Exploration essay about the story " A wall of fire rising" with GIVEN sources.

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Here is the details about the paper:" For this paper, you will use the sources I provide to gain a deeper understanding of the short story, “A Wall of Fire Rising.” You will explain how the source information helps you put Guy, Lili, and Little Guy in a variety of contexts: Slavery, Haiti, Africa, poverty and others contexts that you discover as you read and write.The sources for this paper are limited to the story itself and the sources that I give you.

Please do not use any other sources. If you do, I’ll return your paper to you without a grade and you’ll meet with me privately. Your paper will be an exploration of ideas, theories, and interpretations. It will contain a thesis statement that lays out the paper’s purpose.Before you decide on a topic, read the sources very carefully and more than once. Take notes. Decide what interests you the most. Do not make up your mind about the content of your paper until you read the sources thoroughly. Keep an open mind. You can write in the first person (use “I”) or in the third person (no “I”). Although you can use “I,” please remember that this paper is not personal so the focus must remain on the story and the sources.

"Requirements Length: MLA format, 4 pages, double-spaced, not including works cited. The paper need quotation, citation, word cited....

I will attach the sources. Please use only given sources. Source4 and source5 are optional, you can include if you want. 125-Sources and The flying africans are REQUIRED.

Here is the story: https://ischoolworldlit.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/a_wall_of_fire_rising.pdf

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SOURCE 1: Title of Article: Figures of Flight and Entrapment in Edwidge Danticat's "Krik? Krak!" Author(s): Wilson C. Chen Source: Rocky Mountain Review, Vol. 65, No. 1 (2011), pp. 36-55 Published by: Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41289362 Accessed: 03-10-2018 23:39 UTC [JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.] Brief summary of the story: Set in a village in Haiti, "A Wall of Fire Rising" provides a glimpse of three critical days in the life of an apparently ordinary Haitian family struggling to survive without gainful employment. While several signs in the text, along with a maternal family tree sketched in a subsequent story, place this family in the mid- twentieth century, it is difficult to pinpoint the exact time in which this story takes place. The main source of work in the village is the local sugar mill, owned and managed by an Arab family - "Haitians of Lebanese or Palestinian descent whose family had been in the country for generations" (60). The father, Guy, is deep on the wait list for permanent employment at the mill, and the mother, Lili, during their most impoverished times, purchases spices on credit and attempts to sell them at the marketplace. Through all of this financial hardship, they are trying to raise a son, Little Guy, and aspire to give him life opportunities beyond a career of backbreaking work at the sugar mill (37). Importance of sugar in Haiti Throughout the twentieth century and even into the twenty-first, the grueling labor and exploitative practices of the sugar industry on the island of Hispaniola continue to be reminiscent of slavery and its legacy on the island. Haitian sugar cane fields are reminders of when French-owned sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans made Haiti (St. Domingue) Frances most profitable colony in the Americas, supplying a great share of the world's consumption of sugar. In Carolyn Ficks words, Haiti was "one of the greatest wealth-producing slave colonies the world had ever known" (91). Indeed sugar cane fields are a repeated setting in Danticat's fiction and allow her to explore issues of violence and trauma across different historical moments in Haitian history (37). Parallel Plots: Little Guy and Guy "A Wall of Fire Rising" is governed by two parallel plot lines involving the respective plights of the father and son. Little Guy has been given the honor of performing the role of the Haitian revolutionary leader Boukman Dutty in his school play. Little Guy enthusiastically announces this news just as Guy Sr. holds back on his news that he has been given a few hours of work cleaning latrines at the sugar mill - his first job at the mill in nearly six months. Thus, one storyline consists of Little Guy rehearsing the glorious revolutionary rhetoric attributed to the legendary Boukman, a slave from Jamaica who was sold into slavery in Haiti and became an inspirational political leader. The reputed vodou priest Boukman, according to legend, spoke powerful words of freedom in defiance of the French colonizers and helped to spark the revolution that led ultimately to the abolition of slavery and the founding of the Haitian republic in 1804. However, while the son gains mastery over Boukman’s words, the father, in the other storyline, turns inward in response to their impoverished conditions and also becomes increasingly