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required to submit 9 questions. Questions should demonstrate that you have done the reading. Questions that connect readings from previous sections of the course are highly encouraged.

Let Nobody Turn us Around: David Walker’s Appeal

Let Nobody Turn us Around: What If I Am a Woman?

Let Nobody Turn us Around: Ida B. Wells- Barnett

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LET NOBODY TURN US AROUND LET NOBODY TURN US AROUND Voices of Resistance, Reform, and Renewal AN AFRICAN AMERICAN ANTHOLOGY Second Edition editors Manning Marable Leith Mullings ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD P U B L I S H E R S, Lanham • Boulder • New York • Oxford I N C. Every reasonable effort to secure permission and acknowledge copyright owners of material used in this book has been made. Any copyright owners who have not been properly identified and acknowledged should contact us so that corrections can be made. ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC. Published in the United States of America by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.rowmanlittlefield.com Estover Road Plymouth PL6 7PY United Kingdom Copyright © 2009 by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Let nobody turn us around : an African American anthology : voices of resistance, reform, and renewal / Manning Marable and Leith Mullings, editors. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7425-6056-7 (cloth : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-7425-6057-4 (pbk. : alk. paper ISBN 978-0-7425-6545-6 (electronic) 1. African Americans—History—Sources. 2. African Americans—Civil rights— History—Sources. 3. African Americans—Social conditions—Sources. I. Marable, Manning, 1950– II. Mullings, Leith. E184.6.L48 2009 973'.0496073—dc22 2009005113 Printed in the United States of America ∞™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of ⬁ American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48–1984. CONTENTS P R E FA C E T O T H E F I R S T E D I T I O N xiii P R E FA C E T O T H E S E C O N D E D I T I O N xvii INTRODUCTION SECTION ONE Resistance, Reform, and Renewal in the Black Experience xxi F O U N D AT I O N S : S L AV E R Y A N D ABOLITIONISM, 1768–1861 1 1. “On Being Brought from Africa to America” Equiano,” Phillis Wheatley, 1768 7 2. “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano,” Olaudah Equiano, 1789 9 3. “Thus Doth Ethiopia Stretch Forth Her Hand from Slavery, to Freedom and Equality,” Prince Hall, 1797 17 4. The Founding of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Richard Allen, 1816 20 5. David Walker’s “Appeal,” 1829–1830 24 6. The Statement of Nat Turner, 1831 34 7. Slaves Are Prohibited to Read and Write by Law 39 8. “What If I Am a Woman?” Maria W. Stewart, 1833 40 9. A Slave Denied the Rights to Marry, Letter of Milo Thompson, Slave, 1834 46 10. The Selling of Slaves, Advertisement, 1835 47 11. Solomon Northrup Describes a New Orleans Slave Auction, 1841 49 vi C O N T E N T S SECTION TWO 12. Cinque and the Amistad Revolt, 1841 51 13. “Let Your Motto Be Resistance!” Henry Highland Garnet, 1843 56 14. “Slavery as It Is,” William Wells Brown, 1847 63 15. “A’n’t I a Woman?” Sojourner Truth, 1851 66 16. “A Plea for Emigration, or, Notes of Canada West” Mary Ann Shadd Cary, 1852 68 17. A Black Nationalist Manifesto, Martin R. Delany, 1852 70 18. “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?” Frederick Douglass, 1852 84 19. “No Rights That a White Man Is Bound to Respect”: The Dred Scott Case and Its Aftermath 88 20. “Whenever the Colored Man Is Elevated, It Will Be by His Own Exertions,” John S. Rock, 1858 107 21. The Spirituals: “Go Down, Moses” and “Didn’t My Lord Deliver Daniel” 111 R E C O N S T R U C T I O N A N D R E A C T I O N : T H E A F T E R M AT H O F S L AV E R Y A N D T H E D AW N O F S E G R E G AT I O N , 1861–1915 115 1. “What the Black Man Wants,” Frederick Douglass, 1865 122 2. Henry McNeal Turner, Black Christian Nationalist 128 3. Black Urban Workers during Reconstruction 132 Anonymous Document on the National Colored Labor Convention, 1869 New York Tribune Article on African-American Workers, 1870 4. “Labor and Capital Are in Deadly Conflict,” T. Thomas Fortune, 1886 135 5. Edward Wilmot Blyden and the African Diaspora 138 6. “The Democratic Idea Is Humanity,” Alexander Crummell, 1888 150 C O N T E N T S vii 7. “A Voice from the South,” Anna Julia Cooper, 1892 159 8. The National Association of Colored Women: 165 Mary Church Terrell and Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin 9. “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,” Paul Laurence Dunbar 171 10. Booker T. Washington and the Politics of Accommodation 174 “Atlanta Exposition Address” “My View of Segregation Laws” 11. William Monroe Trotter and the Boston Guardian 181 12. Race and the Southern Worker 183 “A Negro Woman Speaks” “The Race Question a Class Question” “Negro Workers!” 13. Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Crusader for Justice 191 14. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois 195 Excerpts from “The Conservation of Races” Excerpts from The Souls of Black Folk SECTION THREE 15. The Niagara Movement, 1905 209 16. Hubert Henry Harrison, Black Revolutionary Nationalist 213 F R O M P L A N TAT I O N T O G H E T T O : T H E G R E AT M I G R AT I O N , H A R L E M R E N A I S S A N C E , A N D W O R L D WA R , 1 9 1 5 – 1 9 5 4 217 1. Black Conflict over World War I 224 W. E. B. Du Bois, “Close Ranks” Hubert H. Harrison, “The Descent of Du Bois” W. E. B. Du Bois, “Returning Soldiers” 2. “If We Must Die,” Claude McKay, 1919 227 3. Black Bolsheviks: Cyril V. Briggs and Claude McKay 228 “What the African Blood Brotherhood Stands For” “Soviet Russia and the Negro” 4. Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association 241 viii C O N T E N T S “Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World” “An Appeal to the Conscience of the Black Race to See Itself” 5. “Women as Leaders,” Amy Euphemia Jacques Garvey, 1925 251 6. Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance 253 “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain” “My America” Poems 7. “The Negro Woman and the Ballot,” Alice Moore Dunbar-Nelson, 1927 264 8. James Weldon Johnson and Harlem in the 1920s 267 “Harlem: The Culture Capital” 9. Black Workers in the Great Depression 273 10. The Scottsboro Trials, 1930s 279 11. “You Cannot Kill the Working Class,” Angelo Herndon, 1933 281 “Speech to the Jury, January 17, 1933” Excerpt from You Cannot Kill the Working Class 12. Hosea Hudson, Black Communist Activist 288 13. “Breaking the Bars to Brotherhood,” Mary McLeod Bethune, 1935 294 14. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and the Fight for Black Employment in Harlem 298 15. Black Women Workers during the Great Depression 300 Elaine Ellis, “Women of the Cotton Fields” Naomi Ward, “I Am a Domestic” 16. Southern Negro Youth Conference, 1939 306 17. A. Philip Randolph and the Negro March on Washington Movement, 1941 308 18. Charles Hamilton Houston and the War Effort among African Americans, 1944 314 19. “An End to the Neglect of the Problems of the Negro Woman!” Claudia Jones, 1949 316 C O N T E N T S SECTION FOUR ix 20. “The Negro Artist Looks Ahead,” Paul Robeson, 1951 326 21. Thurgood Marshall: The Brown Decision and the Struggle for School Desegregation 331 WE SHALL OVERCOME: THE SECOND RECONSTRUCTION, 1954–1975 341 1. Rosa Parks, Jo Ann Robinson, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956 352 Jo Ann Robinson’s Letter to Mayor of Montgomery Interview with Rosa Parks Excerpts from Jo Ann Robinson’s Account of the Boycott 2. Roy Wilkins and the NAACP 362 3. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 1957 367 4. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Sit-In Movement, 1960 371 5. Freedom Songs, 1960s 372 “We Shall Overcome” “Ain’t Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me ’Round” 6. “We Need Group-Centered Leadership,” Ella Baker 375 7. Martin Luther King, Jr., and Nonviolence 377 Excerpt from “Nonviolence and Racial Justice,” 1957 “I Have a Dream,” 1963 8. “The Revolution Is at Hand,” John R. Lewis, 1963 383 9. “The Salvation of American Negroes Lies in Socialism,” W. E. B. Du Bois 385 10. “The Special Plight and the Role of Black Women,” Fannie Lou Hamer 395 11. “SNCC Position Paper: Women in the Movement,” 1964 399 12. Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam 401 13. Malcolm X and Revolutionary Black Nationalism 404 x C O N T E N T S “The Ballot or the Bullet” “Statement of the Organization of Afro-American Unity” 14. Black Power 418 Stokely Carmichael, “What We Want” SNCC, “Position Paper on Black Power” Bayard Rustin, “‘Black Power’ and Coalition Politics” 15. “CORE Endorses Black Power,” Floyd McKissick, 1967 435 16. “To Atone for Our Sins and Errors in Vietnam,” Martin Luther King, Jr., 1967 438 17. Huey P. Newton and the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense 445 18. “The People Have to Have the Power,” Fred Hampton 456 19. “I Am a Revolutionary Black Woman,” Angela Y. Davis, 1970 459 20. “Our Thing Is DRUM!” The League of Revolutionary Black Workers 463 21. Attica: “The Fury of Those Who Are Oppressed,” 1971 466 22. The National Black Political Convention, Gary, Indiana, March 1972 469 23. “There Is No Revolution Without the People,” Amiri Baraka, 1972 473 “The Pan-African Party and the Black Nation” Poem 24. “My Sight Is Gone But My Vision Remains,” Henry Winston 480 “On Returning to the Struggle” “A Letter to My Brothers and Sisters” SECTION FIVE T H E F U T U R E I N T H E P R E S E N T: C O N T E M P O R A RY A F R I C A N A M E R I C A N T H O U G H T, 1 9 7 5 T O T H E P R E S E N T 1. Black Feminisms: The Combahee River Collective Statement, 1977 487 501 C O N T E N T S xi 2. “Women in Prison: How We Are,” Assata Shakur, 1978 507 3. “It’s Our Turn,” Harold Washington, 1983 513 4. “I Am Your Sister,” Audre Lorde, 1984 515 5. “Shaping Feminist Theory,” bell hooks, 1984 522 6. The Movement against Apartheid: Jesse Jackson and Randall Robinson 529 Jesse Jackson, “Don’t Adjust to Apartheid” “State of the U.S. Anti-Apartheid Movement: An Interview with Randall Robinson” 7. “Keep Hope Alive,” Jesse Jackson, 1988 535 8. “Afrocentricity,” Molefi Asante, 1991 546 9. The Anita Hill–Clarence Thomas Controversy, 1991 552 “African-American Women in Defense of Ourselves” June Jordan, “Can I Get a Witness?” 