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Marketing is essential to the healthcare industry for branding and growing health systems. In this assignment, you will compare and contrast marketing data and information for a dental healthcare facility in Jeddah. Review the following article. Ahmad, A. E. M. K. (2016). Factors influencing consumer choice of private dental care provider in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Management Research, 8(4), 68-81. Write a 4 -page paper using the readings, research, and your knowledge of consumerism influencing marketing.

Marketing is essential to the healthcare industry for branding and growing health systems. In this assignment, you will compare and contrast marketing data and information for a dental healthcare facility in Jeddah. Review the following article. Ahmad, A. E. M. K. (2016). Factors influencing consumer choice of private dental care provider in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Management Research, 8(4), 68-81. Write a 5-6-page paper using the readings, research, and your knowledge of consumerism influencing marketing. Your paper should analyze the following substantive requirements: Description of what consumers are looking for in a dental facility in Jeddah. Evaluate the data presented and any information that would be valuable that is not present in the study. Assess how consumerism plays (or should play) a role in the marketing strategy of dental facilities in Jeddah. Provide two recommendations on how to market the dental facility in Jeddah. Recommend how to monitor the data to ensure your marketing approach is working. Your report should meet the following structural requirements: Be 5-6 pages in length, not including the cover or reference pages. Be formatted according to Saudi Electronic University and APA writing guidelines. Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of six scholarly articles. Two of these sources may be from the class readings, textbook, or lectures, but four must be external. Utilize headings to organize the content in your work.


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Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 Factors Influencing Consumer Choice of Private Dental Care Provider in Saudi Arabia Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf. Ahmad Associate Professor of Health Marketing, Faculty of Economics and Administration King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia E-mail: amahmed1@kau.edu.sa; aladdin.a.h@hotmail.com Received: July 26, 2016 doi:10.5296/jmr.v8i4.10004 Accepted: Sep 23, 2016 Published: October 1, 2016 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v8i4.10004 Abstract This research is intended to explore the factors influencing consumer choice of private dental care providers in Saudi Arabia. The current research is descriptive analytical. A purposive sampling technique was employed to recruit 220 consumers who visited a private dental care provider. This research showed that factors influencing consumers' choice (information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes, and demographics) had a positive effect on consumers' choices of the private dental providers on the one hand. On the other hand, the demographic factor had no effect on brand. The paper contributes to previous research by adding to existing knowledge regarding the factors influencing consumer choice of private dental care provider in Saudi Arabia. The paper makes key recommendations towards studying the factors influencing the consumers' choice. Keywords: information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes, consumer choice, dental practice, Saudi Arabia 68 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 1. Introduction and Research Questions A potential healthcare consumer, when looking for and deciding on a healthcare services provider, considers his or her problems or questions (Kotler, 2001). This problem recognition is often referred to as self-perceived need, self-assessed need, or subjective need, because it refers to the need that the patient identifies (Lundegren, 2012). Since perceived need or problem recognition initiates a potential healthcare consumer to actively pursue information to choose a healthcare provider (Kotler, 2001) and the consumer behavior of choosing a healthcare provider may differ according to perceived need, healthcare marketers and healthcare providers who seek to promote their practice might wonder how the process by which potential healthcare consumers’ choose their provider differs according to their self-perceived need. Perceived need varies from other needs such as normative need, expressed need, and relative need. Normative need compares health indicators to asocial norm or predetermined desired standards. Expressed need, or utilization, is worked out according to the consumer numbers who actually used medical services. Relative need relates to the equity of services (Kuthy and Siegal, 2003). Furthermore, perceived need can be categorized as the need for both comprehensive and limited care. Perceived needs can be related to provider identified need and provider type: general practitioner vs. specialist. Patients whose perceived need is comprehensive care would be more likely to seek care from a general practitioner. These patients include regular check-up patients who are interested in their general health and wellbeing. Patients whose perceived need is limited care often identify their need according to professional opinion, and would be more likely to obtain specialist care. These limited care patients include emergency patients, because they perceive their need as being limited to the particular emergency situation. Choosing a dentist involves risk or uncertainty to dental consumers. According to Kotler, the amount of money involved in the decision, uncertainties, and the level of consumer confidence over the decision can contribute to the level of risk associated with the consumer decision (Kotler 2001, 98). When a dental consumer chooses a dentist, he or she deals with the uncertainty of the outcome or consequences of the choice. The dentist chosen may charge too much, give pain during the dental procedures, or not meet the consumer's expectations. All