2000 word Essay - European Commission and European Parliament

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timer Asked: Oct 16th, 2018
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I require two essays, one on the European Commission and one on European Parliament **** Academic referencing and citations ARE NOT required. Approx 2000 words combined (1000 words each). This task would suit someone with a very sound knowledge and passion for the European Parliament and European Commission. NOTE - it does require pictures, graphs, anything to support the detail. Require the history, role of, and current standing/situation of each (so who's who, when they started, their growth, functions, what they do/who they are now). I have found some details on the Commission, attached below (part one attached below, part 2 was too large to upload (21mb) but can be found and downloaded as a PDF at https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-deta...

I require this for a European study tour of which we will be visiting these places among a dozen others. This will need to go in the tour book that is being collated for all students to have with them on the tour. It is designed to be an insightful introductory piece of writing so the other students understand a brief history and current knowledge of the place we will be visiting for a meeting with both the Parliament and Commission members. It is a marked piece of assessment (25% weighting). Include any pictures applicable - i.e. members of board / parliament. Anything that you would see in a kind of introductory tour guide. If anything is known about how either of these may or may not interact with Australia, would also be highly regarded.

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THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 1973–86 HISTORY AND MEMORIES OF AN INSTITUTION KA-01-14-027-EN-Y ISBN 978-92-79-35312-3 doi:10.2792/35424 Price in Luxembourg: EUR 65 KA-01-13-684-EN-C ‘The Commission had to have the courage to take decisions. Only if it had the will and cap­ acity to make all the decisions which were asked of it … could it act as the driving force behind the Community’s progress. If the Commission did not play this part, there was no one else who could.’ Walter Hallstein, Address by the President of the Commission of the European Economic Community to the European Parliament, 21 June 1967. ‘ … and then there is what on a previous occasion I called “the material logic” of the Community: the compulsion stemming from what has already been achieved to carry on and build upon the existing foundations.’ The 15-year period — from 1958 to 1972 — covered by this work corresponds to the beginnings of the European Commission, whose first task was to come up with practical means of achieving the treaties’ main objective — the establishment of a common ­market — taking as its point of departure the general interest of the entire Community of six Member States. Forged by men and women with often very different backgrounds, the history of the first few years is one of crises but also of achievements which shaped the major milestones of European integration in almost every area. Imagination, long-term vision, enthusiasm and tenacity seem to have been the great virtues of the people working for the young European institution at that time. By piecing together over a number of years the recollections of former Commission officials, a consortium of university teachers under the direction of Professor Michel Dumoulin of the Catholic University of Louvain at Louvain-la-Neuve has at last made it possible to tell the story of what happened during those early days. This is a new edition of the book originally published in 2007. A similar project has since resulted in the publication of a book about the history of the Commission between 1973 and 1986. Ibid. ‘There is indeed one thing that our experience has taught us: that effective integration requires an autonomous, independent European organisation … ’ Ibid. THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 Henri-Frédéric Amiel, quoted by Jean Monnet, Memoirs, page 393. The ink on the Treaties of Rome of 25 March 1957 was hardly dry when the Commission set itself up for business on 1 January 1958 in Brussels with an agenda covering all ­areas of the economic life of the six founder countries: Germany, France, Italy and the three ­Benelux countries of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. HISTORY AND MEMORIES OF AN INSTITUTION ‘Only institutions grow wiser: they accumulate collective experience ... ’ Undertaken at the request of the European Commission, this study is both a historical rec­ ord and a commemoration. A team of histor­ ians from the six founder Member States first worked through a mountain of archive material, chiefly of Community origin, and gathered together the recollections of 120 former officials, all of whom were actively engaged in what one of them has described as a process of ‘inventing things as they went along’. Only then did they embark on the difficult exercise of writing a ­living history of the institution — its aspirations, its successes and its failures — as seen from the inside. THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 HISTORY AND MEMORIES OF AN INSTITUTION doi:10.2792/28026 Price in Luxembourg: EUR 39 Cover photo: History is shaped by individuals. While one generation is at work, another is born and grows up. The members of the Commission of the European Communities seated around a table in 1964 embodied a new kind of institution. The children seated around another table in a nursery class at the European School in Brussels were the movers and shakers of the future. Both groups illustrate the never-ending interplay between the past and the present, as well as the subtle relationship that exists between history in the making and the memories forged by it. European Commission Multimedia Library, P-007759-00-2 and P-009190-00-8, © European Communities KA-01-13-684-EN-C ‘The Commission had to have the courage to take decisions. Only if it had the will and cap­ acity to make all the decisions which were asked of it … could it act as the driving force behind the Community’s progress. If the Commission did not play this part, there was no one else who could.’ Walter Hallstein, Address by the President of the Commission of the European Economic Community to the European Parliament, 21 June 1967. ‘ … and then there is what on a previous occasion I called “the material logic” of the Community: the compulsion stemming from what has already been achieved to carry on and build upon the existing foundations.’ The 15-year period — from 1958 to 1972 — covered by this work corresponds to the beginnings of the European Commission, whose first task was to come up with practical means of achieving the treaties’ main objective — the establishment of a common ­market — taking as its point of departure the general interest of the entire Community of six Member States. Forged by men and women with often very different backgrounds, the history of the first few years is one of crises but also of achievements which shaped the major milestones of European integration in almost every area. Imagination, long-term vision, enthusiasm and tenacity seem to have been the great virtues of the people working for the young European institution at that time. By piecing together over a number of years the recollections of former Commission officials, a consortium of university teachers under the direction of Professor Michel Dumoulin of the Catholic University of Louvain at Louvain-la-Neuve has at last made it possible to tell the story of what happened during those early days. This is a new edition of the book originally published in 2007. A similar project has since resulted in the publication of a book about the history of the Commission between 1973 and 1986. Ibid. ‘There is indeed one thing that our experience has taught us: that effective integration requires an autonomous, independent European organisation … ’ Ibid. THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 Henri-Frédéric Amiel, quoted by Jean Monnet, Memoirs, page 393. The ink on the Treaties of Rome of 25 March 1957 was hardly dry when the Commission set itself up for business on 1 January 1958 in Brussels with an agenda covering all ­areas of the economic life of the six founder countries: Germany, France, Italy and the three ­Benelux countries of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. HISTORY AND MEMORIES OF AN INSTITUTION ‘Only institutions grow wiser: they accumulate collective experience ... ’ Undertaken at the request of the European Commission, this study is both a historical rec­ ord and a commemoration. A team of histor­ ians from the six founder Member States first worked through a mountain of archive material, chiefly of Community origin, and gathered together the recollections of 120 former officials, all of whom were actively engaged in what one of them has described as a process of ‘inventing things as they went along’. Only then did they embark on the difficult exercise of writing a ­living history of the institution — its aspirations, its successes and its failures — as seen from the inside. THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 HISTORY AND MEMORIES OF AN INSTITUTION doi:10.2792/28026 Price in Luxembourg: EUR 39 Cover photo: History is shaped by individuals. While one generation is at work, another is born and grows up. The members of the Commission of the European Communities seated around a table in 1964 embodied a new kind of institution. The children seated around another table in a nursery class at the European School in Brussels were the movers and shakers of the future. Both groups illustrate the never-ending interplay between the past and the present, as well as the subtle relationship that exists between history in the making and the memories forged by it. European Commission Multimedia Library, P-007759-00-2 and P-009190-00-8, © European Communities THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 History and Memories of an Institution Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union. Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) The information given is free, as are most calls (though some operators, phone boxes or hotels may charge you). Translated from the French edition. The content of this book and the views expressed in it are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission. More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014 The European Commission 1958–72 — History and Memories of an Institution (revised edition) Hardback Paperback PDF EPUB ISBN 978-92-79-33755-0 ISBN 978-92-79-33770-3 ISBN 978-92-79-35807-4 ISBN 978-92-79-36343-6 doi:10.2792/28026 doi:10.2792/3228 doi:10.2792/35811 doi:10.2792/36251 Also available: The European Commission 1973–86 — History and Memories of an Institution Hardback Paperback PDF EPUB ISBN 978-92-79-28964-4 ISBN 978-92-79-29023-7 ISBN 978-92-79-32957-9 ISBN 978-92-79-36346-7 doi:10.2792/30549 doi:10.2792/31368 doi:10.2792/19118 doi:10.2792/36617 The European Commission 1958–72 and 1973–86 — History and Memories of an Institution Slip cased set comprising the above two works ISBN 978-92-79-35312-3 doi:10.2792/35424 These publications can be purchased via EU Bookshop (http://bookshop.europa.eu/history). © European Union, 2014 Reproduction of the text of this publication is authorised subject to the acknowledgement of the source. Reuse or reproduction of the pictures or illustrations included here in is expressly forbidden without the prior authorisation of the respective rights-holders. Printed in Belgium Printed on totally chlorine-free bleached paper (TCF) THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1958–72 HISTORY AND MEMORIES OF AN INSTITUTION Editor: Michel Dumoulin in collaboration with Marie-Thérèse Bitsch, Gérard Bossuat, Éric Bussière, Julie Cailleau, Yves Conrad, Anaïs Legendre, Matthieu Lethé, Wilfried Loth, Jan van der Harst, Arthe Van Laer and Antonio Varsori Preface by J. M. Barroso, President of the European Commission Work carried out on the initiative of the European Commission with the participation of and testimony by former European officials European Commission The successful completion of this project would not have been possible without the great help given by three people in particular, Ms Jacqueline Lastenouse, Ms Natacha Wittorski and Mr Olivier Bailly, to whom most sincere thanks are due. Michel Dumoulin 5 Preface José Manuel Durão Barroso President of the European Commission Fifty years ago, the six Member States of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) decided to extend their integration into new areas. Buoyed by the new momentum imparted at Messina, they signed on 25 March 1957 in Rome the Treaties establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom/EAEC). Building on the still recent foundations of the ECSC, they raised higher the fragile edifice of European integration and thus gave fresh impetus to a more closely knit, more open and more democratic Europe. Bolstered by their political con­viction and their faith in a peaceful future, the six founding States decided there and then to conclude the new Treaties for an unlimited period. In so doing, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg gave birth to the institution over which I have the honour to preside today. For it was in 1957 that the Member States decided to set up the Commission of the European Economic Community, which in 1967 became, by absorbing the ECSC High Authority and the Euratom Commission, the Commission of the European Communities, nowadays commonly known as the European Commission. The work you are now holding traces, 50 years on, the first steps taken by that new institution, the only one of its kind at a time marked by the Cold War, the nationalism of the Great Powers, the authoritarian regimes in southern Europe, including in my own country, and the wars of independence in Asia and Africa. At a time when a new world order was taking hold for the dur­ation, a group of men and women, defying history, embarked resolutely on an unheard-of human adventure the outcome of which