obsessed with his desire to fly a hot air balloon, thus inaugurating the theme of flight. As Little Guy proudly announces, "I am Boukman" (54) and subsequently recites Boukman's famous call for freedom, the setting of the story reminds us that this is a family that is still very much in bondage. And the transcendent feelings produced by Little Guy s eloquent revolutionary rhetoric - not to mention the intellectual promise demonstrated by his facility in memorizing these rhetorically complex lines - are in marked contrast with the family's abject poverty as well as the fathers increasing misery. Little Guys defiant words draw attention to a twentiethcentury Haitian community in desperate need of liberation. Quite tellingly, as Little Guy triumphs in mastering the first passage from Boukman's speech, Guy Sr. completes his first day cleaning toilets (38). Myth of “Flying Africans” Guy's flight, even if it leads to a violent, tragic conclusion, does evoke various New World tales of flying Africans and a whole set of twentieth-century reworkings of these narratives. Most fundamentally, this is a legend that circulated among enslaved African communities in the Americas. "First named in [the collection] Drums and Shadows [1940]," observes Olivia Smith Storey, "the Flying Africans specifically refers to African born slaves flying from slavery in the Americas" (1-2). In prominent literary works...the legend is connected with the West African slaves that landed off the coast of Georgia in 1803. According to the basic folk tale, after landing on St. Simons Island, a group of enslaved Africans transcended the conditions of slavery by flying back to Africa. The strictly rationalist outsiders' perspective is that these slaves committed suicide and that was the only form of transcendence. Yet the flying African stories passed down in folklore are celebratory tales of magic and freedom (41). Culture and Language as a Requirement for Flight Interestingly, in many versions of the legend of flying Africans, maintaining one’s African tongue, or at least being reminded of one’s native language by an elder when it has been forgotten, was a precondition of flight. According to the cultural logic of these tales of transcendence, keeping intact or recovering one’s culture prior to the distortion wrought by enslavement gave one the resources, the "magic," to transcend the conditions of enslavement in many stories literally and in several twentieth century literary reworkings, metaphorically. The diasporic predicament sketched by Danticat in this tale presents a family struggling in a system of continual exploitation, yearning for freedom, and lacking access to the kinds of cultural resources that might allow them not only to withstand but also transcend their material circumstances (44). SOURCE 2: Title of Article: "I NEED MANY REPETITIONS" Rehearsing the Haitian Revolution in the Shadows of the Sugar Mill Author(s): Angela Naimou Source: Callaloo, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Winter, 2012), pp. 173-192 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41412503 Accessed: 03-10-2018 23:22 UTC [JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.] Haitian History and Boukman At the threshold of colonial Saint-Domingue and the republic of Haiti lies the story of Bois Caiman. Multiple variants of the story all tell of a summer night in 1791, when enslaved and maroon Black men and women gathered in the Cai ̈man woods to plan a revolt against the colonial slave system. The meeting involved a religious ceremony led by Boukman Dutty and an unnamed mambo to serve the spirits and fortify the commitment to revolt.1 Within a few days, the sugarcane fields of Saint-Domingue' s northern provinces were ablaze, the processing machinery wrecked, and the owners dead or fleeing. The uprising left the economic heart of the world's most brutally profitable colony in what C. L. R. James describes as "a flaming ruin," one that would burn for nearly thirteen years before culminating in the declaration of the free Black Republic of Haiti (173). Importance of Rehearsal Rehearsal has two basic functions in the story: a son repeats his lines from a school play as a kind of practice performance in order to memorize them for the "real" performance, and his father mentally prepares for a future and unrepeatable act. At one level, rehearsal dramatizes people's efforts to gain some narrative control over the telling and meaning of specific historical narratives. At another, rehearsal becomes a literary model of how narrative fiction may theorize an involvement in history as material, social process and as a narrative of that process. Rehearsal can offer us especially suggestive ways to explore the writing of history as a narrative problem (of how to connect the past, present, and future into a story) without ignoring the material conditions that shape both the narrative construction and the events that make up any historical narrative (176). Little Guy’s rehearsals, in contrast to Guy’s own, allow this complex relationship to come into view. Little Guy is the son who plays the father of the revolution. Guy plays the father who