need help with methods section of paper

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Question Description

In your final paper for this course, you will need to write a Methods section that is about 4 pages long where you will assess and evaluate the methods of research.

In preparation for this particular section, answer the following questions thoroughly and provide justification/support. The more complete and detailed your answers for these questions, the better prepared you are to successfully write your final paper.

Please submit your answers as a single 4- to 6-page document as a numbered list; this will ensure you do not inadvertently miss a question.

Additionally, please submit a title page and a reference page in proper APA format.

  1. What is your research question?
  2. What is your hypothesis or hypotheses? What is the null hypothesis?
  3. How many participants would you like to use and why? What are the inclusion characteristics, i.e., what must they have in order to be included in your study (for example, gender, diagnosis, age, personality traits, etc.)? Are there any exclusion characteristics, i.e. are there certain characteristics that would exclude them from being in your study? Does the sample need to be diverse? Why or why not?
  4. What sampling technique will be used to collect your sample? What population does your sample generalize to?
  5. What are the variables in your study? HINT: Refer back to your hypothesis or hypotheses.
  6. Provide operational definitions for each variable.
  7. How will you measure each variable? Discuss the reliability and validity of these measures in general terms.
  8. What technique will be used for data collection (e.g., observation, survey, interview, archival, etc.)?
  9. What type of research design is being used?
  10. Briefly discuss the procedure that would be followed when conducting the research.
  11. What are some POTENTIAL ethical issues? How might they be addressed?

