Ideology Essay (1-2 paragraph)

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For this you are going to have to read a little 4 page story (link provided) you are going to have to use Ideologies you can choose out of are Anthropology, Cosmology, Axiology, Epistemology, Theology, Sociology, Soteriology, Teleology. the minimum sentences to be used is 6. should be very easy, should not take much time. Good punctuation use. also use quotes from story. MAKE SURE TO READ DIRECTIONS.

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Analytical Reading Bedford Essay 40 points Bedford Writers: Cisneros, del Toro, Ericsson, Lutz, Naylor, Nordlinger, Sowell, Black, Sutherland, Wallace, King, Javdani, Mairs, Twenge Ideologies covered in Quarter 1: Anthropology, Axiology, Theology, Sociology, Soteriology, Teleology. Assignment: Pick an article or speech from the class readings to answer the essay prompt. Essay Prompt: How does the author see the world? In other words, in the article bestowed upon you, what do you feel is the author’s most dominate ideological view or most important ideological view? After addressing the author’s ideological view support your claim with at least FOUR quotes from the text. Quotes should be set up with context before given. For example: Johnny, in his last minutes, leans over to Ponyboy and whispers, “Stay gold” (152). 1. 2. 3. 4. What is King’s theology? (his opinion of who God is and the role He plays in this article) What is Lutz’s anthropology? (his opinion of man’s nature—is he born good, bad, ugly?) What is Orwell’s sociology? (his opinion of what society is and how it is formed and why it is formed that way) First, write an introduction in which you state the author’s name and his book, and then compose your thesis—the thesis is your claim on one of the four prompts, e.g. “George Orwell’s theology suggests that God is…” or “Dr. King’s anthropology suggests that man is…” Remember that your thesis should be the last se=ntence of your introduction. Second, create at least one body paragraph in which you give examples from the text that support your thesis. Do not summarize the plot! Reiterating the details of the article does not support your claims. Instead, quote only the passages of the text that clearly reinforce your opinion of the author’s ideology. Remember to use integrated citations that complete your own sentences. Finally, conclude your paper by comparing the author’s ideological with your own. This conclusion should be at least 6 sentences. Requirements: • 3/4 page minimum, single-spaced • 12 font, Times New Roman • Perfect punctuation • 4 quotes minimum • Perfect mechanics • MLA formatting: -2 for each header mistake; -1 for all spacing mistakes • Great title • Final Draft AR 01 – AR 02 – AR 03 – First Draft • AR 01 –Due E day, Wednesday October 17th. (Late 1st drafts will not be graded). • AR 02 –Due D day, Tuesday October 16th. (Late 1st drafts will not be graded). • AR 03—Due D day, Tuesday October 16th (Late 1st drafts will not be graded). • No late papers will be accepted for 1st drafts—NO EXCEPTIONS THIS TIME!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 12 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 12 Critical Reading The First Reading On first reading an essay, you don’t want to bog down over every troublesome particular. Mairs’s “Disability” is written for an educated audience, and that means the author may use a few large words when they seem necessary. If you meet any words that look intimidating, take them in your stride. When, in reading a rich essay, you run into an unfamiliar word or name, see if you can figure it out from its surroundings. If a word stops you cold and you feel lost, circle it in pencil; you can always look it up later. (In a little while we’ll come back to the helpful habit of reading with a pencil. Indeed, some readers feel more confident with pencil in hand from the start.) The first time you read an essay, size up the forest; later, you can squint at the acorns all you like. Glimpse the essay in its entirety. When you start to read “Disability,” don’t even think about dissecting it. Just see what Mairs has to say. 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 13 NANCY MAIRS A self-described “radical feminist, pacifist, and cripple,” NANCY MAIRS aims to “speak the ‘unspeakable.’ ” Her poetry, memoirs, and essays deal with many sensitive subjects, including her struggles with the debilitating disease of multiple sclerosis. Born in Long Beach, California, in 1943, Mairs grew up in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. She received a BA from Wheaton College in Massachusetts (1964) and an MFA in creative writing (1975) and a PhD in English literature (1984) from the University of Arizona. While working on her advanced degrees, Mairs taught high school and college writing courses. Her second book of poetry, In All the Rooms of the Yellow House (1984), received a Western States Arts Foundation book award. Her essays are published in Plaintext (1986), Remembering the Bone-House (1988), Carnal Acts (1990), Ordinary Time (1993), Waist High in the World: A Life Among the