scientific literalcy

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Question Description

You will then write a short essay, 1-2 pages in length, detailing the parts of the scientific method discussed in your article and comparing that information to what was reported in the news story. Each entry will be written in a logical and professional manner using the APA template attached to the post.

The entire entry must be written IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Direct quotes of the articles are not allowed. However, when you summarize or paraphrase something from one of the articles you will need to provide an in-text APA reference. The guide to APA referencing is attached to this post.

The essay must be written entirely in third person. DO NOT USE FIRST OR SECOND PERSON. This means you cannot use the words “I”, “we”, or “you”.

You will be graded on the following content that combines information you obtain from both the news story and the scientific article:

Introduction (1 paragraph)

This section identify which of the two articles was the scientific study and the subject of the scientific study. You will also identify the problem or observation that spurred the research. DO NOT LIST THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY ITSELF HERE. You will identify the hypothesis the scientists were testing. Remember that a hypothesis is a testable educated guess. Thus, it is not appropriate to pose a question here. However, while reading your articles, it can be helpful to ask yourself what explanation scientists tried to use to explain their initial observation. You will then transition into the body of the journal.

Body (~1 paragraph each)

Here, you will identify the test or experiment that was performed to address the hypothesis. You should be detailed here. It may be helpful to pull from other sources, if you do not fully understand how the experiment was conducted. After detailing how the experiment was done compared to how it reported in the media, you will transition into a discussion of the results.

In this section of your entry you will identify the experimental results that the scientists obtained. What did the scientists find after doing their experiment? Again, you can be detailed here. After detailing the results, you will transition into the conclusion sections.

The last paragraph of the body should explain the conclusion of the study. You should address whether the hypothesis was supported or rejected, and how the results led to that finding. Also provide a possible new avenue of research the scientists might pursue based on what was discovered in this study.

Evaluation (1 paragraph)

Here you will signal the end of your entry. In this section you will identify the new study about the scientific study and discuss whether or not the news story was a representative reporting of the scientific study. Did the news change anything or leave out something important from the scientific study? Summarize the important content from your entry, then you will end with a definitive final statement.

