For Part A, you need to choose one essay question to answer. Your essay needs to be at least 250 words.
For Part B, you need to choose two short answers to write. Each short answer needs to be at least 100
Remember the honor code. You need to make sure that you properly give credit to anything you are
quoting or paraphrasing. I am assuming that you are putting forth these words as your own, unless you cite
PART A—PICK ONE OF THE FOLLOWING (this is worth 50 points):
1. Is psychological egoism based on a conceptual confusion? Why or why not? Explain.
2. What is the difference between the ways that Mill and Bentham conceive of happiness? Which view
seems more plausible? Why? Explain.
3. To what was Mill referring when he said, “It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig
satisfied”? Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? Explain.
4. Which moral theory—Kant’s or natural law—seems more plausible to you? Why? Explain.
5. Is natural law theory more plausible than utilitarianism? Why or why not? Explain.
6. Critique Aristotle virtue ethics theory. What are its strengths and weaknesses? Explain.
7. Kant says that to act morally is to act out of duty. How does this differ from the virtue ethics
approach? Are you likely to admire someone who always acts out of duty alone? Why or why not?
8. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of utilitarianism and virtue ethics. Which do you think is
a better theory? How would you combine the two approaches to fashion a better theory? Explain.
PART B—PICK TWO OF THE FOLLOWING (each is worth 25 points):
1. Give an example of a possible conflict between a consequentialist theory and a considered moral
judgment. Show the inconsistency.
2. Give an example of a possible conflict between a nonconsequentialist theory and a moral judgment
based on the consequences of an action. Show the inconsistency.
3. In what way is ethical egoism not consistent with our considered moral judgments? Explain.
4. Is there such a thing as a supererogatory act—or are all right actions simply our duty? Explain.
5. How can the absolutism of Kant’s theory lead to judgments that conflict with moral common sense?
6. According to Aquinas, what is the good that human nature aims at? Explain.
7. Explain the doctrine of double effect. What are some of its implications?
8. What is virtue ethics? How does it differ from duty-based ethics?
9. According to Aristotle, the virtuous life helps us achieve happiness and is happiness. What does this
10. Is Aristotle’s notion of the Golden Mean helpful in identifying the virtues in any situation? Why or
11. Does virtue ethics seem to offer a more plausible explanation of the role of motivation in moral
actions than does Kantian ethics? If so, how? If not, why not?
12. According to Annette Baier, are justice and care compatible? Explain.
13. William Frankena says that morality requires both principles and virtues. Do you agree? Why or
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