :30 10:00 pm :30 DRIVE HOME 11:00 pm :30 BED FIGURE 5.4 Sample Schedule Building a complete schedule — including time for classes and studying, as well for exercise, work, and relaxation — helps you take control of your time. Hold yourself accountable for sticking to your schedule, and celebrate when you accomplish everything you planned each day. Rewards. Schedule time to reward yourself for your successes in college. For instance, schedule a movie with friends or family members the night after an exam. These rewards don’t have to consume a lot of time, but they can help recharge your batteries so you can stay motivated for another round of hard work at school. As you create your schedule, try to build some flexibility into it, in case something goes wrong. For instance, suppose you commute to school, and one of your classes starts at 8:30 a.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays. You know traffic can be heavy at that time, so when you schedule time for commuting on those days, you add a “cushion” in case you get stuck in traffic. Or let’s say you’re scheduling time to study for a final exam. You pencil in a few hours of study on an alternative night, in case an emergency comes up and you can’t study on the original night you planned for. When you build flexibility into your schedule, you can shift gears more easily if surprises come up. If you schedule your time too tightly, it will be much harder to make these adjustments. Step 4: Use Tools to Track Progress on Your Projects Tracking your progress helps you evaluate how effectively you’re managing the time allocated to your priorities. By doing this, you hold yourself accountable, or responsible, for completing the tasks and meeting the obligations that are connected to your priorities. Here are some tools that can help you keep your projects on track and help you meet your goals. Accountable: Responsible for completing tasks and meeting obligations. Project Plan. Your schedule will include time to work on major school projects, and when you create a project plan, you can track your progress on each of these projects. A project plan helps you break down an assignment into smaller, more manageable steps and budget time to complete each step. This tool builds on key concepts in the chapter on thinking critically and setting goals, such as identifying action steps, prioritizing them, and giving each step a deadline. To create a project plan, you estimate how much time will be required to complete each step in the project. That way, you can build enough time into your schedule to complete all the steps by the assignment’s due date. Consider Mia, who has six weeks to write a major paper on Greek architecture. Figure 5.5 shows how Mia has broken down the tasks involved in completing this paper. She starts with the due date and adds a goal statement for this assignment. She lists the steps needed to complete her paper. Since Mia is a new college student, she isn’t sure how much time each task will take, but she wrote papers in high school and often pulls together documents for her boss. She draws on these experiences to estimate how much time she’ll need for each task. One advantage of creating a project plan is that you can use the deadlines in your plan to hold yourself accountable. Also, crossing off tasks as you complete them gives you a feeling of accomplishment, which can be crucial for maintaining momentum throughout the project. To-Do List. A to-do list helps you manage time and activities on a daily basis, by reminding you of key tasks (see Figure 5.6). For example, in the Student Voice of Experience later in this chapter, Amni lists the tasks she wants to complete each day and crosses them off as she finishes them. CONNECT TO MY CAREER In many careers, people have to manage projects, write reports, or complete major assignments. Explain how you might use a project plan to manage a project in your current job or, if you’re not currently working, a project that you may have to do in a career you’re considering. Project: Greek architecture paper Due date: October 31 Goal: Demonstrate new knowledge of Greek architecture through written work Action steps Estimated time Deadline Done Read assigned textbook chapters 5 hours September 20 X Find and read three additional resources 18 hours October 3 X Find six images of architecture 4 hours October 5 Write an outline for the paper 3 hours October 10 Write first draft 12 hours October 20 Revise to create second draft 6 hours October 24 Revise to create third draft and polish the paper 4 hours October 28 Hand in the paper and celebrate! October 31 FIGURE 5.5 Project Plan Try creating a to-do list for the next day each night before you go to bed or for the current day when you get up in the morning. It takes only a couple of minutes. You can make your list using an e-mail program, the calendar on your smartphone, apps on your tablet, or a piece of paper. Experiment with color-coding or numbering the tasks on your to-do list by priority. Try different methods to discover which strategies work best for you. To-Dos Date: Wednesday 1. Read for history class. 2. Complete biology lab write-up. 3. Read book on reserve in the library for literature class. 