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Three glasses of fizz a day 'could improve your memory' A regular glass of champagne could improve your memory, according to scientists. Photo: Alamy By Victoria Ward 10:03AM BST 05 May 2013 Researchers found that three glasses of bubbly a day could help ward off brain disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. They discovered that a compound found in the black grapes, Pinot noir and Pinot meunier, both of which are used for champagne, helps stave off forgetfulness. Jeremy Spencer, a biochemistry professor at Reading University, said: “Dementia probably starts in the 40s and goes on to the 80s. It is a gradual decline and so the earlier people take these beneficial compounds in champagne, the better.” It is not the first time scientists have identified health benefits in champagne. In 2009, the same team found that it was as good for the heart as cocoa or red wine polyphenol antioxidants, which are believed to reduce the effects of cell-damaging free radicals in the body. The memory aid found in champagne is a different compound, phenolic acid. In the latest study, researchers found that the drink provoked a noticeable boost to spatial memory. The experiments were conducted on rats, which had champagne mashed into their food every day for six weeks. Each rat was then left to run in a maze to find an edible treat. Five minutes later, the exercise was repeated to see if the rat had remembered where it was found. Without champagne, the rats had a 50 per cent success rate, but after a tipple their score shot up to an average 70 per cent. Prof Spencer told the Mail on Sunday: "The results were dramatic. After rats consumed champagne regularly, there was a 200 per cent increase of proteins important for determining effective memory. This occurred in rats after just six weeks. We think it would take about three years in humans. "This research is exciting because it illustrates for the first time that moderate consumption of champagne has the potential to influence cognitive functioning such as memory.” He now hopes to conduct a trial on up to 60 pensioners who will be asked to drink champagne for three years. A spokesman for the Alzheimer's Society said: "This is an interesting study, especially for those who enjoy a glass of bubbly. However, people should not start celebrating just yet. This is the first time a link between champagne and dementia risk reduction has been found. A lot more research is needed.” How we moderate © Copyright of Telegraph Media Group Limited 2017 ARS-2012-5142-ver9-Corona_1P.3d 03/25/13 11:01am Page 1 ARS-2012-5142-ver9-Corona_1P Type: research-article ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Volume 00, Number 00, 2013 ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/ars.2012.5142 ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION AU1 c Phenolic Acid Intake, Delivered Via Moderate Champagne Wine Consumption, Improves Spatial Working Memory Via the Modulation of Hippocampal and Cortical Protein Expression/Activation AU2 c Giulia Corona,1,* David Vauzour1,*,{ Justine Hercelin,1 Claire M. Williams,2 and Jeremy P.E. Spencer1 Abstract Aims: While much data exist for the effects of flavonoid-rich foods on spatial memory in rodents, there are no such data for foods/beverages predominantly containing hydroxycinnamates and phenolic acids. To address this, we investigated the effects of moderate Champagne wine intake, which is rich in these components, on spatial memory and related mechanisms relative to the alcohol- and energy-matched controls. Results: In contrast to the isocaloric and alcohol-matched controls, supplementation with Champagne wine (1.78 ml/kg BW, alcohol 12.5% vol.) for 6 weeks led to an improvement in spatial working memory in aged rodents. Targeted protein arrays indicated that these behavioral effects were paralleled by the differential expression of a number of hippocampal and cortical proteins (relative to the isocaloric control group), including those involved in signal transduction, neuroplasticity, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Western immunoblotting confirmed the differential modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cAMP response-element-binding protein (CREB), p38, dystrophin, 2¢,3¢-cyclic-nucleotide 3¢-phosphodiesterase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Bcl-xL in response to Champagne supplementation compared to the control drink, and the modulation of mTOR, Bcl-xL, and CREB in response to alcohol supplementation. Innovation: Our data suggest that smaller phenolics such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, caftaric acid, and caffeic acid, in addition to flavonoids, are capable of exerting improvements in spatial memory via the modulation in hippocampal signaling and protein expression. Conclusion: Changes in spatial working memory induced by the Champagne supplementation are linked to the effects of absorbed phenolics on cytoskeletal proteins, neurotrophin expression, and the effects of alcohol on the regulation of apoptotic events in the hippocampus and cortex. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. Introduction neurotoxin-induced injury (39, 64), suppress neuroinflammation (57), and promote memory and learning (30, 42, 45, 60). In addition to this, numerous epidemiological studies have reported that a low-to-moderate intake of wine (1–2 glasses per day), which is also rich in flavonoids, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, dementia, and cognitive impairment (25, 27, 28, 37). As such, there is an interest in the potential of regular, moderate wine D eclines in both cognitive and motor performance due to structural- and activity-related changes in neuronal and glial function are known to occur during normal aging (15). Recently, flavonoid-containing foods/beverages have received much attention with regard to their neuroprotective effects (49), including a potential to protect neurons against 1 Molecular Nutrition Group, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom. 2 School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom. { Current affiliation: Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom. *These authors contributed equally to the work. 1 ARS-2012-5142-ver9-Corona_1P.3d 03/25/13 11:01am Page 2 2 CORONA ET AL. Innovation Flavonoid-rich foods and beverages have been shown to exert a multiplicity of neuroprotective effects in the brain, whereas little is known regarding the actions of smaller phenolics/polyphenols. Our data provide the first evidence that phenolics such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, caftaric acid, and caffeic acid, delivered via moderate Champagne wine intake, also induce improvements in spatial memory in aged rodents and are dependent on the potential of these phenolics to modulate the expression of a number of proteins in the cortex and hippocampus related to the control of cell signaling, neuronal plasticity, cell cycle, and apoptosis. consumption to counteract normal brain aging and in improving memory and learning, through their potential to deliver relatively high amounts of flavonoids (8, 10). However, although red wines contain high levels of flavonoids and other phenolics relative to white wines (32), Champagne wine is relatively rich in phenolic compounds (65) such as hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (and their tartaricderivative esters), phenolic alcohols, and phenolic aldehydes (6). The increased levels of phenolics in Champagne wine compared to other white wines derive predominantly from the two red grapes, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier, which are used in its production along with the white grape Chardonnay (9). As such, it is hypothesized that Champagne may deliver significant quantities of phenolics, which may in turn be capable of driving vascular and neuronal effects capable of mediating changes in the cognitive performance. Previously, Champagne wine consumption has been observed to improving acute vascular function (62), in a similar manner to that of red wine (7, 12). Further, tyrosol, caffeic acid, and gallic acid, the phenolic compounds found at relatively high concentrations in Champagne, have been shown to potently inhibit peroxynitrite-induced cellular injury at physiologically relevant concentrations (0.1 to 10 lM) (65), while nanomolar levels of tyrosol, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid protect cortical neurons against 5-S-cysteinyldopamine induced injury (61). Indeed, the levels of protection induced by these phenolics were equal to that, if not greater than, observed for a similar concentration of the flavonoids, ( + )-catechin, ( - )-epicatechin, and quercetin (61). The hydroxycinnamate, caffeic acid, has also been shown to be neuroprotective, counteracting inflammatory injury induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by decreasing the production of a number of inflammatory cytokines, downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and lowering the production of NO and PGE2 (56). In addition, caffeic acid–phenethyl ester may protect cerebellar granule neurons against glutamate-induced neuronal death via inhibition of p38 phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation (67) and significantly prevents hypoxic ischemic-induced neonatal rat brain damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus (68). Despite these data, the impact of such phenolics on neuronal function/activity has received little attention relative to flavonoids, in particular in animal and human trials, and there is a lack of understanding with regard to their mechanisms of action in the brain in vivo. In particular, there are no data relating to the consumption of small phenolics and hydroxycinnamates, such as those present in Champagne wine on memory and neurocognitive performance. To