Responses to Question
Just as we saw with border security improvements and more thorough examinations after 9/11,
the same occurred with the port security as well. The implementation of the SMART port
security legislation in 2012 was built of the original SAFE port security Act of 2006. The
SMART port security allowed for a more risk evaluation system in order to better monitor for
hazardous cargo being delivered to US ports (Sayago, 2012). Instead of trying to search the
thousands of containers that arrived on a daily basis it is more feasible to quickly use technology
that can search them faster and really be more intrusive on shipments from known possible threat
countries or though other intelligence gathering. The act also incorporated a further collaboration
of resources and information between all Homeland Security organizations such as Border
Patrol, Customs, and the United States Coast Guard.
The original SAFE act created in 2006 was created to further deter any terrorist actions within
the United States. It added more security measures such as , Unannounced inspections of
maritime facilities, random searches of containers, and created a Domestic Nuclear Detection
Office (Nolan, 2013). It also assisted in allocation of funds to increase the ports infrastructure
with new technology and resources.
It also became clear that small vessels could pose a great threat to the US. In 2008 the creation
of the Small Vessel Security Strategy helped to mitigate this threat. The smaller boats are readily
available and can easily be used to haul contraband or become an explosive weapon. The size
allows them to gain access to channels and other smaller waterways making their way inland
much easier. The strategy is simply a weave of multiple security strategies in order to better
detect any small vessel threat.
In 2002 The Maritime Transportation Security act was implemented by President Bush. This
was the act that required the ports to have more strict plans in place to mitigate further terrorist
activities. Once again the need for heightened security after such a large attack warranted the
revamp of all security measures within the nation.
Department of Homeland Security authors,2008, Small Vessel Security Strategy, Department of
Nolan, C., 2013, The Rubiks Cube of Cargo Security, The Briefe, Vol. 42, Iss. 2
Sayago, E., 2012, House Passes SMART Port Security Act, Congressional Documents and
By: Cierra Stanko
Describe the following and discuss how they enhance port maritime operations?
a) The SMART Port Security Legislation.
The Congressional Subcommittee in 2012 passed the Securing Maritime Activities through Risk
Based Targeting for Port Security Act which is also known as SMART Port Act Legislation. The
primary purpose of the legislation was to enhance and promote risk-based security measures.
Through these measures, agents work towards preventing threats entering into the United States
as well as strengthening the relationship between Customs and Border Protection and the US
Coast Guard. With this legislation, both of these entities must share their resources while
collaborating with each other in regards to maritime operations. Also, another aspect of this
legislation is enhancing and promoting risk assessments that will prevent access to the United
States by the nation’s adversaries.
b) The SAFE Port Act.
The SAFE Port Act of 2006 strengthened the ability of the government to protect the nation’s
seaports and maritime commerce from any type of attack by terrorists. The act arranged for
certain programs such as Container Security Initiative (CSI) and Customs Trade Partnership
against Terrorism (C-TPAT) to be created that would improve port security. These initiatives
that were created allowed for a more effected operation in the maritime environment.
c) The Small Vessel Security Strategy.
The Small Vessel Security Strategy of 2008 assists United States authorities with minimizing the
risks that are posed by small vessels in the maritime environment. The priority is to establish a
framework that uses a layered approached while developing close relationships with the
community of small vessels throughout the public and private sectors. The Department of
Homeland Security will be the entity to promote cooperation, full awareness, and the detection
technology that will be able to pick up on the small vessels who may be posing a threat to the
port and to the United States.
d) The Maritime Transportation Security Act.
The Maritime Transportation Security Act or MTSA was signed into law by President Bush in
2002 during the aftermath of September 11th, 2001. The purpose of this act was to increase the
security at all the nations seaports. The act is carried out by requiring a comprehensive security
plan for the United States ports while having a mandated identification and screening of seaport
personnel program. The MTSA enhanced maritime operations specifically by incorporating a
Facility Security Officer who is responsible for the security of the entire port and ensures that all
regulations are being followed as required.
Singla, S. (2016, July 21). What is Container Security Initiative (CSI) and how does it Work?
Retrieved from https://www.marineinsight.com/marine-safety/what-is-container-securityinitiative-csi-and-how-does-it-work/
Shapiro (n.d.). What you need to know about Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism CTPAT. Retrieved from https://www.shapiro.com/resources/what-you-need-to-knowabout-customs-trade-partnership-against-terrorism-c-tpat/
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