The Unmotivated Frowning Clown
Smiling Clowns, Inc. provides live entertainment for children’s parties, corporate
functions and other private events. Smiling Clowns has approximately 75
employees, many of whom work part time. The majority of the employees work as
clowns, but the company also employs jugglers, magicians and balloon artists.
Angela Watson wanted to be an entertainer her entire life. She majored in theater
in college and trained under Bobo, one of the most famous clowns on the East
Although Angela does not make much money, she normally enjoys her work and
sees herself doing this line of work for the foreseeable future. When she first
started working for Smiling Clowns, Angela told her employer that she would go
to Balloon School on weekends to learn how to make balloon animals. Angela
considers herself more as a thespian, though, and thinks that making balloons is
beneath her. Consequently, she has been putting this off, but she is looking forward
to attending Clown Camp during the summer so she can fine-tune her clown skills.
Angela seems depressed recently. She has been fighting with her spouse, especially
since her husband was laid off from work last March. Money is now very tight in
Angela’s household. Angela also recently learned that her mother has cancer. To
make matters worse, her beloved cat ran away last week. Normally, Angela can put
on a smiling face when at work, but lately, this has been hard to do. On Sunday,
Angela broke into tears at a child’s birthday party. Although the parents still tipped
Angela, she sensed that they were not happy with her performance. News of this
incident made its way back to her employer. Angela’s immediate supervisor, Chris,
called her to his office to discuss the incident. Chris likes Angela and knows she is
a good worker who is going through a tough time. Chris would like to meet with
Angela to discuss her low performance (including tardiness and leaving parties
early) and ways to improve it.
Be sure that you are able to use at least one of the motivation theories from
Chapter 8 to support any ideas about how to motivate Angela.
• The psychological forces acting on an individual that
– Direction—possible behaviors the individual could
– Effort—how hard the individual will work
– Persistence—whether the individual will keep
trying or give up
• Explains why people behave the way they do in
• Intrinsically Motivated Behavior
– Motivation that comes from actually engaging
in the behavior
– The sense of accomplishment and achievement
derived from doing the work itself
• Extrinsically Motivated Behavior
– Behavior that is performed to acquire material
or social rewards or to avoid punishment.
– The source of the motivation is the
consequences of the behavior
– A requirement for survival and well-being
• Need Theories
– Focus on what needs people are trying to
satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy
– Determine what needs a worker wants
– Ensure that a person receives the outcomes
when performing well
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
to the fullest
Basic pay level
to buy items
Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higherlevel needs are addressed.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
clothing, and shelter
After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When
unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised.
McClelland’s Need for Power,
Affiliation, & Achievement
– Need to perform challenging tasks well
– Desire to control or influence others
– Concern for good interpersonal relations & being
Herzberg’s Motivator - Hygeine
– Factors that can lead to job satisfaction &
– Intrinsic Factors
– Enjoying the work, challenges, autonomy,
accomplishment, developmental opportunities
• Hygeine Factors
– Factors that cause dissatisfaction
– Extrinsic Factors
– Working conditions, pay, job security, benefits
• Perceived fairness of work outcomes relative
to work inputs
• People compare their input/output ratio with
a referent other
• Equity occurs when your input/output ratio
equals the referent other’s ratio
• People are motivated to keep Equity
– Keep inputs consistent when outputs are
– Increase inputs if you want outputs increased
• Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input
ratio is not equal to referent.
– Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the
– Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the
Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in
workers causing them to attempt to restore
• Underpayment inequity
– Decrease inputs, Increase outputs
• Overpayment inequity
– Increase inputs, Decrease outputs
• Expectancy—the belief that effort (input) will
result in a certain level of performance
• Instrumentality—the belief that performance
results in the attainment of outcomes
• Valence—the desirability of an outcome
• Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
• If one of the values is low, motivation will be low.
– Workers do not believe they can perform well.
– Workers do not believe that performance and
rewards are closely linked.
– Workers do not value the rewards offered for
• Goals motivate behavior when they are:
– Specific – help people focus their attention in the
– Difficult – challenges the individual to work hard;
not too difficult.
– Give Feedback – allows the individual to know
how effective their behaviors are
• Job Enlargement
– Increasing the number of tasks for a given job to
• Job Enrichment
– Increasing the degree of responsibility a worker
has over a job
• Both should lead to employees showing initiative
Job Characteristics Model
Employee uses a wide range of skills.
Worker is involved in all tasks of the job
from beginning to end of the production
Worker feels the task is meaningful to
Employee has freedom to schedule tasks
and carry them out.
Worker gets direct information about how
well the job is done.
• People learn to perform behaviors that lead to
• People learn to avoid behaviors that result in
Four Types of Reinforcement
• Positive Reinforcement
– Positive outcomes follows a desirable behavior
• Negative Reinforcement
– Unpleasant event is removed when desired behavior
– Remove all reinforcement
– Negative consequence follows an undesirable behavior
Four Types of Reinforcement
• Positive & Negative reinforcement Increase
the frequency of Desirable behaviors.
• Extinction & Punishment Decrease the
frequency of Undesirable behaviors.
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