looked uncertain 6 The European Commission 1958–72 — History and Memories of an Institution to most of their contemporaries. This work and my message today show that they were, in actual fact, the founding fathers of a historic movement of continental scope which — half a century later — has made possible the building of a peaceful union of democratic States. I hope that this work will do them the justice they deserve and that it will bring this extraordinary human adventure to the notice of a wider audience. Many books and studies have already been written about the history of the European Commission. Without a doubt, this one will become a work of reference. It shows the institution in a new light, thanks to the testimony of people who were there at the time and who, in the late 1950s, chose against all the odds to work — day in, day out — for European integration. The idea behind this work, which was conceived in 2002 as the brainchild of David O’Sullivan, the Commission’s Secretary-General at the time, is to piece together the collective memory of the institution. The Commission’s first officials, who joined between 1957 and 1970, are now retired and many of them are no longer with us. With their passing, it is a part of the Commission’s history that is being lost little by little, depriving us of precious recollections. And so, the enlightened decision to record the reminiscences of these former officials was made in 2002 with a view to writing a history of the institution’s beginnings. The task was entrusted to a group of leading European historians, whom I wish to thank here for their valuable collaboration and rigorous endeavours. For almost three years, these Belgian, German, Italian, Dutch and French historians, under the coordination of Professor Michel Dumoulin of the Université catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium), interviewed more than 120 witnesses who had contributed, slowly but surely, to the construction of the European Commission between 1958 and 1972, the eve of the first enlargement. These interviews are now accessible to researchers at the Historical Archives of the European University Institute at Florence, for it is our duty to safeguard and pass on these memories. At a time when the 50th anniversary of the Rome Treaties is being celebrated, it is highly enlightening to go back in one’s thoughts, through this work, to the early days of the adventure that is the Commission. At the risk of repeating myself, this book gives a clearer picture of just how uncertain the new institution’s future was. Everything had to be done from scratch. The scale of its twofold mission — to bring about a ‘common market’ with a political perspective in mind and to act henceforth solely in the ‘Community interest’ — led people at the time to invent a new, hitherto unknown, profile. The conquest of an identity and of a legitimacy would have been impossible without the fertile imagination of the first members of the College of Commissioners and without the fierce determination of a great many among the pioneering officials, fired as they were with a new ideal, namely that — as alive today as it was then — of the general Community interest. Preface Readers will find in these pages a new angle on my predecessors at the helm of the Commission, on those early officials and on a meeting of personalities shaped by their era but, at the same time, resolutely forward-looking. They will also find an analysis of and a series of anecdotes about the formulation of Community policies, some of which were barely outlined in the treaties. For my part, I have learned with interest — and genuine curiosity — about the ups and downs of the first Colleges of Commissioners and the institutional battles they waged to assert the authority of the new institution. From the long nights of negotiations in the Council of Ministers through to the ‘crisis of the empty chair’, there emerges the true face of a body in search of itself, willing to make concessions but uncompromising when it came to defining the very essence of its powers and the interests of Europe. This historical retrospect is for me a wonderful pilgrimage and a particularly enriching source of reflection. It is fascinating to discover, thanks to the reminiscences and the historians’ work, that the functioning of the European Commission is still informed by the same mechanisms and the same difficulties. My predecessors thus thought from the very outset about setting up groups of Commissioners so as to improve the working of the collegiality principle. They also came up against the need for transparency following a leak to the press after the very first Commission meeting. They also perceived that the work of the Commission and of its departments would need to be coordinated through an executive Secretary at the head of a high-quality administration. I should like to conclude by sharing with you, the modern reader, a thought drawn from my personal experience. My first contact with the European Commission dates from 1978, when — as a student in Lisbon — I came with several teachers to seek support for an association engaged in European studies. For me, the European Commission, installed in the modern Berlaymont building, in itself symbolised European integration. And even more for us who had known Portugal before the advent of democracy, the institution represented hope, a gateway to the future, to freedom. I am pleased to say that the Commission is still today the living symbol — the very personification — of the European Union, not just in every Member State, including those which have recently joined, but also across the world, in Russia, China, Africa and beyond. The lasting nature of this identification of the Commission with the European project after 50 years is due in large part to the fact that the Commission is seen as the archetypal Community institution, combining as it does the political answerability of an executive, administrative expertise and unwavering defence of the European project. Through its position at the interface with 7 8 The European Commission 1958–72 — History and Memories of an Institution every Member State (whether original or new, affluent or less developed, small or large), the Commission is suited to finding compromises between all of them, being naturally disposed to combine technical expertise with political skills and being organised in such a way as to defend the general interest in strengthening the European project. The almost carnal link between the Commission and European integration is also due to the men and women who work there. My — short but intense — experience at the head of the Commission has taught me to appreciate these officials’ devotion and ability. Their contribution on a day‑to‑day basis is essential to maintaining and further developing the Commission’s indispensable role within an enlarged Union. The diversity in the cultural and ideological backgrounds of Commissioners and their growing number have not affected the Commission’s coherence and decision-makin ...
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Tutor Answer

