Experiment 6: Steam Distillation
1. What criteria would you use to decide whether distillation is an appropriate
technique for the purification of a reaction product? What type of distillation
method – simple, fractional, vacuum, or steam – should be used?
The general critera to choose distillation method would be if the indivisual
cmponents of mixtures are having a large difference in their boiling point.
Distillation is the most useful method for purification of liquids and it is used
routinely for purifying solvents and rgents. Through appropriate aparatus, it is
possible to seperate liqids whocs boiling points differ by less than 5oC .
Simple distillation: This is useful only for distilling compounds from nonvolatile
residues or for separating liquids whose boiling points differ by at least 50oC.
Fractional distillation: It is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or
fractions, separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them
to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize. It
uses distillation to fractionate. Generally the component parts boil at less than
25 °C from each other under a pressure of one atm. pressure.
Vacuum distillation: Many compounds decomposes when heated to their boiling
points, so they cannot be distilled at atmospheric pressure. In this case, it may be
possible to avoid thermal decmposition by carrying out the distillation at a
reduced pressure. the reduction...