Nondisabled (1996), and A Troubled Guest (2001). She is currently working on a book that explores how religious principles can inform social and political debates. Disability As a writer afflicted with multiple sclerosis, Nancy Mairs is in a unique position to examine how the culture responds to people with disabilities. In this essay from Carnal Acts, she examines the media’s depiction of disability and argues with her usual unsentimental candor that the media must treat disability as normal. The essay was first published in 1987 in the New York Times. To what extent is Mairs’s critique of the media still valid today? For months now I’ve been consciously searching for representation of myself in the media, especially television. I know I’d recognize this self because of certain distinctive, though not unique, features: I am a forty-threeyear-old woman crippled with multiple sclerosis; although I can still totter short distances with the aid of a brace and a cane, more and more of the time I ride in a wheelchair. Because of these appliances and my peculiar gait, I’m easy to spot even in a crowd. So when I tell you I haven’t noticed any women like me on television, you can believe me. Actually, last summer I did see a woman with multiple sclerosis portrayed on one of those medical dramas that offer an illness-of-the-week like the daily special at your local diner. In fact, that was the whole point of the show: that this poor young woman had MS. She was terribly upset (understandably, I assure you) by the diagnosis, and her response was to plan a trip to Kenya while she was still physically capable of making it, against the advice of the young, fit, handsome doctor who had fallen in love with her. And she almost did it. At least, she got as far as a taxi to the airport, hotly pursued by the doctor. But 13 1 2 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 14 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 14 Critical Reading at the last she succumbed to his blandishments and fled the taxi into his manly protective embrace. No escape to Kenya for this cripple. Capitulation into the arms of a man who uses his medical powers to strip one of even the urge toward independence is hardly the sort of representation I had in mind. But even if the situation had been sensitively handled, according to the woman her right to her own adventures, it wouldn’t have been what I’m looking for. Such a television show, as well as films like Duet for One and Children of a Lesser God, in taking disability as its major premise, excludes the complexities that round out a character and make her whole. It’s not about a woman who happens to be physically disabled; it’s about physical disability as the determining factor of a woman’s existence. Take it from me, physical disability looms pretty large in one’s life. But it doesn’t devour one wholly. I’m not, for instance, Ms. MS, a walking, talking embodiment of a chronic incurable degenerative disease. In most ways I’m just like every other woman of my age, nationality, and socioeconomic background. I menstruate, so I have to buy tampons. I worry about smoker’s breath, so I buy mouthwash. I smear my wrinkling skin with lotions. I put bleach in the washer so my family’s undies won’t be dingy. I drive a car, talk on the telephone, get runs in my pantyhose, eat pizza. In most ways, that is, I’m the advertisers’ dream: Ms. Great American Consumer. And yet the advertisers, who determine nowadays who will get represented publicly and who will not, deny the existence of me and my kind absolutely. I once asked a local advertiser why he didn’t include disabled people in his spots. His response seemed direct enough: “We don’t want to give people the idea that our product is just for the handicapped.” But tell me truly now: If you saw me pouring out puppy biscuits, would you think these kibbles were only for the puppies of the cripples? If you saw my blind niece ordering a Coke, would you switch to Pepsi lest you be struck sightless? No, I think the advertiser’s excuse masked a deeper and more anxious rationale: To depict disabled people in the ordinary activities of daily life is to admit that there is something ordinary about disability itself, that it may enter anybody’s life. If it is effaced completely, or at least isolated as a separate “problem,” so that it remains at a safe distance from other human issues, then the viewer won’t feel threatened by her or his own physical vulnerability. This kind of effacement or isolation has painful, even dangerous consequences, however. For the disabled person, these include self-degradation and a subtle kind of self-alienation not unlike that experienced by other minorities. Socialized human beings love to conform, to study others and then mold themselves to the contours of those whose images, for good reasons or bad, they come to love. Imagine a life in which feasible others — others you can hope to be like — don’t exist. At the least you might conclude that there is 3 4 5 6 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 15 Mairs / Disability 15 something queer about you, something ugly or foolish or shameful. In the