Three Paragraph Literature Review

timer Asked: Oct 16th, 2018
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1. my topic is about Corporate Social Responsibility in Family Business, but the research issue I don't know. please find by youselives. thank you.

2. we need three paragraph in the Literature Review (each paragraph need to at least 3 peer - review sources ).

3. two pages of the Three Paragraph Literature Review and one page of the reference

This is require in the blackboard.

To be developed and completed this week: One paragraph or two synthesizing key findings of your topic and issue. Synthesize, integrated, and cite at least 3 peer - review sources that have 'findings/results' relevant and important to understand your topic and issue.

To be developed and completed this week: One paragraph or two synthesizing key analyses of your topic and issue. Synthesize, integrated, and cite at least 3 peer - review sources that have 'discussion sections' relevant and important to understand your topic and issue.

To be developed and completed this week: An APA Title Page

To be developed and completed this week: An APA Reference list

I can give you an example which is given by my teacher.

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THE IMPACT OF HOUSING ON THE ACADEMIC SUCCESS OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENT AT NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY 12/05/2016 1 Abstract Growing numbers of international students in the United States have underscored the importance of discussion concerning suitable accommodation. The aim of this research was to analyze emerging issues in student housing and to understand the relationship between living conditions of international students and their academic success. The results showed that, even though the University believes that on-campus accommodation was better for first and second year students, the perceptions of more favorable living environment varied depending on their level of study. 2 Introduction As the world is becoming more globalized, the goals and outcomes of education have changed dramatically. Thus, studying overseas has become a persistent idea among families who desire to provide a bright future to their children. Having prestigious universities and higher quality of education, the USA has turned into the number one destination for higher education for those who are willing to take the advantage of this respected academic environment and the most spoken language of the business world. Currently, the US receives more international students than ever. According to the Open Doors report (2015), 974.926 international students studied at US colleges and universities in 2015. Though international students have been welcomed by the host country, it is evident that studying away from their native context has its own challenges and obstacles which influence their concentration and motivation. Foreign students tend to show similar characteristics, in spite of different cultural, social, religious, and political backgrounds (Lacia, 2002, p.21). According to Wu, Garza, and Guzman (2014), “they face obstacles, such as different food, unfamiliar living circumstances, financial problems, balancing work, studying schedules, learning styles, or any difficulties related to language, culture, and personal barriers” (p.2). Among many problems they experience, housing issues are inevitable consequences of living in a foreign environment and it still remains controversial for those who want to define the ideal living circumstance of international students. Regarding student housing solely as a problematic aspect of student life might not be a fair approach. Many studies show that appropriate living conditions contribute positively to students’ life satisfaction and happiness. Therefore it might be argued that housing can play an important role in exploring the international students’ experience and success. 3 This paper aims to investigate if there is a relationship between housing and academic success by analyzing students’ points of views toward their current accommodation. Moreover, this paper examines what Northeastern University considers the best way of living for an international student Literature Review After leaving their parents’ home, students want to express their identity, and their new home is the best place for them to do so. As Thomsen and Eikemo (2010) state, “there is also a close connection between housing satisfaction and an experience of home. A home is something more than the physical building. It is a place that people attach either a positive or negative meaning to” (p.275). This requires personalization of living environment, and therefore, trends emerge to reflect their personalized preferences. On the whole, housing satisfaction relies on many characteristics of life: such as social and cultural background, economic situation and expectations (Thomsen & Eikemo, 2010). In other words, in addition to the diverse preference of housing, physical arrangement has a great influence when it boils down to deciding where to live. Living on campus and off campus has its own characteristics that appeal to students. Some students prefer to live on-campus to access a variety of events, while others prefer to live offcampus for some other reasons. La Roche, Flanigan, and Copeland (2010) claim, “University Business identified six trends in campus housing: Luxury, privacy, privatization, live and learn, safety and security, and go green.” (p.46). Those trends have led universities to find an appropriate solution for student housing and then living-learning environment emerged as a new approach to meet multiple requirements of collegial environment. 