Fluid mechanics lab report (topic: Auscultatory and Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurements)

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I have a lab report due on Thursday midnight (EST). wish if I can get some help write. I also have a previous different lab. (it is about a different topic but has a lot of feedback that can help you better write this lab. I have attached the marked first lab so you can take a look at the notes that the Prof has provided and need to be fixed in this lab.


Hello all,

I just wanted to make sure I communicated some feedback from Lab #1. Overall, the labs were done well. Please make sure to read the comments on your lab and consider the feedback when writing up Lab #2.

A few general points to note:

  • Please make sure you include all the sections the lab requires, I've attached the lab report guidelines here again as a reference
  • For the 'Summary' and 'Conclusion' sections please make sure you briefly state your final results and final conclusions (just a couple of sentences will do). For Lab #1 I was looking for average viscosity numbers and whether each fluid was Newtonian or non-Newtonian
  • Please include all your data tables in an appendix and refer to it when answering the questions. When asked to report data please be specific (ex. for question #2 in Lab #1 it would be best if you reported the average viscosities in the text instead of saying "refer to Table 1 for the viscosities")
  • For the 'Results and Discussion' section make sure you answer all the questions in the lab manual
  • Please include a very brief summary of the experimental procedure
  • For the 'Analysis' section please make sure you systematically go over each equation you used in your calculations and relate it to the lab. Please don't just provide a list of equations, explain how you went from what is measured in the lab to your final results


  • Discussion was missing a lot of answers to the questions in the lab Manual. For next lab report please write a full paragraph for each question answering it fully.
  • Equations need to be explained and show the full derivations (from Fluids equations, example: Bernoulli's equation). By explain it also includes the conditions were the equation can be used. And all this needs to be in the analysis section
  • include all the assumptions that were considered to derive the equations used. For example: you can assume that a system is
  • Sample hand written calculations need to be attached
  • all data, tables, graphs need to be in the appendix and refer to them in the results and discussion section.

Please follow the instruction in the lab manual "LAB_2.pdf" and the lab should be structured as advised in the "Lab_Report_Requirements.pdf". Please take into consideration all the feedback in lab 1 "lab 1 marked.pdf".

please let me know if you have any questions.

note: I have attached the data sheet bellow (data collected in the lab and required to calculate the results of the lab)

Fluid mechanics lab report (topic:  Auscultatory and Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurements)
Fluid mechanics lab report (topic:  Auscultatory and Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurements)