extreme, you might feel as though you don’t exist, in any meaningful social sense, at all. Everyone else is “there,” sucking breath mints and splashing cologne and swigging wine coolers. You’re “not there.” And if not there, nowhere. But this denial of disability imperils even you who are able-bodied, and not just by shrinking your insight into the physically and emotionally complex world you live in. Some disabled people call you TAPs, or Temporarily Abled Persons. The fact is that ours is the only minority you can join involuntarily, without warning, at any time. And if you live long enough, as you’re increasingly likely to do, you may well join it. The transition will probably be difficult from a physical point of view no matter what. But it will be a good bit easier psychologically if you are accustomed to seeing disability as a normal characteristic, one that complicates but does not ruin human existence. Achieving this integration, for disabled and able-bodied people alike, requires that we insert disability daily into our field of vision: quietly, naturally, in the small and common scenes of our ordinary lives. 7 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 12/17/07 12:10 PM Page 16 Critical Reading 16 Writing While Reading In giving an essay a going-over, many readers find a pencil in hand as good as a currycomb for a horse’s mane. The pencil (or pen or computer keyboard) concentrates the attention wonderfully, and, as often happens with writing, it can lead you to unexpected questions and connections. (Some readers favor markers that roll pink or yellow ink over a word or line, making the eye jump to that spot, but you can’t use a highlighter to note why a word or an idea is important.) You can annotate your own books, underlining essential ideas, scoring key passages with vertical lines, writing questions in the margins about difficult words or concepts, venting feelings (“Bull!” “Yes!” “Says who?”). Here, as an example, are the jottings of one student, Rosie Anaya, on a paragraph of Mairs’s essay: ? This kind of effacement or isolation has painful, even dangerous consequences, however. For the disabled person, these include self-degradation and a subtle kind of self-alienation not unlike that experienced by other minorities. Socialized human beings love to conform, to study others and then mold themselves to the contours of those whose images, for good reasons or bad, they come to love. Imagine a life in which feasible others — others you can hope to be like — don’t exist. At the least you might conclude that there is something queer about you, something ugly or foolish or shameful. In the extreme, you might feel as though you don’t exist, in any meaningful social sense, at all. Everyone else is “there,” sucking breath mints and splashing cologne and swigging wine coolers. You’re “not there.” And if not there, nowhere. IMPORTANT Why “self”? True? What about individuality? ✔ emotions examples are insignificant, but that’s the point If a book is borrowed, you can accomplish the same thing by making notes on a separate sheet of paper or on your computer. Whether you own the book or not, you’ll need separate notes for responses that are lengthier and more substantial than the margins can contain, such as the informal responses, summaries, detailed analyses, and evaluations discussed below. For such notes, you may find a JOURNAL handy. It can be a repository of your ideas, a comfortable place to record meandering or direct thoughts about what you read. You may be surprised to find that the more you write in an unstructured way, the more you’ll have to say when it’s time to write a structured essay. (For more on journals, see p. 35.) Writing while reading helps you behold the very spine of an essay, as if in an X-ray view, so that you, as much as any expert, can judge its curves and connections. You’ll develop an opinion about what you read, and you’ll want to express it. While reading this way, you’re being a writer. Your pencil 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 17 Reading an Essay 17 tracks or keystrokes will jog your memory, too, when you review for a test, when you take part in class discussion, or when you want to write about what you’ve read. Summarizing It’s usually good practice, especially with more difficult essays, to SUMMAthe content in writing to be sure you understand it or, as often happens, to come to understand it. (We’re suggesting that you write summaries for yourself, but the technique is also useful when you discuss other people’s works in your writing, as shown on p. 54.) In summarizing a work of writing, you digest, in your own words, what the author says: You take the essence of the author’s meaning, without the supporting evidence and other details that make that gist convincing or interesting. When you are practicing reading and the work is short (the case with the reading you do in this book), you may want to make this a two-step procedure: First write a summary sentence for every paragraph or related group of paragraphs; then summarize those sentences in two or three others that capture the heart of the author’s meaning. Here is a