Based on the provided documentation, answer the following questions in a minimum of 500 words:

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Question Description

1. Share the problem statement for the research

2. Share the purpose statement for the research

3. Share the significance of the study

4. What are the independent and dependent variables?

5. Provide the research questions (at least two)

6. Convert the research questions to hypotheses (at least one null hypothesis and one alternative hypothesis; the hypothesis is a statement and not a question)

7. Provide a list of five scholarly articles

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Running head: BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues Name Institution Date 1 BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM 2 Topic: Policy Issues Associated with Vulnerabilities Exploited by Botnet in their Use in Cyber Crimes Introduction Over the years, the evolution of technology has significantly contributed to growth and development across the world. However, its advancement has also increased the vulnerabilities, and threats posed by the cyber-criminals and cyber-terrorists to various systems. The increasing use of technological devices among citizens increases the number of potential targets for cybercriminals. Typically, cyber threats occur in different forms targeting specific features in the systems and its users (Hutchings, Smith, & James, 2015). The outcome of most attacks in the past resulted in data theft. However, the current activities of cybercriminals tend to have widespread effects on the general public, including financial crime, fraud, and the possibility of causing war. In the United States, civilian contractors have the responsibility of providing technology services and products to the military. These products are usually in the form of computer software, communication systems, and consulting and implementation services. In this case, a successful attack on civilian’s technology can effectively shut down or impact on the entire safety of the United States military systems (Jardine, 2016). The integration of using private contractors blurs the boundary between military and civilian networks, making them vulnerable to attacks. The nation can consider such occurrences as a declaration of cyber-warfare by an adversary (Hutchings, Smith, & James, 2015). It is worth noting that some States may hire criminal organizations that offer cybercrime and cyber-attacks services. The growing threat to the national safety as well as the economy of the country makes it critical to conduct a study on the cyber-security policies to identify potential vulnerabilities that the adversaries may exploit to attack a technological system. Background and Literature Review BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM Cyber-attacks aimed at the United States tend to have a significant impact on the economy and the national security of the country. According to Jardine (2016), in 2016, internet sales contributed approximately $4.2 trillion to the economy of the United States. However, this amount could have been more if individuals and institution were able to prevent some criminal activities that were redirecting funds through illegitimate channels to other functions (Jardine, 2016). According to Hutchings, Smith, and James (2015), cybercrime refers to unauthorized access to information or devices in a computer system or network. One of the commonly used tools for gaining such access is Botnet. Generally, Botnets refer to programs created when a device becomes infected with malware without the knowledge of the owner (Hutchings, Smith, & James, 2015). These programs can then connect numerous computers on a network and proceed to take control of the entire system. The versatility of these Botnets made them become a favorite tool for cybercriminals. Additionally, other individuals tend to prefer Botnets in executing their attacks because they can effectively disrupt functions in a specific computer system better than other malicious programs. The Botnets can initiate Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS) attacks on a particular target and is also useful in conducting cyber-espionage activities (Bertino & Islam, 2017). All these activities are relatively easy for an attacker to perform once they obtain the programs from a Botmaster. A person can rent the entire architecture or purchase a structure to compose the malicious systems to perform a specific function. As a result, an individual does not need to possess technical skills to initiate this program in the cyberspace (Jardine, 2016). Therefore, Botnet designers can develop a structure for terrorist or criminal organization that they can use to attack civilian systems linked to the United States economy or military. 3 BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM 4 The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) focuses on sharing information on issues related to cyber threats. The act fails to develop innovative measures that are in line with the current level of technology advancement that system users can implement to prevent cyber-attacks (Heidenreich, 2015). It is these cases of negligence in the frameworks that cyber-criminals tend to exploit when seeking to launch an attack. A cyber-attack can render all the computers in a system inoperable as it was the case in 2014 when North Korea conducted a cyber-attack on Sony forcing the company to go offline (Sullivan, 2015). If such an attack occurs on a system linked to the military, then the entire security equipment of the company might be unavailable, thus exposing the country to warfare or even invasion. In other instances, an attacker might seize control of the nation’s arsenal and use it to launch an attack to a different country to initiate war (Libicki, 2017). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the policy on cybercrime to establish issues associated with the present vulnerabilities. Thesis Statement Cyber-threats are continually evolving and becoming complicated as the technology continues to advance. As a result, it is usually challenging for law enforcement agencies to formulate exhaustive lists of threats and potential mitigation strategies. Hence, policies formulated to deal with issues related to cybercrimes always tend to fall short of the expectation as they are unable to adapt to the changing nature of the risks. This study aims to evaluate issues in the United States cyber policies that create vulnerabilities exploited by cybercriminals using Botnets. Research Objectives 1. To identify the issues available in the United States cyber policies. 