of these consequences can be experienced only after the decision. In a higher-risk decision-making such as dentist selection, consumers tend to rely more on informal information sources such as word-of-mouth (WOM) (Mangold et al., 1990, 79-84). Limited care patients and comprehensive care patients may use different processes for choosing a dentist. However, there are strict limits to the amount of knowledge available about this issue. Given the current trend of decision-making upon the participants of this study, this work will try to investigate the determinants of the utilization of dental services among Saudi Arabian citizens in Jeddah City. The research problem investigated the main factors influencing consumers’ decision-making concerning private dental providers in Jeddah city. This research answered the following questions: 69 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 Q1 What are the main factors influencing consumers’ decision-making concerning private dental providers in Jeddah city? Q2 Does the information source (personal information, commercial information sources, and public information sources) influence consumers’ decision-making concerning private dental providers in Jeddah city? Q3 Do the dentist attributes influence consumers’ decision-making concerning private dental providers in Jeddah city? Q4 Do the dental practice attributes influence consumers’ decision-making concerning private dental providers in Jeddah city? Q5 Do the demographic characteristics of consumers influence their decision-making concerning private dental providers in Jeddah city? The current paper examined factors influencing consumers’ decision-making concerning dentist practices and how patients differ in terms of consumer behavior in selecting a provider; exploring reasons for the choice of a particular healthcare provider in a dental practice in order for healthcare providers and marketers to better promote their practice depending on their patient type. 2. Objectives of the Research The research objectives are: 1- Identify the main factors which influence the decision-making in selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah city. 2- Investigate the effect of certain factors (information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes, and demographics) on the decision-making concerning Saudi private dental providers in Jeddah city. 3. The Research Rationale This research is designed to increase the body of knowledge by investigating the factors influencing consumers’ decision-making concerning the selection of dental practices in the healthcare industry in Saudi Arabia. This research will contribute to the service marketing discipline in finding out the role of these factors (information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes, and demographics) in delivering a better dental health service within the service sector. This study will attempt to contribute to the marketing, knowledge and health services marketing in particular by looking at the impact of information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes and demographic dimensions and patient decision-making. This research will deal with a neglected area in KSA, which is the marketing of health services. It is considered as new research in the diffusion of marketing in the area of services to gain an understanding of the dental relevance effect and contribution of these factors to Saudi private sector dental practices; such contributions will be beneficial both academically and professionally. 70 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 4. Research Methodology Developing an effective research design is one of the fundamental parts of any research project. The research design determines: research methodology, the primary data collection techniques (developing and designing the research questionnaire), research data analysis and interpretation methods, which all affect the way the research aim and objectives are realized. This study consists of descriptive analytical research of the relationships that may exist between dependent and independent variables as per the research hypotheses. The research design constructed here is based on the hypotheses formulated. These hypotheses were formulated inductively using the researcher’s observation and from the literature. The descriptive part describes and identifies the research factors, which constitute factors influencing patient’s decision-making components in Saudi dental private sector hospitals. In the analytical part, the research model is being tested through examining the relationship between the factors influencing patient’s decision-making components in Saudi dental private sector hospitals in order to explore how far patients perceive these factors when making their decisions regarding the purchasing of these services. 4.1 The Research Population The research population consists of all the consumers who visit private dental divisions at the big private hospitals of more than 150-bed capacity in the city of Jeddah/KSA. The population in this research is defined as all the dental divisions in the private hospitals of Jeddah city. The numbers of dental clinics included in this research as a research population were four hospitals (represented in their dental division). The research population consisted of all the consumers who have visited any private dental clinic in these hospitals in 2015. The average monthly visit was 8112. Therefore, all the dental consumers who were called and invited to participate in the research survey were 360, and the respondents amounted to 220, which is my study sample. 4.2 Primary Data Collection Methods In this research, a quantitative approach is used for the purpose of gaining a comprehensive picture of the issues in question. The research used questionnaire techniques to collect the primary data. The research questionnaire was designed based on previous empirical literature. The current research used the questionnaire as the primary data collection method. The components of factors (cultural, social, personal, psychological and information availability) were measured on a 5-point Likert-scale ranging from very important (5) to not important at all (1). The type of questions used in constructing the questionnaire were the ranking type. A ranking question asks the respondent to place items in a rank order so as to determine their significance to the respondent. The researcher in this study tried to ensure that the questionnaire’s length would not limit respondents from fully filling out the questionnaire. The approximate timescale for completing the questionnaire was between 15 and 20 minutes, which was ensured in this study. 