is the son of the dispossessed for whom the revolution had been fought - still ‘born in the shadow of the sugar mill; but, no, barely allowed to work there (182). Boukman speech at Bois Caiman ceremony, insurrection of 1791; fire, flames, ashes; Macandal, the west African slave and precursor to Boukman; “A Flying Fool” Haitian sugar cane fields are reminders of when French-owned sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans made Haiti (St. Domingue) Frances most profitable colony in the Americas, supplying a great share of the world's consumption of sugar. Sugar cane fields in Haiti remind Haitians of when sugar fields farmed by Africans kept as slaves transformed Haiti (St. Domingue) into France’s wealthiest colony in the Americas, providing a large piece of the world's use of sugar. Oral Narrative as Short Story Cycle: Forging Community in Edwidge Danticat's "Krik? Krak!" Author(s): Rocio G. Davis Source: MELUS, Vol. 26, No. 2, Identities (Summer, 2001), pp. 65-81 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of the MultiEthnic Literature of the United States (MELUS) Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3185518 Accessed: 09-10-2018 23:37 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms Oxford University Press, Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States (MELUS) are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to MELUS This content downloaded from 164.106.248.203 on Tue, 09 Oct 2018 23:37:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Oral Narrative as Short Story Cycle: Forging Community in Edwidge Danticat's Krik? Krak! Rocio G. Davis University of Navarre Only when ethnic literature liberates its sources of mea from hegemonic impositions and begins to inform theory and vert traditional signifying strategies can it begin to reconfigur tural interpretation. As though responding to this challenge, e fiction demonstrates a proliferation of the short story cycle, a until now most clearly defined within the Euro-American lite tradition, that many ethnic writers have adapted for the formulat of their processes of subjectivity. Amy Tan's The Joy Luck C Gloria Naylor's The Women of Brewster Place, Julia Alva How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents, and Louise Erdich Love Medicine emblematize how ethnic writers appropriate specifics of this narrative genre to engage with the dynamics meaning. This article will explore the short story cycle as a v for the development of ethnic literature by analyzing Hai American Edwidge Danticat's Krik? Krak! to show how the dra of identity and community is mediated through a genre th linked to the oral narrative, itself a way of fostering imagina communities and developing identities. The dynamics of the short story cycle make it appropriate the quest for a definition of the cultural pluralism that incorpo immigrant legacies while adapting to the practices of the cultu which these works are created. A cycle may be defined as "a s stories linked to each other in such a way as to maintain a bal between the individuality of each of the stories and the neces of the larger unit" (Ingram 15). The term "short story cycle" plies a structural scheme for the working out of an idea, charac or themes, even a circular disposition in which the constituent MELUS, Volume 26, Number 2 (Summer 2001) This content downloaded from 164.106.248.203 on Tue, 09 Oct 2018 23:37:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 66 ROCIO G. DAVIS ratives are simultaneously independent and interdependen challenge of each cycle is twofold: the collection must asser individuality and independence of each of the component while creating a necessary interdependence that emphasi wholeness and unity of the work. Consistency of theme evolution from one story to the next are among the clas quirements of the form, with recurrence and development integrated movements that effect final cohesion (Ingram 20). The essential characteristics of the short story cycle abou the literatures of the world: Homer's Odyssey, Ovid's Me phoses, Boccaccio's Decameron, Chaucer's The Canterbury the Indian Panchatantra, the Arabian A Thousand and One N and Mallory's Morte d'Arthur reflect the fundamental separ and cohesion of the form as defined by twentieth-century Cycles figure prominently in twentieth-century American ture: Sherwood Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio, Ernest Heming in our time and Raymond Carver's Cathedral, among others constituted and popularized the form within the "mains canon. By appropriating and transforming this narrative ge established and defined by "mainstream" writers and critics ticat, like other ethnic writers, intervenes in the dominant American literary tradition. A text such as Krik? Krak! cha hegemonic discourse on several levels, as the author explo advantages of the established structure and theme to presen version of the immigrant story, blending cultural tradition codes for innovative literary representation. The short story cycle looks back to oral traditions of nar while embodying signs of modernity. One of its most salien tures is its attempt to emulate the act of