Science
Needs Assessment

Question Description

I will upload the instructions with "Scoring Tool" which has to be followed + Articles.

I used the McCawley pdf under the needs assessment folder for my “expert” source. However, You can use another article helping for conducting the Needs Assessment.

Step 1: just introduce your paper and what you plan on talking about.

Step:2 talk about the correct way to do needs assessment according to the expert you chose

Step3: talk about what we did for the middle schools and T University,. The process that we did for Middle School (only survey, tallied the results bellow, etc) as a primary data, and the survey monkey can either be primary or secondary it depends on how you describe it.

I will upload the "Needs Assessment for Middle School" survey that we did and we ended up with these health fair topics after collecting the surveys from the students: Energy Drinks, Self esteem, Health sleep habits, fitness, and Eating disorders.

For T University, the other half of our group did only Survey (I will upload just to see it) for health fair topics.

Step4: talk about whether or not we as a class did our assessment correctly

Step5: summarize the paper


Unformatted Attachment Preview

College Health Fair Topics Please identify the five items below in which you are least interested in learning more about at a health fair which is being planned for Towson students. Dealing with grief or loss while at college Alcohol use-related to academic success Asthma and or allergies Sexually transmitted infections-prevention/testing Safer Sex Practices Eating healthy while at college Dealing with and preventing anxiety or panic Tobacco, vaping, hookah-keeping healthy Back pain, preventing it and treating it Suicide prevention. Other drugs-avoiding drug use/preventing academic issues Physical disabilities and college success UTI and other sexual health issues Texting and driving Sleep issuespreventing them and dealing with them Driving under the influence of any drug (including alcohol) Broken bones, sprains, strains prevention and treatment Relationships (family, peer, social, work, intimate) and school success Skateboarding safety Depressionrecognizing it, treating it, preventing it Stress Management Prescription and/or non-prescription drug misuse or addiction Time Management Safety on and off campus Contraceptives Helmet use and bikes Dealing with violence and preventing it Violence in relationships Staying fit while at college Prevention illness (cold, flu, sinus infections, etc) Importance of immunizations Dealing with chronic disease at college (diabetes, cancer, etc) Use of sunscreen and other skin issues Breast self-exams, testicular self-exams and cancer Seventh Grade Health Fair Topics--Please read over the following topics and circle the FIVE you are most interested in hearing about at the Health Fair at your school. Friends, peers and peer pressure The body-skin Avoiding alcohol and other drugs Cyber-bullying or bullying Communication skills The body-eyes and ears Alcohol addiction and recovery Decision Making Safety in the home and other places Family roles and responsibilities Fitness Healthy Eating Alcohol use and abuse- the effect on the family Marijuana Being responsible for your own health Labels Becoming a wise health consumer Eating Disorders Media influences Healthy habits and grooming Self-esteem Injury prevention Dealing with Conflict First Aid for injuries Life Stages Stress and stress management Healthy Sleep habits Energy drinks Seventh Grade Health Fair Topics--Please read over the following topics and circle the FIVE you are most interested in hearing about at the Health Fair at your school. Friends, peers and peer pressure The body-skin Avoiding alcohol and other drugs Cyber-bullying or bullying Communication skills The body-eyes and ears Alcohol addiction and recovery Decision Making Safety in the home and other places Family roles and responsibilities Fitness Healthy Eating Alcohol use and abuse- the effect on the family Marijuana Being responsible for your own health Labels Becoming a wise health consumer Eating Disorders Media influences Healthy habits and grooming Self-esteem Injury prevention Dealing with Conflict First Aid for injuries Life Stages Stress and stress management Healthy Sleep habits Energy drinks Scoring Tool-Needs Assessment- 40 points You will submit three documents. The first is your paper with a title page. The second is any attachments/appendices that are appropriate. Examples include, but are not limited to, the needs assessments, any documents used, data collection forms. Do NOT include YRBSS data sheets. The third document is the reference list. This paper may be written in first person (I, me, my, we, our). Word limit, five double spaced-12 point font pages. This doesn’t include the title page, attachments or references. Required sections for your paper 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction to paper Conducting a NA. Description of our NA. Analysis of our NA. Summary of paper Follows all directions, includes all content as described in sections above 2. Conducting a NAIn this section you are describing the correct way to conduct a NA in health education program planning 2 yes 0 no /2 8-9 TAS, with proper sources. No omissions/errors 6-7 TAS, proper sources, minor omission. 5- TA, proper sources, minor omissions. 4-5 T, not proper sources, 0-3- inaccurate, not proper sources /9 3. Description of our NA – you will address both NA. 5-TAS describes what we did, no omissions. 4-Not as TAS with one minor omission/error 3- TS, but has two or more omissions or minor errors 1-2 not specific enough to show you are discussing our NA. 0-incomplete or not there 9-11 TAS analyzes with proper sources/citations. Gives specific examples that are clearly related to literature and what we did. 7-8-TA, proper sources/citations. Specific examples as described above. 4-6- T, proper sources, answer not specific. /5 4. Analysis- answers and supports one of the following... Yes we did it correctly-why do you say that with supporting sources No we did it incorrectly-why and how to fix it with supporting sources /11 Formatting-correct font, spacing, margins. Includes an intro, body and summary that organizes the paper Appendices (Paper 2) included APA format and reference list included Spelling/Grammar 0-3, not specific enough to what we did, doesn’t answer fully, sources not appropriate. 3 points for all 2- for intro/body/summary-but not all formatting 1 formatting correct, missing one of I/B/S 0- formatting not fully correct, not well organized or presented 2- complete 1-partial 0-almost none or not included 3- 0 to one error Loss of one point for each error over 1. 5=up to two errors Loss of one point for each error over 2. /3 /2 /3 /5 BUL 870 Methods for Conducting an Educational Needs Assessment Guidelines for Cooperative Extension System Professionals By Paul F. McCawley WHAT IS A NEEDS ASSESSMENT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 3 4. WORKING GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 19 Direct and indirect assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 3 Six steps for a needs assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 4 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 4 Describe the target audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 5 Uses of working groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 20 Facilitator role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 20 Nominal Group Technique (NGT) . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21 Appropriate uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21 Materials and logistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21 Steps for conducting NGT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21 Introduction: Frame the question . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21 Brainstorm: the “nominal” phase . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 21 Discuss: the “clarification” phase . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 22 Decide: the “voting” phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 22 Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 23 INSTITUTIONAL APPROVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 5 FOUR DATA COLLECTING METHODS . . . . . . . . . .p 6 Samle procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 6 Sample size, design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 6 Table 1, Sample size for validity . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 7 When to stratify sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 7 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 23 1. SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 8 Written surveys, questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 8 Oral, telephone surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 8 Survey procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 9 Create survey instrument—14 steps . . . . . . . . . . .p 9 Ten question-writing tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 10 Pilot tests: Refine instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 10 Conduct survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 11 Analyze data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 12 2. INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 13 Interview procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 13 Analyze interview data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 14 3. FOCUS GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 14 Focus group procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 15 Choose a method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 15 Choose participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 15 Logistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 16 Describe questions, topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 16 Select moderators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 17 Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 17 Contact perspective participants . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 17 Participant incentives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 17 Manage focus group sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 17 Kinds of questions to ask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 18 Analyze data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 18 Analysis tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 19 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Paul F. McCawley has served since 1999 as Associate Director of University of Idaho Extension. In 2004 he led development, implementation, and analysis of the biggest survey in the history of University of Idaho Extension, a statewide survey to determine UI Extension’s impact on the state and to determine greatest needs in the years ahead. PAGE 2 WHAT IS A NEEDS ASSESSMENT, AND WHY CONDUCT ONE? A needs assessment is a systematic approach to studying the state of knowledge, ability, interest, or attitude of a defined audience or group involving a particular subject. Cooperative Extension System professionals use needs assessments to learn about important issues and problems faced by our public in order to design effective educational programs. Programs and products that specifically target documented needs are inherently effective and marketable. A needs assessment also provides a method to learn what has already been done and what gaps in learning remain. This allows the educator to make informed decisions about needed investments, thereby extending the reach and impact of educational programming. For extension, the goals of needs assessment are nearly always the same. The first goal is to learn what our audience already knows and thinks, so that we can determine what educational products and services are needed. A second goal is to understand what we can do to make our educational products more accessible, acceptable, and useful to our clientele. A needs assessment, thoughtfully performed, provides the following: • Impact. Insights about how education and training can impact your audience; • Approaches. Knowledge about educational approaches that may be most effective; • Awareness of existing programs and of gaps in available training to enable efficient use of resources; • Outcomes. Information about the current situation that can be used to document outcomes; • Demand. Knowledge about the potential demand for future programs and products; • Credibility that the program is serving the target audience, an important part of communicating greater competence and professionalism to funding authorities who want to know a program or product’s impact. A needs assessment is conducted so the target audience can verify its own level of knowledge and skill, its interests and opinions, or its learning habits and preferences. Collecting and analyzing needs assessment data allows the investigator to describe the “gap” between what exists and what is needed. Filling that gap becomes the purpose of the next generation of educational services and products. Direct and indirect assessments A direct needs assessment is accomplished through formal research that gathers data from clientele. An indirect approach uses secondary data or asks surrogates (advisors) for their opinions about priority needs and issues. The direct assessment will result in data that is more specific to the needs of individuals, and it can be quantitative in terms of probability and confidence. However, direct research requires considerably more resources to design and also requires institutional approval to conduct. Direct assessment should be conducted periodically for major program efforts. An indirect assessment can be conducted at any time when an advisory committee is meeting and does not require the same level of investment in the design, implementation, and analysis. However, even for a nonformal assessment, if the results are to be credible, procedures must be followed, and findings must be carefully documented. Comprehensive needs assessment research helps document actual problems and deficiencies. With the needs assessment in hand, an educator can 1) verify and describe the current