4. Go running. 5. Go to dinner with the kids. 6. Follow up with Sasha about group project. 7. Make dentist appointment. FIGURE 5.6 Sample To-Do List CONNECT TO MY EXPERIENCE Think about everything you have to accomplish tomorrow, and create a to-do list — either just before you go to bed tonight or just after you get up tomorrow morning. What are your main tasks for the day? Voices of Experience: Student Tools for Time Management Photograph by Isheeta Rahman NAME: Amni Al-Kachak SCHOOL: University of California, Irvine MAJOR: Biological Sciences CAREER GOAL: Ph.D. in Biological Sciences “I can’t live without schedules and lists.” When I started college, I knew I’d have to work even harder than I did in high school. To be proactive, I started a scheduling system; now I can’t live without schedules and lists. I make special timelines that include goals and when I want them done by. I make a list for the year, a list each week, and a daily list and keep them all on paper. Seeing it written down makes it feel more achievable for me, and I love the feeling I get when I can cross something off my list! I’ve always believed that academics come first, then work, then fun. Whenever I schedule things, I put them in that order. For example, if I have a homework assignment due, I get it done first. After that, if I have any work for my job that needs to get done, I’ll do that. Then, if I’m done with my immediate academic and work priorities, I squeeze in study time. I like to make a habit of studying every day, just so the information stays fresh in my head without having to stressfully cram it in during test time. After I’ve completed all of the tasks on my list, I can reward myself by having fun with my friends. I always do things according to deadline and importance. It can be hard to stick to my schedule. One day I was reading my biology textbook, but then my friend texted me. We started a conversation that lasted for about an hour. Because I’m so aware of my time, I felt really guilty because I could have spent that hour doing a million things. From then on, I decided to put my phone away while I was studying. Although the work I’m doing may be difficult or boring, I’m much happier with myself if I focus and get it done instead of procrastinating. YOUR TURN: Do you have strategies you use to stay focused on your top priorities? If so, what’s an example of a strategy you’ve found helpful? If not, which of Amni’s strategies might be useful to you? Manage Time in Your Online Classes If your schedule includes online classes, keep in mind that they sometimes present unique time-management challenges. Your traditional courses are scheduled on particular days and times, and you can block off this class time in your schedule. With many online classes, though, the time you spend participating in class is less structured. Most online courses don’t require you to attend at any specific time, so deciding when you’ll create and respond to online posts and complete other course requirements is up to you. In addition, while some students expect online classes to be easier or less intensive than face-to-face courses, most online classes take as much time as do in-person classes (and sometimes even more time). So be sure to schedule enough time to complete your assignments. Try these tips for staying on top of your online coursework. Get comfortable with this class format. If you’re new to online classes, block out time in your schedule to learn how to navigate the online class system. Your instructor and institution can help. Devote time each week to work on your assignments. Be sure that your weekly schedule includes time for studying, reading, and posting work online for your class. Creating a consistent schedule is particularly critical to mastering course material for online classes. Log in to your online class each day. Even if it’s just for five minutes, log in to check for updates from your instructor or posts from other students. That way, you can make sure you’re keeping up with assignments and monitoring class discussions. Know your deadlines. If your instructor gives specific due dates for class assignments, enter them into your schedule for each week of the term. Schedule time for live meetings hosted by your instructor. Sometimes hosted via tools like Skype or a text chat, live meetings give you opportunities to interact with classmates and instructors in real time. Consistency Is Key. Online classes are often less structured than face-to-face courses, which means it’s up to you to create your own schedule. Your best bet? Keep it consistent: Devote regular time each week to working on your assignments and log in to your courses every day. Credit line to come. Overcome Procrastination and Minimize Distractions If you’re like most people, you sometimes put off getting down to work. You check Twitter one more time, send a text — do anything except what you’re supposed to be doing. In short, you procrastinate. When you procrastinate, you open yourself up to distractions — events or objects in your environment that take your attention away from the task you need to complete. Procrastinate: To delay or put off an