Week 4: KM Tools, Techniques, and Technology Introdution

timer Asked: Oct 15th, 2018
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Question Description

Week 2: Second-Generation KM


The key issue covered this week is how to establish effective communication so as to ensure appropriate knowledge transactions. You must have observed that during international summits and conferences, representatives of non-English-speaking nations communicate to the audience with the help of interpreters. The success of summits, conferences, and bilateral talks has been made possible by the use of a common language. This week, you will understand the significance of a common language for effective interaction and knowledge management (KM). You will also learn how KM affects organizational learning so as to expand its capabilities and achieve desired results.

Next, you will recognize the importance of meetings, especially as peer-assist workshops, that help establish connectivity for knowledge transfer between experts and novices. Finally, you will learn more about planning for peer-assist meetings.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this week, you will be able to:

  • Describe the differences between first- and second-generation KM.
  • Analyze knowledge claims' validity and evaluate the knowledge life cycle.


  • Access Resources

    Learning ResourcesPlease read and view this week's Learning Resources before you complete the Discussion.Reading
    • Course Text: Collison, C., & Parcell, G. Learning to fly: Practical knowledge management from leading and learning organizations
      • Chapter 6, "Connecting Sharers with Learners—Using Self-Assessment"

        Chapter 6 explains the need of a common language that enables knowledge sharing within an organization. The chapter also describes how self-assessments can help people evaluate their level of competence. By assessing yourself, you are in a better position to set appropriate benchmarks and define your priorities in the workplace.

        Focus on the river diagram and stairs diagram that explain how to analyze your assessment results.
      • Chapter 7, "Learning from Your Peers—Somebody Has Already Done It"

        Chapter 7 explains that peer-assist meetings and workshops help in sharing knowledge and developing alternative possible approaches to achieving specific targets. The chapter also presents, in detail, 12 steps that help in planning a peer-assist workshop. In addition, the chapter discusses the type of people who should be grouped together for a successful peer-assist meeting.

        Focus on the summary and the various case studies pertaining to peer-assist meetings so as to understand their importance.
    • Articles
      • McElroy, M. (2002). The new knowledge management—C omplexity, learning, and sustainable innovation. (Excerpt). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. Click here to download the article (PDF format)Click for more options

        This article familiarizes you with first- and second-generation KM. The article suggests that unlike first-generation KM, which was technology driven, second-generation KM is more inclusive of people, processes, and social initiatives. The article also provides a description of the life cycle of KM and elaborates on the basic differences between first- and second-generation KM.

      • McElroy, M. (2001, October). Second-generation knowledge management. Presentation at KMWorld 2001 Conference and Exposition, Santa Clara, CA. Click here to download the article (PDF format) Click for more options

        This article provides an industry-standard reference model of KM and explains the critical differences between information management and KM. In addition, some examples of common KM initiatives are cited.
    1. Discussion - Week 2
    Second-Generation Knowledge Management

    First-generation KM dealt with creating an environment in which knowledge could be shared and used for optimum results within a particular organizational framework. In comparison, second-generation KM helps an organization discover and recognize the most effective knowledge sources. Second-generation KM also helps an organization use that source to expand and rearrange the knowledge so that optimized results can be obtained.

    Based on your reading for this week:

    First-generation KM and second-generation KM differ in their approaches to strategies related to supply and demand versus the whole life cycle. With respect to this difference, discuss the advantages of second-generation KM over first-generation KM.

    With these thoughts in mind
  • 2. Week 2 Assignment
    Welcome to the Week 2 Application Area!
    Post your responses to the Application based on the course requirements.
    Once you have completed the Application, you have completed Week 2. The course now shifts its focus to the discussion of human resources and KM. Please proceed to Week 3.