4 Feeling overwhelmed by the tension between previous expectations and the reality they encounter impacts students satisfaction, which may result in significant decrease in their academic performance. According to Macintyre (2003), “there is evidence to show that there is a clear connection between stable accommodation and relative success in studies” (p. 111). The researcher suggested that some kind of accommodation is more beneficial to enhance academic success. For example, the on-campus accommodation provides not only educational resource more conveniently; it also allows students to engage in student culture more actively. Macintyre (2003) claimed that some studies indicate students living in hall residence have higher GPAs because they have better access to reach abundant information. These findings show that being part of learning environment has positive impact on success for both domestic and international student. Terenzini, Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) asserted “… living-learning centers are not only a neat idea, they actually work” (p.178). Residence environment, which referred to as living-learning environment, stimulates interactions between students and a university. Moreover, the place they live provides a significant contribution to participation in the host community. In the light of this fact, the more interactions students have at the place studying and residing, the better outcomes they reach. The literature suggests that students living on campus are more likely to develop successful relationships both with their peers and academia. This type of socially and academically enhanced environment contributes to students’ satisfactory university experience. Methods In the light of previous research, a face-to-face interview approach was adopted to collect empirical data. This method was determined the most appropriate because it concentrates on experiential knowledge to understand in depth the actual nature of international student accommodation was. Semi-structured interview questions were composed 5 for both students and housing department professionals. Interviews were conducted at different student halls and facilities of Northeastern University campus in order to generate more representativeness. The majority of the study participants were international students; five of them lived in NU residence halls, while the other five of them lived in off-campus accommodation. Only one of the interviewee was an expert who works in NU student housing and residential department as an assistant manager. While describing and illustrating interviews, pseudonyms were used in order to ensure confidentiality. Table 1: Participants Pseudonym Level of Study Gender Nationality Accommodation Kemal Graduate Male Chinese Off-campus Leyla Undergraduate Female Chinese On-Campus Hasan Undergraduate Male Spanish On-campus Melek Undergraduate Female American On-campus Ridvan Graduate Male Indian Off-campus Nuray Graduate Female Indian Off-campus Giray Undergraduate Male Chinese On-campus Asena Undergraduate Female Korean On-campus Batikan Graduate Male Chinese Off-campus Kaan Graduate Male Indian Off-campus Rodyn NU Student Housing Department Representative 6 Findings and Discussion Housing Choice The decision of where to live depends on current University policies and students’ level of study. Whereas most of the interviewed respondents had a financial concern, the number one reason for the preference to live off-campus, some, living in the university housing, did not state any economic concerns pertaining to accommodation. Specifically, graduate student participants were more likely to prefer off-campus housing options in order to minimize their cost of living. This confirms the observation of Franklin Obeng-Odoom (2012), who noted that housing problem is more than an accommodation issue; it is an economic problem for international students. It is interesting that all graduate students, living in off-campus, shared rooms prefer to live with their co-nationals to maintain mutual support and to decrease the effects of culture shock. When it comes to searching for accommodation, graduate and undergraduate students have dissimilar approaches. While graduate students generally search via internet, none of undergraduate students even wondered about whether there was another kind of accommodation. Furthermore, undergraduate students did not even search for housing because it is mandatory for freshmen and sophomores at NU to reside on-campus accommodation. An undergraduate foreign student shared that “I was sent to Spare Hall and I am happy about it.” He also indicated his high satisfaction with being there because living there allowed him to make new friends and to learn other cultures. Although NU provides support to students with a database and gives opportunity to explore various options for off campus housing, most students tend to search through other sources, and they are not even aware of the existence of this service. A graduate student noted that he had found his room through Craigslist that had allowed him to search reasonable, utilities-included options from a variety of choices around the Boston area. Another 7 graduate student commented that he had been told about the NU housing services during the orientation week, but most of his friends and he thought that it must have been very expensive without knowing exact details. Taken together, these results suggest that international students, in general, share similar beliefs and there may be a common misconception especially among graduate