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1 Running Head: MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE Media's Influence on Body Image 2 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE Outline Introduction or Statement of the Problem Mass media plays a vital role in the social construction of reality, and that television and magazine advertisements set the ideal body shape of male and females, and this affects how young women and men perceive their body. Research question Do media affect the body the image of females more than the body image of males in the adolescent population? Research hypothesis Viewing of media for example TV, Social media, fashion magazines, and movies affect both the body image of males and females in the adolescent population equally. Review of the Literature 1. What the link between images seen in media outlets and how women and men may perceive the ideal body image? Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., & Saucier, D. A. (2008). Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men's body-image concerns. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(3), 279-310. 2. How do media portray an ideal female body shape? Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin,Vol 134(3), May 2008, 460-476 3. How does mass media portray as ideal male body shape? Daniel, S and Bridges, S.K. (2010). The drive for muscularity in men: Media influences and objectification theory, Body Image, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 32-38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.08.003 4. How TV advertisements do define an ideal body weight and shape of females? Myers Jr, P. N., &Biocca, F. A. (1992). The elastic body image: The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young women. Journal of communication, 42(3), 108-133. 3 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE 5. How the media environment contributes to various challenges such as eating disorders and other negative behavior. López-Guimerà, G., Levine, M.P., Sánchez-carracedo, D and Fauquet, J.(2010)Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in Females: A Review of Effects and Processes,Media Psychology,13:4,387-416,DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2010.525737 Description of the sample The objective of the study is to assess the influence of mass media on the females' and males' concerns on weight loss and perception of body shape and weight. I will survey adolescents in schools to find out their perceptions of the body shape and weight. The research design is a cross-sectional survey which is completed in a school. I will prepare questionnaires which I will distribute amongst the sample population to assess their perceptions of body image. The questionnaires will be used to assess body weight: that is the dissatisfaction with body shape and weight, exposure, and access to fashion magazines, watching commercial advertisements on the TV. It will also assess the impact of the media on feelings and perception about the shape and body weight, aspects of and preference to certain body shapes and types and whether the participant has ever gone on a diet to lose weight or gain muscles or started to exercise because or TV or magazine advert. The sample does not generalize population because I only need to focus on adolescents that are within the setting of a physical education class in a public elementary, junior and high schools. Adolescents in schools know how to write, are intelligent and can fill questionnaires compared to the ones on the street. Also, most of them are exposed to TV and magazine advertisements, therefore, is suitable to study all the aspects of the research Inclusion criteria 4 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE For the students to be included in the study, they must fall between 5th grades to 12th grade. Also, they must come from a working-class- Suburb. Ethical issues Access The access to children and young people is controlled by a range of individuals and gatekeepers of the school. I need to gain consent from the parents, schools administration and the government to access the students and use them as participants in my research. Negotiating consent with the pupils It is necessary to obtain the children's informed consent. The children have the rights to accept or refuse to participate in the research. Therefore; they should not be forced to participate instead they should be allowed to decide whether or not to participate in the study. Anonymity and confidentiality The children who wish use or have their real names used should be made to understand the reasons for anonymizing of research participants in publications. They should be encouraged to choose their pseudonyms to ensure confidentiality. Media's Influence on Body Image The body image is viewed as a combination of several factors and various studies as shall be demonstrated below illustrate that there is a strong link between images seen in media outlets and how women and men may perceive the ideal body image. The media environment may be a contributing factor that would lead to various challenges such as eating disorders and other negative behavior. The images that are portrayed in the media may not under the control of the viewer; nevertheless, individuals may have control over what they choose to surround themselves with. The impact of the media on the physical image and the idea of beauty and ideal 5 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE Image for both genders is quite robust, especially in women. The report will rely on various articles that touch on subjects that touch on the media's influence, issues of media psychology, eating disorders, health psychology, and others. The hypothesis will demonstrate that correlation exists between the media's portrayal through direct or indirect exposure of the ideal image. It is a critical factor in contributing to the pressure for both women to be thin and men to have a particular physique or degree of muscularity, and it constitutes the potential risk factors linked to the dissatisfaction of the body, disordered eating,and weight concerns predominantly among the young. The research hypothesis is that there is no difference in how viewing media (social media, TV, and movies) affects the body image of girls as compared to the body image of boys in the adolescent population. Thompson, J. K.,andHeinberg, L. J. (1999), The Media's Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We've Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them? Journal of Social Issues, 55: 339-353. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00119 The study by Thompson and Heinberg (1999) relies on the survey, correlation, randomized controlled, and covariance structure modeling in describing the media's influence on the development and maintenance of eating and shape related disorders. Societal pressure on the existing standards of the attractiveness is taken as a specific difference variable. It is seen to moderate and even to some extent to mediate the impacts of the media on the eating dysfunctions and satisfaction on the women's body. Results demonstrated that there is the presence of negative media messages within how the media portrays eating disorders. It is that portrayal that the study relies on to lead researchers in approaches that may be employed as interventions to counteract the negative connotations and viewpoints (Thompson and Heinberg, 1999). The authors suggested used social marketing approaches, social activism in fending off such negative 6 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE information and messages (Thompson and Heinberg, 1999). The study suggests the positive use of media as a potential means of communication to relay accurate, productive information on eating as well as shape related disorders. López-Guimerà, G., Levine, M.P., Sánchez-carracedo, D and Fauquet, J.(2010)Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in Females: A Review of Effects and Processes,Media Psychology,13:4,387-416,DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2010.525737 The article looks at various researches that have been done on the effects of television and forms of media on disordered eating attitudes and the images and behaviors in females. It relies on evidence in various fields which includes media psychology, eating disorders, and health psychology among others (López-Guimerà et al. 2010). The article assesses the influence of mass media in particular and points to it as a key source of reinforcement and evidence especially to the concept of a petit body ideal, and its importance and how to achieve it. Results demonstrate that there is evidence that repeated exposure to the media which can be directly or indirectly through coaches, peers, parents, physicians among others, has contributed to the pressure for them to be thin and it constitutes the potential risk factors for the dissatisfaction that they have on the body, disordered eating, and weight concerns among the young and adolescent women (López-Guimerà et al. 2010). Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin,Vol 134(3), May 2008, 460-476 7 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE The research by Grabe et al. (2008) assertsthat mass media exposure that portrays and classifies thin bodies may be associated with the disturbance in body image in women. The metaanalysis studies looked at the experiment related and correlational researches and trying to understand the links between being exposed to media and the body dissatisfaction by women, their eating behaviors, the internalization of the notion of thinness being the epitome of beauty and beliefs. The research focused on over 70 studies. The findings of the research supported the idea that being exposed to media images that depicted the ideal body as being thin is linked to the concerns of the body image that women have (Grabe et al. 2008). Daniel, S and Bridges, S.K. (2010). The drive for muscularity in men: Media influences and objectification theory, Body Image, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 32-38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.08.003 The report looks at the concepts of objectification theory and how it relates to image concerns in men. In assessing the theory and specifically focusing on the mixed results that it yielded, the research was conducted to assess the influence that internalization of the ideas created by media. The study looked at issues of body surveillance and shame, body-mass index (BMI), self-objectification, and the muscularity drive that was obtained from 244 males of college ages (Daniel, S and Bridges, 2010). In the analysis of the data, path analyses were employed in investigating the relationships that existed among the variable relying on the hypothesized objectification variables and how they would mediate the association that exists between internalizing of the media standards and desire for muscularity (Daniel, S and Bridges, 2010). The results showed that regarding ranking, to internalize the ideas and images portrayed in media was considered as one with the strongest predictor for muscularity then BMI. The variables that were linked to objectification theory were seen to have no impact, therefore, 8 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE demonstrating that objectification theory may not apply to men relying on the said measurements (Daniel, S and Bridges, 2010). Meier, E.P and Gray, J. (2014).Facebook Photo Activity Associated with Body Image Disturbance in Adolescent Girls, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking,Vol. 17, NO. 4 https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2013.0305 The study focuses on the link between the body image and the young girls' activities on social media platforms specifically Facebook. Studies have demonstrated that elevation of the internet and appearance exposures as being positively correlated with enhancing body image disturbances in adolescent girls, and there is a direct and at the same time strong association with the use of Facebook. In the research, the authors sought to build upon the earlier studies and replicate the findings by tracing the exact features on Facebook that correlate with the body image disturbance among girls in their adolescent years (Meier and Gray, 2014). It relied on a survey with the 103 female respondents being drawn from middle and high school levels. The responses were a measure of the Facebook usage, the particular Facebook feature use, the trigger for being thin, weight dissatisfaction, comparing appearance, and self-objectification (Meier and Gray, 2014). An exposure score gauging the appearance was used to carry out calculation reliant on the use of applications of the Facebook photos that touch on the total usage of the Facebook. Results showed that there was a significant correlation with weight dissatisfaction, desire to be thin, and self-objectification based on elevated appearance as opposed to Facebook usage. The report also provided information that is beneficial understands the repercussions for the eating disorder and strategies for prevention and other best practices for research social networking site (SNS) (Meier and Gray, 2014). 9 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE Levine, M. P., &Murnen, S. K. (2012). “Everybody knows that mass media are/are not [pick one] a cause of eating disorders”: A critical review of evidence for a causal link between media, negative body image, and disordered eating in females. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0305 This article reviews all the research which regards the mass media as one of the risk factors for undesirable body shape and disordered feeding habits in females. The article clarifies the effects that mass media has on the eating habits of the females, and I would use it to describe how media is a contributing factor to various challenges such as eating disorders and other negative behavior. Derenne, J. L., &Beresin, E. V. (2014).Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-261.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.07.004 In this article, the author explores the changes in an ideal female body shape throughout the history and comments on the current attitude towards the female body shape and eating habits as influenced by the media. This article will enable me to explain current mass media is influential and defining an ideal female body shape thus making women and men to be dissatisfied with their body. Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., & Saucier, D. A. (2013).Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men's body-image concerns. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(3), 279-310.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.07.004 In this article, the conducted a study was to determine the effects of the mass media on male muscular ideal male body conformity in effect to the self-images for example satisfaction with the body and body esteem. This article is relevant to the study as it will enable to explain the influence that mass media has on the ideal body shape of the males. 10 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE Field, A. E., Cheung, L., Wolf, A. M., Herzog, D. B., Gortmaker, S. L., &Colditz, G. A. (2009). Exposure to the mass media and weight concerns among girls. Pediatrics, 103(3), e36-e36 In this article, the author access the influence that the mass media have on the weigh concerns by girls, weight loss/weight gain and perception of the ideal shape and weight of the body. The article is relevant to the study, and I will use it to explain how mass media is a contributing factor in lifestyle changes such as eating disorders and also changes in behavior. MyersJr, P. N., &Biocca, F. A. (2002). The elastic body image: The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young women. Journal of communication, 42(3), 108-133.doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00119 The author carried out an experimental study to find out the mass media influence in the social construction of reality. It further explores the effects of television advertisements affects how young females perceive their bodies. It is therefore relevant to the research as it will enable me to explore mass media impact on the physical image and the idea of beauty and ideal image for both genders. 11 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE References Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., & Saucier, D. A. (2013).Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men's body-image concerns. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(3), 279-310. Derenne, J. L., &Beresin, E. V. (2014).Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-261. Daniel, S and Bridges, S.K. (2010). The drive for muscularity in men: Media influences and objectification theory, Body Image, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 32-38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.08.003 Field, A. E., Cheung, L., Wolf, A. M., Herzog, D. B., Gortmaker, S. L., &Colditz, G. A. (2009). Exposure to the mass media and weight concerns among girls. Pediatrics, 103(3), e36e36 Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin,Vol 134(3), May 2008, 460-476 López-Guimerà, G., Levine, M.P., Sánchez-carracedo, D and Fauquet, J.(2010)Influence of Mass Media on Body Image and Eating Disordered Attitudes and Behaviors in Females: A Review of Effects and Processes,Media Psychology,13:4,387-416,DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2010.525737 Levine, M. P., &Murnen, S. K. (2012). “Everybody knows that mass media are/are not [pick one] a cause of eating disorders”: A critical review of evidence for a causal link between media, negative body image, and disordered eating in females. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42. 12 MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE MyersJr, P. N., &Biocca, F. A. (2002). The elastic body image: The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young women. Journal of communication, 42(3), 108-133. Meier, E.P and Gray, J. (2014).Facebook Photo Activity Associated with Body Image Disturbance in Adolescent Girls, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking,Vol. 17, NO. 4 https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2013.0305 Thompson, J. K.,andHeinberg, L. J. (1999), The Media's Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We've Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them? Journal of Social Issues, 55: 339-353. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00119 ...
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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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