address this, we have investigated the potential effects of moderate, medium-term Champagne wine intake on age-related deficits in spatial working memory and motor performance and the potential mechanisms of action in the hippocampus and cortex. Results Analysis of phenolic constituents in Champagne wine The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the phenolic extract obtained from Champagne wine allowed us to identify and quantify the major constituents present (Fig. 1). The chromatographic profile of the organic b F1 extract at 280 nm (Fig. 1A) and 320 nm (Fig. 1B) highlights the major phenolic components in the Champagne extract utilized: gallic acid (peak 1), protocatechuic acid (peak 2), tyrosol (peak 3), caftaric acid (peak 4), and caffeic acid (peak 5). Overlapping standard runs with the flavonoids catechin (Std 6), epicatechin (Std 7), and the stilbene resveratrol (Std 8) indicated that these polyphenols were undetectable in the Champagne used (Fig. 1). The major phenolics identified (Fig. 1C) were quantified to precisely characterize the intake on supplementation of the Champagne intervention (Fig. 1D). Food intake and animal weight. Animals were fed daily with Champagne, an isocaloric control or an isocaloric alcoholcontaining control (Fig. 1D). There were no significant differences in food intake among the three groups throughout the study period (isocaloric control: 20.81 g/day; alcohol control: 20.42 g/day; Champagne group: 20.36 g; p > 0.05). At baseline, the control, alcohol, and Champagne group animals weighed 478.11 ( – 18.23), 484.63 ( – 48.06), and 455.15 ( – 36.97) g, respectively, and there was no significant weight change throughout the intervention period in any of the groups (average weights at week 6: 480.70 – 15.75, 490.80 – 50.43, and 462.19 – 31.20 g, respectively; p > 0.05). Spatial working memory. At baseline, the animals performed at an average choice accuracy of 4.25 ( – 0.27), and there was no significant difference in choice accuracy between the three experimental groups (Fig. 2). At 6 weeks, there was a b F2 reduction in the choice accuracy of the both isocaloric control group (3.50 – 0.27) and alcohol group (4.00 – 0.38) and an increase in the choice accuracy of the Champagne group (5.29 – 0.18). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures indicated that there were no significant changes with respect to time (F(1,20) = 0.022, MSE = 0.026, p = 0.884), or between treatments (F(2,20) = 1.863, MSE = 2.734, p = 0.181), but there was a trend to significance with regard to the interaction between treatment and time (F(2,20) = 2.955, MSE = 3.536, p = 0.075). Bonferroni post-hoc analysis indicated that this trend to significance was predominantly driven by a significant difference in choice accuracy between the isocaloric control group and the Champagne group at 6 weeks ( p < 0.01). Motor performance. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures indicated that there was no significant affect of the interventions on the distance covered by the animals on ARS-2012-5142-ver9-Corona_1P.3d 03/25/13 11:01am Page 3 CHRONIC CHAMPAGNE CONSUMPTION IMPROVES SPATIAL MEMORY 3 FIG. 1. Major constituents of the control and test interventions. Chromatographic separation of the aqueous/organic extract of Champagne wine at (A) 280 nm and (B) 320 nm, indicating quantified phenolics in the extract (1 to 5), and standards of epicatechin (Std 6), catechin (Std 7), and resveratrol (Std 8) to mark their potential retention time. (C) Structures of major phenolic compounds present: 1: gallic acid; 2: protocatechuic acid; 3: tyrosol; 4: caftaric acid; 5: caffeic acid. (D) Quantification of phenolic compounds and of other major constituents of the control and test interventions. beam-walking tests (time: F(1,19) = 1.101, MSE = 0.621, p = 0.307; treatment: F(2,19) = 0.855, MSE = 4.058, p = 0.441; interaction: F(2,19) = 1.080, MSE = 0.609, p = 0.360) (Fig. 2A). Similarly, the latency time (Fig. 2B) was not significantly affected by the control or Champagne intervention for 6 weeks (time: F(1,19) = 1.703, MSE = 33.783, p = 0.208; treatment: F(2,19) = 0.441, MSE = 36.414, p = 0.650; interaction: F(2,19) = 0.293, MSE = 5.814, p = 0.749). In agreement with this, there were no significant effects of any of the treatments on calculated walking speed (Fig. 2C; time: F(1,19) = 1.742, MSE = 41.637, p = 0.203; treatments (F(2,19) = 1.155, MSE = 52.296, p = 0.336; interaction: F(2,19) = 0.690, MSE = 16.500, p = 0.514). These data suggest that neither alcohol nor Champagne intervention had an influence on motor performance. Protein expression array. Forty hippocampal (Fig. 4) and b F4 31 cortical (Fig. 5) proteins related to signal transduction, b F5 neuroplasticity, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation were ARS-2012-5142-ver9-Corona_1P.3d 03/25/13 11:02am Page 4 4 CORONA ET AL. FIG. 2. Effect of Champagne supplementation on rat’s spatial memory performance