Assignment 1: Stakeholders

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Assignment 1: Stakeholders Per the text, the federal, state, and local governments of a disaster-stricken area must work together in many ways. The federal government may declare a federal disaster and provide federal assistance to the area if certain requirements are met. Read the following two (2) FEMA articles: “National Planning Frameworks” “Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Public Law 93-288) as amended”, Section 401, page 25 Write a five page paper in which you: Specify the nature of the interrelationships between the federal, state, and local government, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations as outlined in the National Planning Frameworks and the five (5) preparedness mission areas in the “National Planning Frameworks” article. Analyze the specific requirements that the government must meet in order to declare a federal disaster and provide federal assistance, as outlined in the “Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Public Law 93-288) as amended” article. Evaluate the importance of each requirement. Suggest two (2) requirements (not listed in the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act) that you believe the government should follow in order to declare a federal disaster and provide federal assistance. Provide a rationale to support your suggestion. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other related websites do not qualify as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow 6th edition APA or school-specific format. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. follow APA guidelenes

Tutor Answer

School: Cornell University


Nature of Interrelationships of Stakeholders in Declaring Federal Disaster/Providing

Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
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Nature of Interrelationships of Stakeholders in Declaring Federal Disaster/Providing
Legislations, as well as policy directives, were formulated in focusing on the national
approach on how to manage disasters which varies in degrees. One of these is the FEMA’s
Robert T. Stafford Act for disaster relief as well as emergency assistance, the organization’s
main source of programs intended for the disasters (NCBI, n.d.). It serves as a guide that
provides recovery support to any States that are affected by disasters. This enables the managers
and other disaster recovery personnel to manage and operate recovery with unity in the
restoration, revitalization and redeveloping of the entire community towards a stronger nation
(FEMA, 2018). This Act which also known as the Public Law 93-288 was amended and became
a law in 23 of November 1988 (NCBI, FEMA). The creation and declaration of this law were
based on the human sufferings and losses/damages that include life, income, and properties
(FEMA 2018). In addition to this, because of the disruption of the usual functioning of the
governments, the community, and the severe situation brought by the disaster and adversely
affects the people, special measures for managing disaster were made such as rendering
assistance, emergency services, reconstruction, as well as rehabilitation of the areas that have
been affected.
Nature of Interrelationships of Stakeholders
In the Disaster Preparedness Programs of the Federal and the state, the President has the
authorization to establish disaster preparedness programs and utilize the services of the
appropriate and concerned agencies in preparing the plans for disaster preparedness, trainings,

post-disaster evaluations, program’s annual reviews, coordination of the preparedness program
that include effective communication system, application of technology, and research (FEMA,
The Governors of the different State will identify and recommend 5 of their local
governments that can receive assistance to the President. Failure in the submission of the
recommendation within the specified deadline for it, the President will choose any of the State’s
local government to receive the aid as mandated by the law (FEMA, 2018). The local
governments will implement the mitigation measures for the pre-disaster hazard which are costeffective and according to the proposals which the President has ratified.
The President will establish the task force for the Federal interagency that will coordinate in
the disaster program’s implementation for the pre-disaster hazard prevention which include the
Chairperson who will lead and manage the concerned task force, and the members such as the
concerned Federal agencies, the organizations, the Indian tribes, as well as the Red Cross in U.S.
(FEMA, 2018).
Declaration Procedure: Section 401
The declaration procedure under Section 401, subsection (a) states that the President will
declare the existence of major disaster according to the appeal of the Governor of the State
(FEMA, 2018). These requests should be in accordance to the severity as well as the magnitude
of the findings where it is already beyond the state’s capabilities to provide effective response
and it already needs assistance from the Federal government (FEMA, 2018). In filing the
recommendation, the Governor should make a response action appropriate to the State law where
the execution will be based directly in the emergency plan and provide information of nature of

destruction and the extent of the damages in terms of monetary value. The State as well as the
local government’s expenditures should comply with the requirements stated in the Act. The
President will then declare the existence of the emergency based on the request of the Governor.
The government of Indian Tribal can file a request for a declaration for disaster emergency
declaration following the requirements stated in subsection (a) (FEMA, 2018). The Indian
government will not be prohibited by the Savings Provision from receiving the assistance once
the President made the declaration. Under the subchapter of the Cost Share Adjustment for
Indian Tribal Governments, the President can waive or make the adjustment to the payment and
determine whether it is necessary as well as appropriate to make such actions.
National Planning Frameworks: 5 Mission Areas for Preparedness
Every mission areas for the national disaster preparedness which are the prevention, the
protection, the mitigation the response, and the recovery have its own frameworks. The mission
areas are organized as Prevention which refers to the avoidance or stopping the possible threat of
terrorism (FEMA, 2018). Protection refers to protecting the citizens, the residents, visitors, as
well as other important assets from the hazards threatening the security, interests, aspirations, as
and life (FEMA, 2018). Mitigation is reducing the possible loss of property and life by means of
reducing the disaster’s impact (FEMA, 2018). The response is the appropriate and quick action
in saving the lives of the people, protecting properties and environment, and providing the basic
needs of the affected people after the catastrophic incident (FEMA, 2018). The fifth mission
area is the recovery that focuses on the restoration, the strengthening and the revitalization of the
infrastructures destroyed by the calamity (FEMA, 2018).

Analysis/Evaluation: Requirements that the State and the Local Government should meet
to declare the federal disaster
According to the declaration procedure, the Governor has to file and submit a request
addressed to the President for the declaration of the existence of a major disaster. The severity of
the damage caused by the catastrophe and the amount of the assistance for the human need’s
assistance and for the restoration of the destroyed infrastructures needed should be included in
the report. In addition to this, the Governor should also prove that it is beyond the State’s
capabilities to provide assistance and restore the destructions brought by the catastrophe. And
most of all the expenditures should solely be for the implementation of the emergency plan in
accordance with the law. The filing of the report of the actual situation of the damages brought
by the calamity will determine the eligibility as well as to the speedy declaration of the major
disaster under the Act. The governors should act quickly and appropriately to make sure that the
most affected area under their jurisdictions will be the recipient of the assistance from the
Federal Government. Furthermore, these requirements are very important for this will serve as
guidance to ensure that the emergency plan is properly and appropriately implemented. The
proper coordination with the concerned Federal agencies will ensure that the appropriate support,
as well as assistance, will be provided to the affected areas.
The requirements for the declaration of the federal disaster and in providing federal assistance
are already stated comprehensively and everything is covered in terms of how to appropriately
manage an emergency plan. Perhaps, the other requirements that should be implemented are
stricter monitoring of the expenditures and ensuring that the funds are properly liquidated. In an
article post it has mentioned that what follows after the strike of the natural disaster is the
political corruption that causes more misery to the people affected and lengthy time in the

restoration of the economy of the state (University of Chicago Press Journals, 2008). And
another one is the Federal government should also ensure that the victims are truly well taken
care of regardless of the ethnicity, race, or social status such as providing safer shelter for the
poor as well as marginalized constituents. Most of the people that are greatly affected by natural
disasters are the homeless and those who live in the areas that are prone to the landslides, floods,
and earthquakes. An example of these is the earthquake catastrophe that happened in San
Francisco in 1989 where 62 were killed and 12,000 became homeless and another one in Haiti
where their houses were not able to withstand the strong tremor of the grounds (Ferris, 2010).
The most affected stakeholder in the disaster are the constituents and therefore it is a

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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