Jkennish
School: Rice University

I appreciate working with you! In case of any further edits, please do not hesitate to let me know! See you soon! Remember me as always! Would love and appreciate to work with you in the future! Goodbye

Running Head: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

1

European Commission
Student’s Name
Institution of Affiliation
Course
Date

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

2

European Commission
The European Commission is the executive arm of the European Union which is
apolitical in its functional roles and responsibilities. It is the body charged with the
responsibility of drawing the proposed legislation for the European Union and also implements
all the decision made by the council of European Union and the European Parliament (European
Commission, 2018). The commissioners swear an oath of allegiance to the European Court of
Justice found in Luxembourg City. The first European Commission came into place in the year
1952 as the European Coal and Steel Community with its head office in Luxembourg. Jacques
Delors, Jacques Santers, Romano Prodi, and Jose Manuel Barroso were among the first
presidents of the European Commission.

Figure 1; Figure illustrating the structure of European Commission
Functions of the European Commission
The European Commission acts as an independent authority distinct from other
governments. It develops medium-term strategies, arbitrates on legislative matters, and drafts
legislation. It implements all the legislation passed by the European Parliament. The European
Commission is charged with the responsibility of proposing new laws that govern the activities

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

3

and operations of the European Union (European Commission, 2018). It is the sole institution
charged with the responsibility of adapting the decisions of the council and parliament of the
European Union by looks forward to protecting the specific interests of the citizens of the
European Union member states (Prodi, 2017). They deal with international issues which cannot
be solved at a national level by engaging members of the public and experts in consultative
forums to arrive at the most applicable decisions.
The second responsibility of the European Commission is to manage the policies of the
European Union and allocate funding to all the proposed projects and mission. The commission
sets spending priorities for each of the European Union activities in collaboration with the
European Parliament and Council (European Commission, 2018). Consequently, they draw up
the annual budget for the European Union which is forwarded to the European Council and
European Parliament for approval (Ludlow, 2018). Upon approval of expenditure, the European
Commission will supervise the manner in which money would be spent in each of the projects
and activities specified by the Commission with the help of Court of Auditors who scrutinize the
financial aspects of the expenditure.

Figure 2: Figure illustrating the various departments and division of the European Commission

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

4

The European Commission is also charged with the responsibility of enforcing the laws
and policies of the European Union. They work in collaboration with the Court of Justice to
ensure that the European Union policies and laws are applied fairly and fully to all member
states. The European Commission also represents the European Union in international forums,
events, and functions to give the stand and view of the union (European Commission, 2018).
They are the negotiating body who give the perspectives and interests of the European Union ...

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Anonymous
Top quality work from this guy! I'll be back!

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