Disaster Management

timer Asked: Oct 15th, 2018
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Question Description

critical analyze about one of the biological weapons? Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins. You should have at least 10 references, of which, 6 from peer-reviewed journals; from within the last 5 years.

we will need a statement of the issue or question, brief description of the significance and importance of the issue or question, and explanation of why you selected this issue or question.

2. The research paper should balance comprehensiveness and conciseness.

APA style of writing.

Tutor Answer

School: Cornell University

COMPLETE, Kindly confirm the FINAL paper below and let me know if everything if everything is okay.



Ricin Biological Weapon



Castor oil plant seeds are the primary source of ricin poison which is considered one of
the deadliest poisons in the world. Ricin is responsible for more than 45% on overall high profile
assassins because of the nature in which it exists. An adult human can be killed by a few grains
that are small enough to the size of table salt (Stirpe & Lappi, 2014). Experts consider a median
lethal dose that can cause havoc to be not more than 22micrograms. Ricin can kill either through
exposure or injection with exposure being the most brutal and dangerous way of weaponizing
ricin. Ricin exists in several forms depending on the number of protein chains in each but
irrespective of whichever form it is, it remains highly dangerous and lethal (Antosia & Cahill,
2006). Now that ricin can be weaponized, the concern is what are the disaster management
measures in place in the event that it is released to the public?
Statement of the Issue
I will not go deep to the chemistry related to types or form of ricin since that is not the
major concern this paper. It is important, however, to note that ricin exists in two structure; Ricin
toxic A and Ricin toxic B. There are many plants that contain either of the structure such as
barley but costar oil plant contains both structures (Olsnes & Kozlov, 2016). One structure alone
does not have any effect but they are highly toxic when combined. Since ricin is dangerous when
inhaled, ingested, or injected, many biological weapon scientists have gone an extra mile to form
a biological weapon from this poison. With a potential and highly deadly weapon that can cause
havoc to the public, this is what calls for an emergency and response plan in the event the worst
happens. This paper will look into emergency and response actions that can be taken to counter
the effects of ricin poison when used as a biological weapon.



Ricin is a highly regulated chemical in almost all countries and only a few selected and
licensed agents are allowed to conduct research using ricin (Antosia & Cahill, 2006). This shows
how serious the poison is, any substance that is regulated means that it can be harmful to
innocent people or the general public. For example, in the United States where the government
closely monitors the processing, storage, or even use of ricin in significant quantities. Ricin can
be weaponized and has been weaponized before and currently, it is classified as a biological or
chemical weapon of interest. The question is whether there is a plan in place to counter the attack
with a ricin biological weapon. The first concept of weaponizing ricin was first investigated by
the United State military during the First World War after they realized that it was a potential
weapon (Disaster management, 2014).
The fact that one military wing of such a powerful country thought of weaponizing ricin
back then would mean that now there are advanced versions of ricin chemical weapon. World
War 1 ended before the United States military could weaponize ricin which they considered a
powerful weapon that can be used as a toxic dust or coating bullets. During both the first and
second world war ended before the US could design a version of a ricin weapon due to
regulations and agreements signed earlier (Wolensky & Wolensky, 2017). The Soviet Union,
however, is believed to have processed weaponized ricin and speculations that the KGB has at
ones used it although these allegations have never been proven. The fact that these two powerful
governments consider ricin as a powerful biological weapon means that it’s deadly and a disaster
management plan should be put in place to respond in the event of a ricin weapon attack.
Significance and Importance of the Issue
Ricin is extremely toxic and its effects cannot be underestimated wh...

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Thanks, good work

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