two-step summary of “Disability.” (The numbers in parentheses refer to paragraph numbers in the essay.) First, the longer version: RIZE (1) Mairs searches the media in vain for depictions of women like herself with disabilities. (2) One TV movie showed a woman recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, but she chose dependence over independence. (3) Such shows oversimplify people with disabilities by making disability central to their lives. (4) People with disabilities live lives and consume goods like everyone else, but the media ignore them. (5) Showing disability as ordinary would remind nondisabled viewers that they are vulnerable. (6) The media’s exclusion of others like themselves deprives people with disabilities of role models and makes them feel undesirable or invisible. (7) Nondisabled viewers lose an understanding that could enrich them and would help them adjust to disability of their own. Now the short summary: Mairs believes that the media, by failing to depict disability as ordinary, both marginalize viewers with disabilities and impair the outlook and coping skills of the “temporarily abled.” Thinking Critically Summarizing will start you toward understanding the author’s meaning, but it won’t take you as far as you’re capable of going, or as far as you’ll need 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 18 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 18 Critical Reading to go in school or work or just to live well in our demanding Information Age. Passive, rote learning (such as memorizing the times tables in arithmetic) won’t do. You require techniques for comprehending what you encounter. But more: You need tools for discovering the meaning and intentions of an essay or case study or business letter or political message. You need ways to discriminate between the trustworthy and the not so and to apply what’s valid in your own work and life. We’re talking here about critical thinking — not “negative,” the common conception of critical, but “thorough, thoughtful, question asking, judgment forming.” When you approach something critically, you harness your faculties, your fund of knowledge, and your experiences to understand, appreciate, and evaluate the object. Using this book — guided by questions on meaning, writing strategy, and language — you’ll read an essay and ask what the author’s purpose and main idea are, how clear they are, and how well supported. You’ll isolate which writing techniques the author has used to special advantage, what hits you as particularly fresh, clever, or wise — and what doesn’t work, too. You’ll discover exactly what the writer is saying, how he or she says it, and whether, in the end, it was worth saying. In class discussions and in writing, you’ll tell others what you think and why. Critical thinking is a process involving several overlapping operations: analysis, inference, synthesis, and evaluation. Analysis Say you’re listening to a new album by a band called Domix. Without thinking much about it, you isolate melodies, song lyrics, and instrumentals — in other words, you ANALYZE the album by separating it into its parts. Analysis is a way of thinking so basic to us that it has its own chapter (9) in this book. For reading in this book, you’ll consciously analyze essays by looking at the author’s main idea, support for the idea, special writing strategies, and other elements. Analysis underlies many of the other methods of development discussed in this book, so that while you are analyzing a subject you might also (even unconsciously) begin classifying it, or comparing it with something else, or figuring out what caused it. For instance, you might compare Domix’s new instrumentals with those on the band’s earlier albums, or you might notice that the lyrics seem to be influenced by another band’s. Similarly, in analyzing a poem you might compare several images of water, or in analyzing a journal article in psychology you might consider how the author’s theories affect her interpretations of behavior. 41438 01 001-184 KENN 10e r5jk 12/17/07 12:10 0 PM Page 19 Reading an Essay 19 Inference Say that after listening to Domix’s new album, you conclude that it reveals a preoccupation with traditional blues music and themes. Now you are using INFERENCE, drawing conclusions about a work based on your store of information and experience, your knowledge of the creator’s background and biases, and your analysis. When you infer, you add to the work, making explicit what was only implicit. In critical thinking, inference is especially important in discovering a writer’s ASSUMPTIONS: opinions or beliefs, often unstated, that direct the writer’s choices of ideas, support, writing strategies, and ...
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Analysis of ‘Disability’ by Nancy Mairs
The short story to be analyzed is ‘Disability’ by Nancy Mairs, who describes herself as a
radical feminist. There is a need to mention that the radical feminists not only advocate for the
rights of women but also seek to a reversal of the social order in which there is a patriarchal
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