71 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 After the questionnaire was constructed, the next step was to include an introductory paragraph to explain to respondents the survey’s purpose and to encourage a high response rate. The cover letter used in this research attempts to motivate the respondents to answer the questions very seriously. The letter explained the purpose of the research, clarified its importance and the significance of filling out the questionnaire, and assured the respondents that strict privacy would be observed with regard to information provided. In general, the cover letter for a drop and collect questionnaire needs to be more detailed than the introductory statement in a personal interview. 4.3 Research Hypotheses 1. There is a significant relationship between personal information sources of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. 2. There is a significant relationship between public information sources of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. 3. There is a significant relationship between commercial information sources of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. 4. There is a significant relationship between dentist attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. 5. There is a significant relationship between dental practice attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. 6. There is a significant relationship between variable demographic characteristics of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. 5. Results and Discussion 5.1 Results 72 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 Table 1. Frequency and Percentage for Demographic Information Variable Age Gender Nationality Educational level Do you have a dental insurance Income level Frequency Percentage Under 20 20 9.1 20-30 96 43.6 31-40 60 27.3 41-50 40 18.2 Over 50 4 1.8 Total 220 100.0 Male 148 67.3 Female 72 32.7 Total 220 100.0 Saudi 160 72.7 Non-Saudi 60 27.3 Total 220 100.0 Secondary school or less 64 29.1 Bachelor’s degree 112 50.9 Masters degree 28 12.7 Doctoral degree 16 7.3 Total 220 100.0 Yes 68 30.9 No 152 69.1 Total 220 100.0 2000SR-5000SR 76 37.5 Above 5000-10,000SR 60 27.3 Above 10,000-20,000SR 60 27.3 Above 20,000SR 24 10.9 Total 220 100.0 Table 1 shows that: 1. The highest percentage for “Age” reached (43.6%) for age category 20-30years, but the lowest percentage reached (1.8%) for age over 50. 2. The highest percentage for “Gender” reached (67.6%) for male, but the lowest percentage reached (32.7%) for female. 73 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 3. The highest percentage for “Nationality” reached (72.7%) for Saudi, but the lowest percentage reached (27.3%) for non-Saudi. 4. The highest percentage for “Educational Level” reached (50.9%) for Bachelor’s degree, but the lowest percentage reached (7.3%) for Doctoral degree. 5. The highest percentage for “Do you have dental insurance” reached (69.1%) for no, but the lowest percentage reached (30.9%) for yes. 6. The highest percentage for “Income Level” reached (34.5%) for 2000SR-5000SR, but the lowest percentage reached (10.9%) for above 20,000SR. 5.2 Hypotheses Test There is a significant relationship between information sources of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. To verify the hypothesis, a multiple regression equation has been applied to study the impact of the sources of information to make a decision regarding choosing a dental provider. Table 2. Result of regression for relationship between information sources of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting Independent variables Beta T Sig. R Personal Information 0.19 2.43 0.02 Commercial Information Sources 0.16 1.98 0.05 0.28 Public Information Sources 0.15 1.61 0.11 R Square 0.08 F Sig. 6.32 0.00 Table 2 shows there is a significant positive relationship between information sources of patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah, where the values of (R, R Square, F) reached (0.28, 0.08, 6.32), Sig.(0.00). Therefore, the general hypothesis is accepted. 1. There is a significant relationship between dentist attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. To verify the hypothesis,a multiple regression equation has been applied to study the impact of the dentist attributes to make decisions while choosing your dental provider. 74 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 Table 3. Result of regression for relationship between dentist attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah Independent variables T R Dentist attributes 1.8 0.12 R Square 0.01 F Sig. 3.26 0.05 Table 3 shows there is a significant positive relationship between dentist attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah, where the values of (R, R Square, F) reached (0.12, 0.01, 3.26), Sig.(0.05). Therefore, the general hypothesis 2 is accepted. 3- There is a significant relationship between dental practice attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah. To verify the hypothesis,a multiple regression equation has been applied to study the impact of the dental practice attributes to make decisions while choosing a dental provider. Table 4. Result of regression for relationship between dental practice attributes of the patients and decision-making regarding selecting a private dental provider in Jeddah Independent variables T R R Square F Dental practice attributes 3.00 0.20 0.04 Sig. 9.00 0.00 Table 4 shows there is a significant positive relationship between dental practice attributes of the patients and decision making-regarding selecting private dental provider in Jeddah, where the values of (R, R Square, F) reached (0.20, 0.04, 9.00), Sig.