level international students about university provided housing services. Trends A variety of perspectives were expressed that the rent, cooking, convenient location close to the University, personalized living environment were the most common factors when looking for accommodation. Another notable result that arose was having a kitchen in their accommodation was a common preference for majority of them, especially students who were living on-campus. These results are consistent with those of La Roche, Flanigan and Copeland (2010) who suggested “… luxuries in student housing –kitchens, private bedrooms, private bathrooms, social spaces and lounge are now expected” (p. 46). The desire of having a kitchen for international students may be explained by the fact that the high costs of food in the USA and the sense of having a freedom to reach food instead of waiting the meal times. The NU has an apartmentstyle-accommodation option for students; however, it would be only possible to move there after their 2nd year for undergraduate students. (Robyn, personal interview, Nov. 18, 2016). What is surprising is that none of the interviewee indicated any preference except physical conditions, which may show that students regard housing as a physical place to spend their time. Contrary to expectations, the students, living off-campus, did not have any specific complaint. The informants living in residence halls mostly complained about distracting noise made by peers. One of the interviewee indicated that she was not happy about not enough 8 interaction with native speakers in order to enhance her speaking skills (Melek, personal interview, Nov 16, 2016). It was surprising that all students residing on her floor were Chinese. According to the NU housing department representative, they had received similar complaints from both American and international students. It can be understood that students living in apartments are significantly satisfied in terms of the need of personalized living environment which is compatible with previous findings and the reviewed literature. Contribution to Academic Success The comments about the contribution of accommodation to academic success varied among all participants. All interviewees claimed that their accommodation was better than others due to their own reasons; but participants, living off-campus, pointed out the high prices of living oncampus accommodation and added that living on-campus would have been more preferable if it had been more affordable. Four participants, all of them were living off-campus, claimed that there was no relationship between academic performance and living environment. As one interviewee put it: I can study at home and I can talk with my team members through my phone and I can email my professor. But if I lived in on-campus, I would use library more (Kemal, personal interview, Nov 16, 2016). So it can be argued that being away from university or peers for a student in terms of academic help. Similarly, another participant claimed that just having enough space to study was enough to be successful no matter where it was (Nuray, personal interview, Nov 15, 2016). 9 On the other hand, one informant was quite sure that his accommodation, which can be named living-learning environment, had had a huge contribution to personal development and academic success as well. He gave an example to support his view: I know some people when they came here they did not speak with others, but now they are speaking everybody and more open to people, I found that really interesting, for them, it is really good learning experience they learn team work, solve problems because a lot of problems you are going to encounter in future and learning how to solve them here in a controlled environment is way much better. (Hasan, personal interview, Nov 16, 2016) His refreshing perspective pointed out another aspect of living in a residence hall. Socializing with peers as well as managing the issues they faced made them stronger against possible hardships and gave them an opportunity to become ready for their prospective goals. According to another undergraduate interviewee, living in a residence hall is not as beneficial as she assumed. (Leyla, personal interview, Nov 15, 2016) As it can be seen from the results, only one undergraduate participant strongly believes the positive impact of on-campus accommodation, but it cannot be suggested that housing has this positive contribution. Rodyn, from the NU housing department, put forth a similar view to the reviewed literature in addition to the experiential views. Due to the significant relation between academic success and on-campus living, suggested by previous research, living on-campus absolutely beneficial for all students and therefore, a requirement emerged to allow them to get the advantage of university atmosphere. This requirement policy is implemented differently at all universities and there is no federal regulation regarding student housing. (Rodyn, personal 10 interview, Nov 18, 2016) It seems that universities have an autonomy to ensure better conditions for their students. The most striking result to emerge from the interviews is that almost all participants would like to live with their co-nationals or with someone who has similar cultural background. This outcome is contrary to that of Wu, Garza, and Guzman’s (2014), whose finding was “few participants started to look for native English speaking roommate in order to improve their English proficiency” (p. 7). In order to improve their language, the expectation is that a parallel result with the prior study. Conclusion The findings of this