    Beginning Development on a Self-Assessment Framework

    In Chapter 6, you examined the essential role of building a self-assessment framework. For this week's Application Assignment, you will evaluate an organization that you are familiar with in regards to operations.
    In your response, you should begin by identifying a minimum of five common operational practices that your organization has instituted. Then, select one practice and develop a level of competency between 1 and 5 with two variables.
    In your course textbook, the section "Building a Self-Assessment Framework" (pp. 78-79) provides a guide for completing this activity.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Evaluating Knowledge Claims As McElroy (2002) points out, within the KM field one of the most underrated KM functions is that known as validation. Validation simply means that workers in an organization not only use knowledge to perform their job function but also need to be constantly evaluating whether the knowledge-in-use is effective at achieving its intended purpose. This is important because knowledge usually is not the same as truth. When something is always true, it becomes a valid knowledge claim. For example, one might claim that whenever a baseball is hit into the air it inevitably falls back to earth. Because this happens 100% of the time, we say that this claim is true and valid. For something to be true, it must work 100% of the time. For something to be valid, it must work in achieving the intended goal as often as necessary for you to feel that it is consistent and reliable. Thus, a particular knowledge claim may work 96% of the time and not be completely true but also be valid. Now the most important point: in organizations, the vast majority of knowledge claims relating to management and business strategy are not true, they are merely knowledge claims. Knowledge claims can fall into several categories including: 1. Validated knowledge claims that have been proven to reliable produce the desired outcome. 2. Unvalidated knowledge claims are those that have not yet been sufficiently tested to arrive at an opinion. 3. Invalidated knowledge claims are those that have been proven to be false or invalid. 4. Inactive knowledge claims are those that have not yet been the subject of evaluation. Knowledge claims can be evaluated in several different ways: 1. Face Validity – Do they appear through observation to have sufficient merit to give reason to believe that they will work effectively to produce the desired outcome reliably well? 2. Performance Validity – Experience has demonstrated that the claim, when used, reliably yields the desired outcome effectively. This is a much more powerful test of the validity of a knowledge claim than is face validity. 3. Parallel Validity – Although the claim in question has not yet been proven or disproven to be effective, a claim or series of claims that are essentially similar have been validated as being effective. When you are conducting your own knowledge claim evaluations, you will be operating mainly within the realm of face validity, as you most likely will not have any performance data available to help support, corroborate, or invalidate the claims. Organizational Learning The concept of organizational learning is an idea that grew out of the writings, during the 1970s, of scholars at MIT, Harvard, and Carnegie-Mellon, including Chris Argyris, Donald Schon, James March, and Herbert Simon. More recently, writers such as Peter Senge and Reg Revans have helped to popularize this field. A basic premise of this discipline is the notion of collective, or shared learning, and action learning. Action learning occurs when people consciously seek to improve their ability to learn from experience. Although many people learn from experience, some learn much more from the same experience than other people. Action learning involves four important steps: action, reflection, conceptualization, and experimentation, which are linked in a cycle. If employees do not complete all steps in this cycle, they are likely to be hindered in their learning efforts. While only individuals can learn from experience, groups, teams, and organizations (collectives) can share common lessons learned that they rely upon for making judgments and decisions. One theory of organizational learning holds that organizations often fail because they continue to repeat the same mistakes over, as they have not learned the proper lessons from past experience. According to this view, organizational performance can be improved by increasing the capacity of the individuals and teams in the organization to learn richer, more valid lessons from experience through organizational learning. ...
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School: Boston College

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First Generation Knowledge Management
Institution Affiliation




First Generation Knowledge Management
The first generation knowledge management (KIMs) is instrumental for many
organizations. The first generation KM is based on social science that seeks to enhance the
performance of a business. Also, it enhances the external and internal organizational knowledge
processing. In this case, this papers discusses the advantages of first-generation KM over the
second generation KM as related to supply and demand strategies.
Firstly, the second generation KM strategies are applicable for the whole cycle. Its
strategies focus on both the supply and demand. The KM strives to enhance the integration of
knowledge within an organization. Also, it seeks to enhance the production of knowledge. On
the other hand, the First generation KM’s strategies only deal with the supply aspect of the cycle.
In this generation, knowledge management strategies rely on more technology (McElroy, 2002).
Secondly, the second generation KM is known to utilize the whole cycle which involves
the integration and creation of knowledge. It does not just depend on the existin...

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Good stuff. Would use again.

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