measured as choice accuracy (number of correct choices) in a T-maze alternation task. Maximum score is 8 correct choices. Results are presented as means – SEM (n = 8). Two-way ANOVA indicated a trend to significance on the interaction between treatment and time (F3.536 = 2.955, p = 0.075), and Bonferroni post hoc test indicated a significant effect of Champagne vs control at 6 weeks (b = p < 0.01). ANOVA, analysis of variance. significantly modulated ( p < 0.05) after 6 weeks of Champagne intake relative to the isocaloric control. In both the hippocampus and cortex, Champagne intervention modulated a range of proteins involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling cascade, such as p38 and phosphoRaf. In addition, in the cortex, Champagne downregulated the expression of some calcium-activated protein kinases (PKC a, PKC b, and PKC g) and phospholipases C and A2. Champagne intervention increased the expression of the myelinassociated enzyme 2¢,3¢-cyclic-nucleotide 3¢-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampus, and a range of neuroplasticityrelated proteins in both the hippocampus and cortex (dysAU3 c trophin, plakoglobin, tryptophane hydroxylase, and spectrin), whereas it downregulated NGFR p75 and NMDAR-2a receptors in the cortex only. Finally, Champagne supplementation also led to the modulation of apoptotic proteins (i.e., caspases and Bcl family proteins) and cell cycle/nuclear proteins, including those of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-x, and cyclin A and Cdc27 in both the hippocampus and cortex. Probe protein array analysis provided several new candidate proteins that were selected based on the expression levels and role in neuronal plasticity (p38, CNPase, dystrophin, and Bcl-xL), along with the previously identified proteins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), pro-BDNF, cAMP response-element-binding protein (CREB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Erk, JNK, Akt, Arc, and PKA C-a absent in the array, for further evaluation and/or confirmation by western immunoblotting. A complete list of the proteins analyzed with the protein array is presented as a SF1 c supplementary material (Supplementary Fig. S1: hippocamAU4 c pus, and Supplementary Fig. S2: cortex; Supplementary Data are available online at SF2 c Immunoblotting. In comparison to the isocaloric and alcohol control interventions, Champagne intervention led to FIG. 3. Effect of Champagne supplementation on rat’s motor skills (stationary-beam scores) in Champagne-supplemented animals. (A) Distance. (B) Latency time. (C) Walking speed. Results are presented as means – SEM (n = 8). b AU7 No significant differences were found (two-way ANOVA). significant increases in the hippocampal levels of phosphop38, pCREB (Ser133) and BDNF ( p < 0.001; p < 0.05; and p < 0.001, respectively) (Fig. 6A). In addition, there was a b F6 significant positive correlation between the hippocampal BDNF levels in individual animal performance on spatial memory tasks (R = 0.613, p < 0.01) (Fig. 6B) and between the hippocampal phospho-p38 levels and spatial performance (R = 0.681, p < 0.01). Similarly, Champagne intervention led to the increased expression of dystrophin and CNPase ( p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) (Fig. 7), with a significant positive b F7 correlation existing between spatial memory task performance and hippocampal levels of dystrophin (R = 0.74, p < 0.05) and CNPase (R = 0.529, p < 0.05). In contrast, mTOR phosphorylation and Bcl-xL were altered by both the Champagne and alcohol treatments (Fig. 8). b F8 Hippocampal levels of Bcl-xL were found to be significantly reduced in animals supplemented with both Champagne ( p < 0.001) and alcohol ( p < 0.01) compared to the control, although to a greater extent in the Champagne group ( p < 0.001). mTOR activation on the other hand was significantly higher in both the Champagne- ( p < 0.001) and alcoholsupplemented animals ( p < 0.05) compared to the isocaloric ARS-2012-5142-ver9-Corona_1P.3d 03/25/13 11:02am Page 5 CHRONIC CHAMPAGNE CONSUMPTION IMPROVES SPATIAL MEMORY 5 FIG. 4. Differentially expressed proteins (antibody array) in the hippocampus between the Champagne- and control-treated animals. Results are presented as mean log2-ratios – SD (n = 4). All changes were statistically significant ( p < 0.05). control. Champagne-induced hippocampal changes in the p38, CNPase, dystrophin, and Bcl-xL levels in the hippocampus were in agreement with those observed using antibody arrays (Fig. 4). There were no significant alterations in the activation state, or expression of, Akt, Arc, Erk, JNK, PKA C-a, and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus in response to either T1 c alcohol or Champagne intervention (Table 1). With regard to protein expression in the cortex, the effect on mTOR was opposite to that observed in the hippocampus, with ...
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