storytelling, the effor speaker to establish solidarity with an implied audience counting a series of tales linked by their content or by the tions in which they are related. The experience of the oral tive, of telling and listening to stories, has been a vital part development of the body of thought and tradition that has f culture and united diverse peoples. As Walter Ong argues physical constitution as sound, the spoken word manifests h beings to each other as persons and forms them into clos groups: when a speaker is addressing an audience, the memb the audience normally become a unity, with themselves and This content downloaded from 164.106.248.203 on Tue, 09 Oct 2018 23:37:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms EDWIDGE DANTICAT'S KRIK? KRAK! 67 the speaker (74). Much of the vividness of the oral narrative precisely from the fact that it resists writing, preserving the sp word as always "an event, a movement in time, completely l in the thing-like repose of the written or printed word" (Ong Sarah Hardy's comparison of the short story and the oral n tive is, I believe, equally applicable to the story cycle: "A theme or episode. .. pulls in the direction of its own self-co narrative line, towards other similar and parallel stories, an wards certain patterns of language or a particular set of sym .... In other words, the presence of an audience is vital t completion and validity of the short-story [cycle] form just in an oral setting" (355). The title of Danticat's cycle sets it within the oral narrative. She invites the reader not merely the book but to participate in a traditional Haitian storytellin ual. "Krik? Krak! is call-response but it's also this feelin you're not merely an observer-you're part of the story. Som says, 'Krik?' and as loudly as you can you say 'Krak!' Yo the person to tell the story by your enthusiasm to hear it" 12). In the stories, Danticat examines the lives of ordinary Haitians: those struggling to survive under the cruel Duvalier regime and others who have left the country, highlighting the distance between people's dreams and the distressing reality of their lives. As Ethan Casey points out: "Writers will spend precious time accounting for what has happened, it is true; the literary challenge is to write about Haiti in the vocabulary of human tragedy and human survival" (525). As such, the book becomes a literary response to the Haitian situation and a feeling description of the immigration of the 1980s. Importantly, Danticat's presentation of the theme of storytelling through the technique of storytelling locates her writing within what Jay Clayton has called the "narrative turn" in recent ethnic fiction, which stresses the political dimensions of form, making the pragmatics of traditional narrative a theme in the fiction (378, 387). Through technical experimentation with the story cycle, Danticat heightens the power of narrative, elucidating the significance of the oral mode to her characters by positioning the theme within a genre that engages it on different levels. Importantly, the blending of the performative dimension of storytelling This content downloaded from 164.106.248.203 on Tue, 09 Oct 2018 23:37:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 68 ROCIO G. DAVIS in form and content allows Danticat to expand the reach of h by making the text dramatize as well as signify. In a note distributed by her publisher, Danticat defines th lenge she set herself: "I look to the past to Haiti-hoping tha extraordinary female story tellers I grew up with-the on have passed on-will choose to tell their stories through my For those of us who have a voice must speak to the present a past" (qtd. in Casey 525-26). Danticat's narrative present voices and visions of women, usually mothers and daug whose personal tragedies impel them to form community in midst of oppression and exile. Because the practice of break lence has become one of the shaping myths in the writings o nic women, storytelling in the cycle becomes both a med self-inscription and subjectivity and an instrument for dial The telling of stories heals past experiences of loss and sepa it also forges bonds between women by preserving tradition female identity as it converts stories of oppression into para self-affirmation and individual empowerment. The mann which Danticat links the stories with the processes o inscription by the different women becomes a metaphor for gotiation of the characters' strategies of survival. The profoundly oral character of Haitian culture is illustra both textual and contextual levels in Krik? Krak!. The epigr the cycle, a quote from Sal Scalora from "White Darkness Dreamings," discloses the purpose of the old tradition: "We t stories so that the young ones will know what came before They ask Krik? We say Krak! Our stories are kept in our he Seven of the nine stories are told in the first person, with them written as monologues, and the rest alternating two vo the narration. The epilogue, "Women Like Us," is written second person, a technique with rich connotations in a cont rary text inspired by the oral tradi ...
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