action that needs to be completed. Procrastination and distractions can undo all the effort you’ve put into getting organized and taking control of your time. So the next time you find yourself procrastinating or getting distracted, use your critical thinking skills. Ask yourself: “Why am I putting off this task?” or “Why am I not focusing on what I should focus on?” The more you know about what’s causing you to fall victim to procrastination or distractions, the more you can work to change your behavior so that you can accomplish your goals. Beat Procrastination People procrastinate for various reasons. By understanding the most common root causes, which we’ll explore in the section that follows, you can identify when you’re falling victim to these causes — and apply the right antidotes. Low Motivation. If you don’t feel motivated to complete a task, you might be tempted to procrastinate. Fight low motivation with these tactics. Engage in self-reflection. You may feel unmotivated because you lack a sense of self-efficacy regarding the task at hand, you don’t see it as relevant to you, or you have a negative attitude about your studies in general. (See the chapter on motivation, decision making, and personal responsibility.) Try to identify which of these three key ingredients of motivation you’re missing. Sometimes simply understanding why you’re unmotivated can spur you to take action. Just get started. If you have reading to do, pick up your textbook and begin. If you have to do research for a paper, log on to the library’s Web site, and start searching for articles. In some cases, just telling yourself it’s time to work will revive your motivation. Move. Grab your materials, go somewhere new, and clear your head. Physical motion may be enough to motivate you to focus on the work you need to do. CONNECT TO MY EXPERIENCE Think about a time when you overcame procrastination. Write down why you were procrastinating and what you did to refocus on the task at hand. Identify how you could use this same strategy to combat procrastination in school. Perfectionism. Some people avoid starting projects because they want to achieve a perfect result and worry that they won’t be able to. If this happens to you, try these strategies to combat perfectionism. Not-So-Good Housekeeping. Aaron has a test tomorrow, but instead of studying, he has suddenly decided it’s time to do laundry. Guess what: He’s procrastinating — and he’ll have less time to prepare for the test. The lesson? If a task isn’t crucial, do it after finishing your real priorities. Note to Aaron: Don’t worry — that laundry isn’t going anywhere. Robyn Breen Shinn/Getty Images Reframe your expectations. Give yourself permission to let go of perfectionistic thinking. Instead of telling yourself that everything you work on must be perfect, tell yourself that you’ll put your best effort into each project or task. Start small. Complete some small tasks related to the work you’re procrastinating on; then use your success to gain momentum for finishing another set of tasks. Eventually, you’ll complete the whole project. Feeling Overwhelmed. If you feel overwhelmed by the amount of work facing you, it may be daunting just to get started. Try these tactics to keep moving forward. Be realistic. Remind yourself that you can’t do everything at once and that every journey — however long or short — starts with a single step. Then pick a place to start. Trick yourself. Tell yourself that you’re going to read or write for only ten minutes or that you’ll read or write only three pages. Once you get involved in the work, you may look up fortyfive minutes later and discover that you’re almost finished — and that’s a good reason to keep going. Minimize Distractions Distractions can be a big challenge for some students, causing them to veer off track. If you intend to study chemistry for two hours but then spend an hour online watching videos of cute cats, you’ll lose time you can’t get back. To protect yourself against distractions, consider these tips. Find strength in numbers. With your roommates or family members, agree on a time when everyone focuses on coursework (or schoolwork for your kids) or other quiet tasks. Doing so creates an environment of support and accountability: When everyone around you is studying or working quietly, you’ll find it easier to stay focused. Use the “off” switch. Turn off the television, your phone, and any other devices that create visual or auditory distractions. Log out of Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites. Click the setting that turns off that annoying little chime that lets you know you’ve just received an e-mail. As you plan your study time, allow five minutes each hour to check these devices and respond to messages. That way, you won’t feel tempted to do so while you work. Block out other sources of distraction. For example, close the curtains or pull down the shades in your room so you can’t see what’s happening outside. If your neighbor is playing loud music, invest in a set of earplugs to block out the noise. Don’t End Up Here! Distractions can gobble up your time. Before you know it, you fall behind in your work. Result? You push