2. To investigate the vulnerabilities created by issues in the cyber policies. 3. To examine how cybercriminals use Botnets to conduct an attack. BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM 5 Research Questions 1. What are the issues that the United States Cyber Security policy fails to address? 2. What are the vulnerabilities in the Cybersecurity system resulting from issues in policies? 3. How do cybercriminals exploit these vulnerabilities using Botnets to conduct an attack? Methodology This study will apply the interpretivist paradigm. According to Thanh and Thanh (2015), researchers use the interpretivist paradigm when seeking to understand the perceptions, experience, and knowledge of the population to uncover the reality of an issue. From this perspective, the research will apply a qualitative approach to the study. The application of this approach will enable the scholar to obtain descriptive data that can provide a narrative explanation as findings to the research questions (Thanh & Thanh, 2015). The quantitative methodology is not applicable to this study because this study aims to identify issues in policy and related them to vulnerabilities exposing systems to cyber threats. The study will be able to obtain accurate and relevant data through secondary research and structured interviews administered to a selected sample population. Preliminary Data and Analysis Interpretation of the collected data will rely on content and thematic analysis of the recurring factors. According to the interpretivist paradigm, for a researcher to uncover the real issue, one needs to conduct analytic induction that involves coding of the merging concepts from the collected data. The application of this technique will help the research to identify the issues in policy causing system vulnerabilities that the attackers exploit. The preliminary data obtained from the review of the country’s cyber-security policy shows one of the issues is laxity in its implementation. Although the policy BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM 6 outlines some of the best practices for ensuring computer system security, some of the IT vendors in the United States do not adhere to these guidelines. Another notable issue in the policy is the lack of public awareness programs aimed at creating sensitivity about cybersecurity and potential mitigation approach. Ethical Considerations and Limitations This study will need to obtain signed consent, release, and data protection forms from the interviewees. The researcher will also provide the respondents with confidentially guarantee regarding the usage of their data in this particular survey. The study also requires to obtain ethical approval as well as to adhere to academic integrity by avoiding cases of plagiarism. The use of secondary sources makes this paper susceptible to instances of plagiarism. Therefore, the researcher must provide accurate citations and a reference list of all the sources applied. Conclusion The cyberspace is morphing to become the frontier for the next generation of battle. Technological advancements have made it possible for countries, institutions, and individuals to make developmental strides in various aspects. However, with the evolution of technology, criminals and attackers operating in the cyberspace have become sophisticated. These individuals can identify and exploit numerous vulnerabilities to attack private systems as well as government agencies or institutions for malicious purposes. Such an attack has significant economic as well as defense repercussions to the country. As a result, it is necessary for a nation to review its policy and identify issues that may cause potential vulnerabilities in their systems. BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM 7 References Bertino, E., & Islam, N. (2017). Botnets and internet of things security. Computer, 50(2), 7679. Heidenreich, J. (2015). The privacy issues presented by the cybersecurity information sharing act. NDL Rev., 395. Hutchings, A., Smith, R. G., & James, L. (2015). Criminals in the Cloud: Crime, Security Threats, and Prevention Measures. In R. G. Smith, R. Cheung, & L. Y.-C. Lau, Cybercrime Risks and Responses (pp. 146-162). London: Palgrave Macmillan. Jardine, E. (2016). A Continuum of Internet-Based Crime: How the Effectiveness of Cybersecurity Policies Varies across Cybercrime Types. In X. F. Olleros, & M. Zhegu, Research Handbook on Digital Transformations (pp. 421-). Northampton: Edward Elgar. Libicki, M. C. (2017). The convergence of information warfare. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 11(1), 49-65. Sullivan, C. (2015). The 2014 Sony Hack and the Role of International Law. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 8, 437. Thanh, N. C., & Thanh, T. T. (2015). The interconnection between interpretivist paradigm and qualitative methods in education. American Journal of Educational Science, 1(2), 24-27. ...
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Dmitry
School: UIUC

Attached.

Running head: BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORISM

Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

1

BOTNETS, CYBERCRIME, AND CYBERTERRORIS

2

Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism
1. Problem statement for the research
Whereas the advancement in technology has contributed immensely to the growth
and development of the world, it has brought substantial problems by increasing the
vulnerabilities, and threats that cyber-criminals and cyber-terrorists post to different
systems. These criminals have taken the advantage of technological advancement to
increase their potential targets. They have shifted their targets from data theft to financial
crime, fraud, and its potential to trigger wars. The problem is further complicated since
there are no current effective cyber-crime policies that can tame the potential
vulnerabilities these criminals can exploit to attack technological systems. Indeed, States
may fall victims by hiring the private organization to offer this technological system
which in turn lead to cybercrime and cyber-attacks. The...

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