situation, 2) explain how the program will address that need, and 3) describe the expected impacts of the program (i.e., build a logic model). A needs assessment allows educators to demonstrate the foundation for their logic model to potential partners or funders. Because most funding sources insist that a project be evaluated, the information in a needs assessment forms the basis for a program evaluation. When the intervention results in measurable change, project managers will know whether they have succeeded and/or know what steps need to be taken next. PAGE 3 While goals for needs assessments are similar, the purposes to conduct needs assessments vary and will influence how the project is approached. Extension is required by statute to consider stakeholder input as part of the design and delivery of programs. There are also contractual agreements between state and local governments that extension address locally relevant issues. Granting agencies and organizations may require a needs assessment as a term of performance. Because of these legal and contractual purposes for needs assessments, the procedures need to be valid and the results verifiable. Needs assessments are also conducted simply to generate better knowledge with which to make decisions. If better information is the sole purpose for conducting a needs assessment, the procedures may be less formal, although the steps to plan, gather, and analyze data are still relevant. Six steps in conducting a needs assessment The first step is to develop a plan. The assessment plan begins as a description of the what, when, who, how, and why of your project. This description becomes a plan for designing, conducting, and evaluating a needs assessment. Seven components of a needs assessment plan include: 1. Write objectives: What is it that you want to learn from the needs assessment? 2. Select audience: Who is the target audience? Whose needs are you measuring, and to whom will you give the required information? 3. Collect data: How will you collect data that will tell you what you need to know? Will you collect data directly from the target audience or indirectly? 4. Select audience sample: How will you select a sample of respondents who represent the target audience? 5. Pick an instrument: What instruments and techniques will you use to collect data? 6. Analyze data: How will you analyze the data you collect? 7. Follow-up: What will you do with information that you gain? Data gathering methods by themselves are not a needs assessment. For the process to be complete, the needs assessment has to result in decision-making. Objectives of a needs assessment: Which people need to know what? Various objectives of a needs assessment are based on two things: who is asking the questions (what is your mission and responsibility?); and who is the target audience. The objectives will dictate how the needs assessment is to be designed and conducted. Needs assessments can either document the current situation for a group or for a target population. A needs assessment is often conducted for a specific group, organization, or business in order to improve effectiveness or productivity of the group related to its mission. Assessment objectives relate to the objectives of the organization. For a company, organizational assessments learn how to close a training or performance gap (Gupta et al., 2007). For example, a business might seek ways to improve customer service, and the target audience includes employees and customers of the business. Other examples of an organizational needs assessment might include a school district investigating the most efficient use of available teachers, or a volunteer organization trying to decide which fund-raising project to conduct next. In these examples, the target audiences (those who will provide the data) are teachers and/or parents/students in the district and the membership of the service organization. Extension professionals with opportunities to help organizations assess their needs will follow planning steps for a group. When a needs assessment is conducted on behalf of the public (for the benefit of multiple individuals, but not a specific group), then objectives tend to focus on what is needed to improve the situation for individuals through changing knowledge, behavior, and/or conditions. A comprehensive needs assessment for such an audience should include objectives similar to those of a market analysis. In other words, it may not be enough to learn PAGE 4 your audience’s needs if audience members are not interested in your recommended solution. The effort must also determine what services and products will appeal to the audience. Objectives of a needs assessment for a target population, then, are not limited to information about their existing knowledge and skills. Objectives may also require an investigation into the audience’s perceived solutions, as well as their priorities and their preferences. If you only ask stakeholders what their problems are, it falls to you to determine what kinds of education will help address those problems. The limitation with an approach that does not ask the audience for perceived solutions is that the intervention you design may not be marketable to your audience. If you ask stakeholders only what they want, you may have insufficient information with which to address the problems that need solving. For most of extension’s purposes, the needs assessment should be a systematic and comprehensive approach that reveals both the problems and the perceived solutions and allows the investigator to design a program that connects the current situation to the desired future. A Community needs assessment is a specific application for a targeted population that has recurring value for extension. Some useful tools for working with community members to conduct needs assessments can be found on the Web (University of Kansas). Dozens of other guides and resources are available on the Web to guide the conduct of specific needs assessments for public and community health issues, public housing needs, community conservation, environmental protection needs, and much more. Describe the target audience The target audience refers to people whose needs you are trying to measure. For all target audiences, it is important to know the population size. For a study focusing on needs of an organization or group, a description of the target audience may include various categories of employees, customers, or members. In your description of the target audience, include the reasons why they belong to the group, the length of time of their association, their geographic or organizational distribution, what they contribute to or receive from the group, cultural characteristics or biases, and age, sex, ethnicity, and other demographic charac ...
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Seventh Grade Health Fair Topics--Please read over the following topics and circle the FIVE you are most interested in hearing about at the Health Fair
at your school.
Friends, peers and peer pressure

The body-skin

Avoidin...

Carnegie Mellon University

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