off deadlines, disappointing yourself and others counting on you. To avoid ending up in the graveyard of past deadlines, resist any urge to procrastinate. Eliminate distractions. And stick to the schedule you’ve created. © Drew Dernavich The New Yorker Collection/The Cartoon Bank Spotlight on Research Get in the Zone: It Feels Good! Have you ever had the experience of being “in the zone,” or fully present while completing a task? If so, you were probably in a mental state of flow. You have this experience when you’re completely immersed in a task that you consider enjoyable, such as playing a musical instrument, studying, playing sports, praying, or playing video games. Flow involves concentration and reduced self-consciousness. People in a state of flow feel as though they’re in control, and they often lose track of time. In his book Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi explains that individuals experience flow when they possess the skill needed to complete a task and find the experience challenging and intrinsically rewarding. When you eliminate distractions around you, you can help create the optimal conditions for flow. A recent study examined college students’ experience of flow and the impact on their emotions. Half of the fifty-seven student participants were asked to identify a positive, focused activity they enjoyed (a flow activity) and to engage in that task once during a two-week period. The other half of the students were asked to identify an everyday activity (a nonflow activity) and to participate in the task. All the students recorded their experience of flow and their emotions before and after the activity. Interestingly, the two flow activities chosen by the greatest number of students in this research were exercising and going to class/studying. The students who engaged in a flow activity experienced more positive emotions than did students who engaged in everyday activities. The more intense the flow experience, the greater the positive feelings. Students who engaged in a flow activity — including going to class/studying — scored higher on a scale of positive emotional response than did students who engaged in a routine daily task. A higher score indicates more positive feelings. Description THE BOTTOM LINE You can get into a state of flow when you study. To do so, find something in your coursework that interests you, minimize distractions, and completely immerse yourself in that material. Not only will you learn, but you’ll also feel good. REFLECTION QUESTIONS 1. Have you ever experienced flow? If so, what were you doing at the time? 2. What might prevent you from entering a state of flow? 3. What could help you get “in the zone” while you study so you’re not tempted to procrastinate? Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (New York: Harper & Row, 1990). T. P. Rogatko, “The Influence of Flow on Positive Affect in College Students,” Journal of Happiness Studies 10 (2009): 133–48. Use Organization and Time Management at Work The strategies you use to get organized and take control of your time at school are just as essential in your work life. If you manage projects and meet with clients and coworkers every day, you know that things fall apart when they’re disorganized and that deadlines are missed when you don’t stick to a schedule. Let’s consider how you can apply the ideas from this chapter in the workplace. Get a Job When you apply for a job, the skills of organization and time management make all the difference. First, you can use these skills to prepare a stellar résumé. Describing your accomplishments will be easier if you’ve kept track of all the papers and presentations you created in college. For example, if you designed a social media campaign during an internship, keep a copy of the campaign so you can explain in detail what you did. Second, you’ll arrive for interviews on time, and you will have prepared questions for the interviewers and information about your qualifications. Arriving prepared shows that you understand the importance of organization and timeliness — all before you’ve even said a word. And that can make you stand out in a crowd of job applicants. Show That You’re Dependable Once you get a job, being organized and effectively managing your time can help you excel in that job — no matter what it is. Let’s say you’re in auto repair and you tell a customer that her car will be ready by a certain date. You’ll be more likely to build customer loyalty if you deliver as promised — which you can do only if you have the necessary tools at your fingertips and if you’ve scheduled enough time to do the work right. In any job, your boss, customers, and colleagues will appreciate that you’re organized and in control of your time. As a result, you’ll gain a reputation for getting work done — and done right. Such a reputation could lead to huge opportunities for career advancement. Organization: The Best Tool. Michael keeps his workspace organized, so he can quickly find the tools he needs to complete jobs for his customers. That makes him more efficient and productive, helping him deliver high-quality work on schedule. John Lund/Drew Kelly/Getty Images Make Time for