unmotivated Clown

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Question Description

Read the attached case study "The Unmotivated Frowning Clown".

1. Describe how Chris could motivate Angela using expectancy theory. First describe exactly what Chris should do, and then explain how the proposed managerial action is supported by expectancy theory.

2. Describe how Chris could motivate Angela using Herzberg's theory. First describe exactly what Chris should do, and then explain how the proposed managerial action is supported by Herzberg's theory.

3. Describe how Chris could motivate Angela using equity theory. First describe exactly what Chris should do, and then explain how the proposed managerial action is supported by equity theory.

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The Unmotivated Frowning Clown Setting Smiling Clowns, Inc. provides live entertainment for children’s parties, corporate functions and other private events. Smiling Clowns has approximately 75 employees, many of whom work part time. The majority of the employees work as clowns, but the company also employs jugglers, magicians and balloon artists. Background Angela Watson wanted to be an entertainer her entire life. She majored in theater in college and trained under Bobo, one of the most famous clowns on the East Coast. Although Angela does not make much money, she normally enjoys her work and sees herself doing this line of work for the foreseeable future. When she first started working for Smiling Clowns, Angela told her employer that she would go to Balloon School on weekends to learn how to make balloon animals. Angela considers herself more as a thespian, though, and thinks that making balloons is beneath her. Consequently, she has been putting this off, but she is looking forward to attending Clown Camp during the summer so she can fine-tune her clown skills. Angela seems depressed recently. She has been fighting with her spouse, especially since her husband was laid off from work last March. Money is now very tight in Angela’s household. Angela also recently learned that her mother has cancer. To make matters worse, her beloved cat ran away last week. Normally, Angela can put on a smiling face when at work, but lately, this has been hard to do. On Sunday, Angela broke into tears at a child’s birthday party. Although the parents still tipped Angela, she sensed that they were not happy with her performance. News of this incident made its way back to her employer. Angela’s immediate supervisor, Chris, called her to his office to discuss the incident. Chris likes Angela and knows she is a good worker who is going through a tough time. Chris would like to meet with Angela to discuss her low performance (including tardiness and leaving parties early) and ways to improve it. Be sure that you are able to use at least one of the motivation theories from Chapter 8 to support any ideas about how to motivate Angela. Chapter 8 Motivation Motivation • The psychological forces acting on an individual that determine: – Direction—possible behaviors the individual could engage in – Effort—how hard the individual will work – Persistence—whether the individual will keep trying or give up • Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations Motivation • Intrinsically Motivated Behavior – Motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior – The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself • Extrinsically Motivated Behavior – Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. – The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior Need Theories • Need – A requirement for survival and well-being • Need Theories – Focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs – Determine what needs a worker wants satisfied – Ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy SelfActualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Needs Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs Description Examples Selfactualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higherlevel needs are addressed. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Needs Description Examples Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs Growth Self-development, creative work Continually improve skills Relatedness Interpersonal relations, feelings Good relations, accurate feedback Existence Food, water, clothing, and shelter Adequate pay for necessities After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised. McClelland’s Need for Power, Affiliation, & Achievement • Achievement – Need to perform challenging tasks well • Power – Desire to control or influence others • Affiliation – Concern for good interpersonal relations & being liked Herzberg’s Motivator - Hygeine • Motivators – Factors that can lead to job satisfaction & motivation – Intrinsic Factors – Enjoying the work, challenges, autonomy, accomplishment, developmental opportunities • Hygeine Factors – Factors that cause dissatisfaction – Extrinsic Factors – Working conditions, pay, job security, benefits Equity Theory • Perceived fairness of work outcomes relative to work inputs • People compare their input/output ratio with a referent other Equity Theory • Equity occurs when your input/output ratio equals the referent other’s ratio • People are motivated to keep Equity – Keep inputs consistent when outputs are consistent – Increase inputs if you want outputs increased Equity Theory • Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. – Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. – Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. Equity Theory Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity • Underpayment inequity – Decrease inputs, Increase outputs • Overpayment inequity – Increase inputs, Decrease outputs Expectancy Theory • Expectancy—the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance • Instrumentality—the belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes • Valence—the desirability of an outcome Expectancy Theory • Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence • If one of the values is low, motivation will be low. – Workers do not believe they can perform well. – Workers do not believe that performance and rewards are closely linked. – Workers do not value the rewards offered for performance. Goal-Setting Theory • Goals motivate behavior when they are: – Specific – help people focus their attention in the right direction – Difficult – challenges the individual to work hard; not too difficult. – Give Feedback – allows the individual to know how effective their behaviors are Job Design • Job Enlargement – Increasing the number of tasks for a given job to reduce boredom. • Job Enrichment – Increasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a job • Both should lead to employees showing initiative Job Characteristics Model Job Characteristic Skill variety Employee uses a wide range of skills. Task identity Worker is involved in all tasks of the job from beginning to end of the production process Task significance Worker feels the task is meaningful to organization. Autonomy Employee has freedom to schedule tasks and carry them out. Feedback Worker gets direct information about how well the job is done. Operant Conditioning • People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences • People learn to avoid behaviors that result in negative consequences Four Types of Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement – Positive outcomes follows a desirable behavior • Negative Reinforcement – Unpleasant event is removed when desired behavior occurs • Extinction – Remove all reinforcement • Punishment – Negative consequence follows an undesirable behavior Four Types of Reinforcement • Positive & Negative reinforcement Increase the frequency of Desirable behaviors. • Extinction & Punishment Decrease the frequency of Undesirable behaviors. ...
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School: Duke University

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The Unmotivated Frowning Clown


The two roles that are played in this case study are that of Angela Watson who is an
employee and Chris Thompson who is the supervisor. Among the sample goals of this case
study’s motivation is that Angela will reduce customer complaints. Moreover, Angela will
arrive on the incident to assignments 100% of the time. She will not leave her assignments
early, and she will also receive a 4.5 or average rating on client surveys. To achieve these
goals, the motivation theories that will be used to achieve these goals are illustrated below.
Herzberg Theory
By insisting that satisfaction is not the opposite of dissatisfaction, Herzberg in his
theory encourages managers to think carefully about what motivates employees, (Kreitner,
2008). From the case study, Chris could motivate Angela ...

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