(0.00). Therefore general hypothesis 3 is accepted. This part includes results of the study depending on the impact of personal variables on the answers of the respondents: Gender:In order to study domains due to gender variable, T-test was applied;Table (4-10) shows that. Table 5. Result of T-test on domains (information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes) due to gender Domain Information Sources Dentist Attributes Dental Practice Attributes Male Female Male Female Male Female 75 Mean 4.26 4.18 3.95 3.75 3.90 3.70 S.D 0.55 0.91 0.79 0.98 0.70 0.96 T 0.82 Sig. 0.41 1.63 0.11 1.60 0.09 www.macrothink.org/jmr Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X 2016, Vol. 8, No. 4 Table 5 shows the T. values for the information sources, dentist attributes, dental practice attributes, according to gender (0.82, 1.63, 1.63), by Sig. (0.41, 0.11, 0.09). This indicates there are no significant differences due to gender. 5.1 Research discussion Two hundred and twenty patients from different private hospitals in Jeddah city were included in this research. The research sample consists of males and females, with the number of males being approximately double the number of females. The research sample also used different demographic data, e.g. nationality, income level, and education level. Analysis shows that the information sources influence the purchasing decision-making of the target market. The information sources in this research consist of three types, namely personal, commercial, and public. These results are consistent with Coe’s (2013) study, where he found that the comprehensive care patients are more likely to use information sources. The research also concurs with Al-hussyeen’s (2009) study, where she found that personal information plays a role in attracting new patients. Also Anastasios et al. (2001) found that patients are satisfied regarding information in oral health. The dentist attributes in this study were significant, and the researcher found that there is a significant relationship between dentist attributes and patient decision-making. The results are supported by Coe (2013) on dentist attributes. Al-hussyeen (2009) found that satisfaction with dental care was found to be significant, with high quality of dental care. Also, Anastasios(2001) found that empathy and assurance were placed at the top of the patients’ priorities. Dental practice attributes have a significant influence on consumer ...
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School: UC Berkeley

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Running head: MARKETING ARTICLE REVIEW

Marketing Article Review
Student’s Name
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MARKETING ARTICLE REVIEW
Marketing Article Review
Introduction
Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf. Ahmad is an accomplished author with various
publications under his name. One of the journals that he writes for is the journal of management
research that is run by Macrothink Institute. Apart from being an author, he is an associate
professor of health marketing at King Abdul-Aziz University in Jeddah. In 2016, he authored the
article after conducting successful research on Factors influencing consumer choice of a private
dental care provider in Saudi Arabia which he uses to analyze the factors that determine which
dental facility consumers in Saudi Arabia visit. The research study adopted sampling as the
method to collect data from the target population. The study sample a total of 220 consumers that
would pay visits to the healthcare facility. The discussion below gives an in-depth critical
analysis of the report to determine what factors influence the choice of private dental care as
chosen by dental services consumers Saudi Arabia.
Qualities consumers are looking for in dental facility Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Dentist attributes are one of the qualities that consumers are looking for in the dental
facility in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Dentists attributes refer to the personal characteristics of the
dentist that make it possible for them to deliver quality services to the patients. An example of
dentist attributes is the quality of care services dentist provide. The quality of services the dentist
offers is determined by their personality (Ahmad, 2016). For example, the Dentists in Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia are profoundly empathizing with their patients. That way, the patients love them
for their high level of understanding. The dentists give their patients their assurance that the
medical process will go well as it will be executed professionally. That way, the dental patients
overcome their worries which helps to prevent complications in the process.

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MARKETING ARTICLE REVIEW
Dental practice attributes represent the second quality that dental services consumers look
for in the dental facility in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Some of these attributes include the
convenience of the location of the dental facility. The facility is located in a place that can easily
be accessed by the targeted consumers which allow them to visit the facility in large numbers
(Ahmad, 2016). A second attribute of the dental practice attribute that customers look for in the
dental facility in Jeddah is modernity. The dental facility has adopted the latest modern trends in
the dentistry to facilitate its ability to meet the dental needs of the patients. That way, consumers
visit the facility in search of its modernity aspect. The last element of dental practice attribute
that patients look for in Jeddah dental facility is the high level of expertise of the dentists
working in the facility. High level of experience allows consumers to trust them to handle their
issues efficiently which brings healing to them (Ahmad, 2016). Therefore, these are the quality
elements that consumers are looking for in the dental facility in Jeddah.
Evaluation of data presented and valuable information not present
The data presented in the study represents only a small percentage of the consumers that
visit the dental facility in Jeddah in every month. In the report, it has been identified that an
average of 8112 people visits the dental facility every month. Th...

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