10. “Race Matters,” Cornel West, 1991 558 11. “Black Anti-Semitism,” Henry Louis Gates, Jr., 1992 566 12. “Crime—Causes and Cures,” Jarvis Tyner, 1994 571 13. Louis Farrakhan: The Million Man March, 1995 580 14. “A Voice from Death Row,” Mumia Abu-Jamal 584 15. “Let Justice Roll Down Like Waters,” African-American Prisoners in Sing Sing, 1998 586 “Statement by Sing Sing Prisoners” Michael J. Love, “The Prison-Industrial Complex: An Investment in Failure” Willis L. Steele, Jr., “River Hudson” 16. Black Radical Congress, 1998 592 “Principles of Unity” “The Struggle Continues: Setting a Black Liberation Agenda for the 21st Century” “The Freedom Agenda” 17. 2000 Presidential Election “Letter to Governor Bush from Chairperson Mary Frances Berry,” 2001 600 xii C O N T E N T S 18. Hip-Hop Activism 603 “What We Want” Statement Hip-Hop Action Summit Network, 2001 “Tookie Protocol for Peace,” 2004 19. World Conference Against Racism— Durban, South Africa 606 20. African Americans Respond to Terrorism and War 613 “Barbara Lee’s Stand,” 2001 10 Points from Iraq Veterans against the War, 2001 21. The Cosby vs. Dyson Debate, 2004–2005 617 Summary of “Dr. Bill Cosby Speaks at the 50th Anniversary Commemoration of the Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education Supreme Court Decision” Excerpt from “Is Bill Cosby Right?: or Has the Black Middle Class Lost Its Mind?” 22. U.S. Senate Resolution Against Lynching, 2005 621 23. Hurricane Katrina Crisis, 2005 623 “‘This is Criminal’: Malik Rahim Reports from New Orleans,” 2005 24. Barack Obama’s Presidential Campaign, 2007–2008 627 Excerpts from National Democratic Party Convention Speech, 2004 “A More Perfect Union,” 2008 PERMISSIONS 643 INDEX 653 ABOUT THE EDITORS 677 PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION N early four years ago we jointly taught a graduate seminar offered at both City University Graduate School and Columbia University that was called, “Identity, Inequality, and Power.” The basic idea behind the course was to identify significant and provocative ethnographic, historical, and theoretical articles and sources that explored the complex connections between the imagined communities such as those of race, gender, and nation, and the structures of social inequality, state power, and economic exploitation. We wanted to talk about the African-American experience in a manner that placed black people at the center of the forces of history. We believed that the greatest weight in the judgments made by social scientists in researching the black experience should be given to the voices of black people themselves. In countless ways—from speeches and religious sermons, personal letters to friends and family, political manifestos and editorials, through the development of common rituals and ceremonies that convey membership in kinship networks—African-American people made themselves. Their notions of identity, of who they were, were constructed over time through their collective struggles and experiences against inequality, as well as from memories and traditions they had brought from Africa. We attempted to locate texts or anthologies that were appropriate for the seminar. We found, of course, a number of excellent social histories and ethnographic studies of different aspects of the experience of black people in the United States. Many of these works have interwoven the historical narrative with the voices and insights of black people themselves. That is to say, the authors of these works attempted to write history from the vantage point of being a participant observer of the culture. To theorize issues of identity, or questions about how any people understand the institutions of power that circumscribe their lives, scholars should first listen and learn from the people themselves. However, we were disappointed to find that in the past decade and more, very few anthologies designed for classroom usage incorporating this perspective into the collection and organization of sources have been published. What we wanted xiv P R E FA C E T O T H E F I R S T E D I T I O N was a collection of primary materials, rare published articles, speeches, and other sources that told the story of how black people made themselves and interpreted the world in which they lived, in their own words and specifically from their own point of view. After teaching the seminar, we decided to collaborate in the writing of two books on black American history and culture. The first is a long-term project, a study of the black experience from within, over a series of seven generations. We would like to develop a text that explores the ways in which African Americans have