Your Personal Life When you’re organized at work and you control your time, you can boost your productivity on the job, without necessarily having to put in longer hours. In short, you’ll work smarter, not harder. As a result, you’ll free up more time for your personal life, enabling you to maintain a healthy work/life balance. Your job matters, but you also need time for your education, family, friends, health, and fun. Without that balance, you might get so burned out on the job that you have little energy to fulfill your nonwork obligations and goals. Prioritizing tasks at work helps you complete crucial tasks first. That way, you generate the business results that matter most to your boss and your organization, but work doesn’t take over your life. You can also find ways to “unplug” from work outside of your normal job hours. For example, resist the urge to respond to work-related emails and phone calls at 11:00 p.m., when you should be sleeping. And take advice from Tony Schwartz, a well-known author who writes about balance and work satisfaction: Assess your contribution at work in terms of the value you create rather than the amount of time you log in. In other words, focus on doing good work (quality) versus simply measuring the number of hours you work (quantity).4 Voices of Experience: Employee Managing a Busy Work Schedule Photo by Erin L. Maltby NAME: William Hatchet PROFESSION: New College Student Academic Facilitator SCHOOL: Augustana College DEGREE: Bachelor of Arts MAJORS: Sociology and Africana Studies “Staying organized and on top of things is critical for me to do my job well.” After graduation I moved into my first job as a New College Student Academic Facilitator — I help students navigate college and support programs designed to help them stay in school. I wear several hats in this job and continually balance large projects, meetings across campus, and regular meetings with students. Staying organized and on top of things is critical for me to do my job well. I figured out quickly that I needed to create a structure to stay organized and manage my busy schedule. I have two main strategies to keep everything straight. First, I use a projects list to keep track of everything I need to get done. As soon as I get a project, I write it down on a list that I carry with me, or I type it into a Word document if I’m at my computer. I add a few details to help me remember everything I need to do for each project. I also use calendars to schedule my time. I have separate work and personal calendars, and I sync them electronically so I always know what I have going on during the week at work and on evenings and weekends away from campus. The combination of my projects list and my calendars has been working great. Using these tools has really helped relieve my stress. I know that everything I need to do is written down in one of two places. I often carry my iPad with me so I can look things up anytime I need to. These systems also allow me to look ahead, so I can keep track of what I need to work on during any given day and into the future. YOUR TURN: If you currently have a job, which of the strategies that William describes might help you stay organized at work and manage your time? Have you developed other strategies that work well for you? If so, what are they? If you don’t currently have a job, which of William’s strategies sound useful for staying organized and managing your time in a job you’d like to get? Description Click above to access My Personal Success Plan. Click above to access My Personal Success Plan. Chapter Review Chapter Summary In this chapter you learned about many important aspects of organization and time management. Revisit the following key points, and reflect on how you can use this information to support your success now and in the future. Getting organized helps you quickly and easily find the materials and information you need to carry out the activities required to achieve your goals. To get organized, you need a clean, quiet study space and a system (electronic, paper, or both) for managing and backing up course documents. Applying a four-step process can help you manage your time: (1) Track how you’re using your time now, (2) identify your priorities, (3) build a schedule that allocates enough time to your top priorities, and (4) use tools to track your progress on your projects so you can hold yourself accountable for meeting your obligations. Procrastinating can prevent you from reaching your goals and make you vulnerable to distractions. When you figure out why you’re procrastinating, you can address the cause, which may range from low motivation to perfectionism. Eliminating distractions (for example, by turning off electronic devices) can help you focus on the work at hand and use your time wisely. Getting organized and taking control of your time can help you get a job, excel in that job, and free up time for your personal life so that you maintain a work/life balance. Chapter Activities Journal Entry MANAGING YOUR TIME In this chapter we asked you to track your time for one week as a way to think critically about your priorities and timemanagement skills (see Figure 5.2). Complete this activity and respond to the following questions: 1. How would you rate your ability to manage your time? 2. What do you do well regarding time management? What isn’t working so well? 3. What positive changes could you make in the next week to better manage your time? 4. What challenges might you encounter trying to implement these changes? How will you deal with these challenges? 