research provide insights into international students’ approach toward the relationship between housing and academic performance. Although a great deal of research has provided evidence that living conditions have a positive influence on academic success, it is somewhat surprising that all students living off campus and a small number of on-campus residents exhibited different experiences. It is difficult to explain this result, but it might be mostly related to economic concerns that the majority of them expressed implicitly. It can be also suggested that international students are most likely to regard their accommodation as a place where to live and to spend their spare time rather than a study place. Because they share similar beliefs, tendencies and they may have common misconceptions regarding university affiliated housing. Another possible explanation for this is that psychologically, they may not be able to see academic advantages or disadvantages of living environment due to having nonacademic concerns. Limitations of this study were time, the number participants and variables. Variables 11 such as, background and personality, and a large numbers of participants should be considered for future studies in order to obtain more accurate evidence. 12 References Lacina, J. G. (2002). Preparing international students for a successful social experience in higher education, Internationalizing Higher Education: Building Vital Programs on Campuses, 117, 21-28 La Roche C.R., Flanigan M.A.,& Copeland, P.K. (2010). Student Housing: Trends, Preferences and Needs. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3,10 ,45-50. Macintyre C. (2003), New Models of Housing and Their Impact on local Communities, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 25, 2, 109-118. Open Doors Report, (2015 November). Retrieved from and Events/Press-Center/Press-Releases/2015/2015-11-16-Open-Doors-Data#.WAlZ0xIrJBw Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. Academe, 78, 4, 46-47. Thomsen J., & Eikemo T.A. (2010). Aspects of student housing satisfaction: a quantitative study. Journal of Housing and Built Environment , 273-293. Wu H., Garza E., & Guzman N. (2015). International Student’s Challenge and Adjustment to College, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Education Research International,1-9. 13 Ó Springer 2010 Journal of Business Ethics (2011) 99:565–585 DOI 10.1007/s10551-010-0669-9 A Stakeholder Identity Orientation Approach to Corporate Social Performance in Family Firms ABSTRACT. Extending the dialogue on corporate social performance (CSP) as descriptive stakeholder management (Clarkson, Acad Manage Rev 20:92, 1995), we examine differences in CSP activity between family and nonfamily firms. We argue that CSP activity can be explained by the firm’s identity orientation toward stakeholders (Brickson, Admin Sci Quart 50:576, 2005; Acad Manage Rev 32:864, 2007). Specifically, individualistic, relational, or collectivistic identity orientations can describe a firm’s level of CSP activity toward certain stakeholders. Family firms, we suggest, adopt a more relational orientation toward their stakeholders than nonfamily firms, and thus engage in higher levels of CSP. Further, we invoke collectivistic identity orientation to argue that the higher the level of family or founder involvement within a family firm, the greater the level of CSP toward specific stakeholders. Using social performance rating data from 1991 to 2005, we find that family and nonfamily firms demonstrate notable differences in terms of social initiatives and social concerns. We also find that the level of family and founder involvement is related to the type and frequency of a family firm’s social initiatives and social concerns. KEY WORDS: corporate social performance, family firms, stakeholder theory Family firms – companies in which members of a family exert significant influence through controlling ownership and/or management – are unique as a result of family member involvement in decisions ...
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School: Boston College



Corporate Social Responsibility in Family Business

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Literature Review on Corporate Social Responsibility in Family Business
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is basically defined as a form of a business model that
regulates actions undertaken by an organization and help it become socially accountable. This happens in
various ways which revolve around rewarding and impacting the immediate community and society
environmentally, socially, and economically. In as far as CSR is concerned, there are various issues
influencing CSR both positively and negatively that are still under research.
According to Faller (2018), equity ownership is one of the issues facing CSR in family
businesses. He argues that “…the family, being the largest part of shareholders, have strong long-term
orientations and equity ownership positions and therefore they are able to pursue large projects to achieve
any nonfinancial and financial goals which have a strong effect on the CSR of the company” (p. 28).
Therefore, the other shareholders have no greater position to decide how to impact the community in
terms of promoting any CSR activity. Moreover, apart from equity ownership, another major issue facing
CSR is CRS reporting and content analysis. Campopiano (2015), argues that as compared to non-family
businesses, family businesses are less compliant to the major CSR standards set by both the organization
itself and also those set b...

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