perceived themselves as a people, how they understood the structural barriers that denied them real opportunity, and how through their culture they found their own imagination, voice, and agency. The book is a work-in-progress, with the tentative title The African Americans: A People’s History. The second book was conceived as a comprehensive anthology of African-American social thought, broadly defined as the bodies of knowledge through which black people theorized from their experiences and social conditions, and proposed strategies and programs to enhance their power. Politics begins at the moment when any group recognizes for itself its specific objective interests and aspirations, and seeks agency to realize those interests. Black social and political thought is the expression of how people of African descent articulated and constructed the means to permit their communities to survive, to resist, and to reform or transform the structures of white power all around them. That story is what we hope Let Nobody Turn Us Around presents. More than one hundred documents represent widely different ideological and political perspectives, reflecting an ongoing debate within the black community over the appropriate strategies and tactics to achieve social change. It is by examining that diversity that we may discern the common ground that the vast majority of African Americans occupy. O There were a number of individuals who provided invaluable help in the research and publication of this anthology. Columbia University doctoral candidates Johanna Fernandez and Devin Fergus assisted in the identification of primary and secondary sources that were reviewed at the initial stage of preparing the text. Michele Hay, a graduate student at City University of New York, helped to select important documents and did background research that was important in the preparation of the biographical profiles and historical notes that accompanied each text. We would especially like to express our gratitude for the efforts of John McMillian, a doctoral candidate in history at Columbia University. Over a period of more than one year, John reviewed and evaluated the entire list of documents, tracked down hard-to-find biographical details on a number of subjects, and wrote the first drafts of many biographical profiles. John’s careful attention to details and his enthusiasm and interest in the project greatly enhanced the character of the book. P R E FA C E T O T H E F I R S T E D T I O N xv The book manuscript went through three major revisions and reorganizations during two years. We appreciate the efforts of the secretarial staff of the Institute for Research in African-American Studies at Columbia University— Diane Tinsley-Hatcher, Jennifer Jones, and Theresa Wilcox—who typed and revised the book throughout its many stages of development. Jennifer Jones, Sherell Daniels, and Andrea Queeley were also especially helpful in proofreading the final text and carefully checking for errors. A major architect of this work is our editor Dean Birkenkamp at Rowman & Littlefield. When the concept of this book was initially discussed in 1996, Dean provided strong support for its development. Dean is an author’s ideal editor— patient but persistent, and always helpful in thinking through problems connected with the technical aspects of putting a book together. Sallie Greenwood was extraordinarily diligent in identifying and securing permissions for all the sources—no small accomplishment given the large number of documents she was asked to review. Finally and most importantly, we wish to dedicate this anthology to our five children, Alia, Malaika, Sojourner, Joshua, and Michael. We hope that our efforts to help rediscover and document the visions of black folk past and present may provide part of that knowledge necessary to assist the next generation of black children to win that freedom which their foremothers and forefathers struggled for so long to achieve. MANNING MARABLE LEITH MULLINGS September 6, 1999 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION I n the past two decades, the African-American community has experienced profound transformations. For many, the long freedom strugg ...
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Robyn1994
School: UIUC

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Reflection questions
1. Other than air their voices, what did David, Steward, and Ida seek to achieve with their texts?
Were they successful in attaining their goals? What sort of change did the authors seek to stir in
their writing?
2. Despite the initiatives and efforts made by David and other authors to urge their fellow blacks
to rebel against their masters, none of them were successful and slavery continued for decades. A
looming question that rises from this is why were the blacks unwilling to stand up against their
white oppressors? Why did the blacks succumb to slavery for so long? Additionally, why were
the few instances of rebellion unsucces...

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