5. Who could offer support, and in what forms? Adopting a Success Attitude STANDING UP FOR YOUR PRIORITIES As you work to clarify your priorities, you’ll face some tough choices about how to spend your time, especially when people you care about make requests for (or demands on) your time. In some cases, you’ll have to assert yourself and say “no” or offer ideas for arriving at a compromise. Describe a recent incident in which you should have said “no” to someone who made a request for (or demand on) your time but you said “yes” instead. Which of the following beliefs led you to say “yes”? Check all that apply. _____ 1. Saying “no” will hurt and upset them. _____ 2. Saying “no” will make them feel rejected. _____ 3. If I say “no,” they won’t like me anymore. _____ 4. Others’ needs are more important than mine. _____ 5. I should always try to please others. _____ 6. Saying “no” is rude. _____ 7. Saying “no” is unkind and selfish. To feel better about saying “no,” think critically about each belief that you checked off. For each belief, provide a more helpful way of viewing the situation. For example, instead of “Saying ‘no’ will hurt and upset them,” tell yourself, “They might be hurt if I say ‘no,’ but if they care about me, they’ll understand,” or “I may hurt someone by turning down their initial request, but maybe I can fulfill the request another time.” Overcoming Obstacles GEN/201 Version 8 University of Phoenix Material Overcoming Obstacles Part 1: Time Management Review the section on time management in the Goal Setting and Time Management Tutorial, and Connections, Ch. 5. Respond to the following bulleted items in a brief 100- to 200-word paragraph: • • • • What time management skills did you recognize in the tutorial and the reading that can apply in your academic and professional situations? What is the importance of time management in any (online or face-to-face) learning environment? What additional benefits will successful time management produce in your life? How do these time management skills help you reach the goals you have set for yourself? Part 2: Stress Management College can be a stressful experience, and the reasons are varied (Shields, 2001). Almost all students are juggling school with a variety of other life demands, such as work, family-related responsibilities, or health concerns. Review the beginning of Connections, Ch. 12 prior to responding to the discussion below. Write a 75- to 100-word summary addressing how we can avoid the pitfalls of stress and ensure academic success. Include discussion of the following in your summary: • • • The sources of stress in your life Positive coping strategies to manage your stress level A plan to help manage stress and promote academic success Part 3: Other Obstacles Select two of the three following common student problems. For each problem you select, write a 75- to 100-word response of your proposed solutions. • Problem 1: Accessing the Class Resources On the day that an assignment is due, you have trouble accessing the student portal and your class. What are your steps to a successful resolution? Copyright © 2017 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 1 Overcoming Obstacles GEN/201 Version 8 • Problem 2: Internet Connectivity in Your Primary Location Your home computer is unable to connect to the Internet. What is your back-up plan so that your success is not deterred? • Problem 3: Finding Time to Complete Assignments Your co-worker is out sick, and with a looming project deadline, you are required to work additional hours this week. How will you ensure that your schoolwork responsibilities are met? References Shields, N. (2001). Stress, active coping, and academic performance among persisting and nonpersisting college students. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 6(2), 65-81. 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Stress and Time Management
Time Management
Time Management Skills
Importance of Time Management
Part 2- Stress Management
Sources of Stress
Part 3- Other Obstacles
Problem 2


Stress and Time Management




Stress and Time Management
Time Management
Time management is essential in setting and actualizing objectives in the professional and
academic fields. It entails a four-step process that is essential in meeting the set goals. The fourstep process in time management includes tracking your time, identification of priorities, the
creation of a schedule and tracking your progress.
For efficient and effective time management, it is vital to document the time people
spend on various engagements. The analysis of the time students and employees spend on
multiple issues is helpful in the management of time. Recording the number of hours someone
spends on doing various ac...

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