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There will be no penalty for hand-written reports, provided they are clear and readable. There will be no bonus for laser-printed reports. 2.0 REPORT REQUIREMENTS The report should contain, IN THE ORDER GIVEN BELOW, the following items: Title page: Correct title, author and date. Also note the group number and names of the partners at the bottom of the page. Authors should include their email address. Summary: A brief statement of the purpose of the experiment and a very concise summary of the main results and conclusions. It should not exceed about 200 words in length. The goal is to enable a potential reader to see if the report contains material of interest to him/her. See the end of this section for a sample Summary. Nomenclature (also called List of Symbols): Lists all the symbols, parameters, and variables with their appropriate units. Analysis: The outlines of the experiments indicate specific analyses which must be included. Equations should be numbered where appropriate so that reference can be made to them in the discussion of the results. Experimental Setup and Procedure: This section must include a neat, fully-labelled schematic drawing of the experimental setup. Apart from this, if the experiment was conducted entirely according to the outline in the manual, a single sentence to that effect is sufficient. Otherwise, record any deviations from the outline (eg. due to problems with the apparatus or instrumentation) with a brief explanation. Results and Discussion: This section presents and discusses the data acquired during the experiment. Where possible, results should be plotted to facilitate comparisons and assessments. These graphs should be placed within the text. Reference can be made to the Appendix in which the detailed results are tabulated, but the main body of the report must be readable without reference to this Appendix. 1 The results should be interpreted and assessed for accuracy and credibility. Any discrepancies should be discussed: this includes the major sources of error and plausible magnitudes of these errors, and any particularly interesting or unusual features of the results. Conclusions: This section lists the specific conclusions arrived at on the basis of the work described in the report. Conclusions must be significant, pertinent and valid; they must be substantiated by data and discussion in this report, and they must be appropriate. References (if appropriate): Citations are to be correctly ordered and should include authors, titles, periodical title or publisher as appropriate, and date of publication. (A reference is incomplete unless a reader can actually locate it.) Appendices: These should be properly identified as to their content. The signed original data sheet(s) must be attached as an appendix. A second appendix presents the detailed analysis of the measurements, including: sample calculations for all but the most trivial calculations; detailed data tables (eg. in the form of the output from a spreadsheet program, if used); and listings of any computer programs written to analyse the data. Semi-formal reports such as the present one might be prepared for internal use in a company. They can omit the detailed discussion of the background, theory and experimental methods which would normally be included in a more formal report, such as one prepared for an outside client. The "Summary" must therefore provide any introductory comments needed to make the report understandable. As an example, the following might be a suitable summary for a semi-formal report which reports a performance test for a centrifugal pump: "Pressure rise versus flow rate measurements were made for a Model 255 centrifugal pump at rotational speeds of 600, 1200 and 1800 RPM. The non-dimensional head coefficient versus flow coefficient data were found to fall on a single curve. This indicates that the pump performance is not a function of Reynolds number for the range of conditions examined. For each speed, the inlet pressure was also reduced, for constant pressure rise across the pump, until cavitation occurred. The average value of the Suction Specific Speed (a cavitation parameter) was found to be 2.4. This is at the low end of the range typically found for centrifugal pumps. Thus, the present pump has somewhat poor resistance to cavitation." 3.0 REPORT SUBMISSION Each member of every laboratory group must submit an individually written report on each of the experiments. The report on each experiment must be submitted in person in the P.A. one week after the completion of the experiment. Marked reports will be returned at the beginning of the next laboratory session. Missing reports must be reported to the T.A. as soon as possible. The late penalty is 10 marks/day (or fraction thereof) out of a maximum possible of 40 marks. One complete report must be submitted for each experiment, even if it is late. Late reports will be marked and annotated as normal before the late penalty is deducted. Incomplete reports will be returned for revision and will incur a late penalty. Three complete reports must be submitted and an overall passing grade must be obtained for the laboratory portion of the course in order to pass the course as a whole. 2 4.0 MARKING SCHEME FOR REPORTS The reports will be marked out of 40 with the following breakdown: (I) General Format [10] • General organization (according to the format specified in the manual) and readability • Appropriate, fully-labelled graphs • No bonus for laser-printed reports; no penalty for hand-written reports (pencil recommended) (ii) Results [10] • Complete theoretical analysis, as specified in the experiment description • Correctness and completeness of reduced data • Complete sample calculation included as an Appendix (iii) Discussion and Conclusions [20] • Discussion of results (agreement with theoretical analysis and possible sources of discrepancy; sources of experimental error, inaccuracy and scatter; etc.) • Brief, specific conclusions 3 MECH 3310 – BIOFLUID MECHANICS EXPERIMENT 2: Auscultatory and Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurements (Location: 3190 ME) 1.0 Introduction The objective of this laboratory exercise is to expose biomedical engineering students to the two most common methods used to measure the blood pressure of the human body; the Auscultatory and Oscillometric method. In this experiment, students will employ off the shelf devices to measure the blood pressure of a common subject and compare the results from the two different methods. Students will also be briefly introduced to statistical analysis techniques to quantify the error in their measurements. Effects that can cause variations in blood pressure measurements will also be investigated. 2.0 Apparatus The apparatus for this experiment consists of two off the shelf devices; a Sphygmomanometer and Stethoscope set (auscultatory) shown in Figure 1, and an off the shelf OMRON Automated Blood Pressure Monitor (oscillometric) shown in Figure 2. Figure 1: Sphygmomanometer and Stethoscope Set Figure 1: OMRON Automated Blood Pressure Monitor The Sphygmomanometer is comprised of a manually inflatable cuff connected to a bourdon tube pressure gauge to be used in conjunction with the Stethoscope. The OMRON unit has a fully automated cuff connected to an electronic display. 1 3.0 Theory 3.1 Blood Pressure The pressure of a fluid is defined as the force it exerts per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to its surroundings. In the case of blood in the cardiovascular system, blood pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the circulating blood upon the various blood vessels (i.e. arteries, veins, capillaries, etc.) in the perpendicular direction. In the cardiovascular system, the heart acts as a displacement pump imparting pressure to the working fluid (blood); during each stroke (heart beat) the delivery pressure varies between a maximum (systolic blood pressure) and a minimum (diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, is maximum when it exits the heart at the aorta, and drops progressively as it travels through cardiovascular system until it returns back to the heart. 3.2 Factors Affecting Blood Pressure Blood pressure is one of the four vital signs, giving us an important statistic for the physiological state of the body. Therefore it is subject to several factors that change or influence its value. Exercise or simple activities such as speech or eating (digestion) can have a noticeable effect on blood pressure. Even emotions such as stress or anxiety can affect blood pressure levels. Ingestion of Caffeine, Alcohol, or Nicotine can also affect blood pressure. For a detailed description of these effects see reference [1]. Of course, there are also various medical conditions that can result in low or high blood pressure. 3.3 Measuring Blood Pressure In this experiment, students will be measuring blood pressure non-invasively using two methods, Auscultatory and Oscillometric. An Auscultatory method (from the Latin verb Auscultatio - listening) employs cutting off the flow at the brachial artery by placing an inflatable cuff around the arm above the elbow, roughly at the heart’s elevation, and inflating it until the flow is cut off. This inflatable cuff is attached to a pressure gauge. Once the flow is cut off, the pressure in the cuff is slowly released while listening with a stethoscope to the brachial artery at the elbow. When the blood just starts to flow back through the artery, the turbulent blood flow squeezing through the partially constricted artery makes a pounding sound. The pressure in the cuff at which this sound is first heard is recorded as the systolic blood pressure. As the cuff pressure continues to be slowly released, consecutive pounding noises can be heard (there are about 4-5 consecutive pounds known as the Korotkoff sounds); the pressure at which no sound can be heard is recorded as the diastolic blood pressure. The Osillometric method employs observations of oscillations in the cuff pressure which are caused by the turbulent pulsatile nature of the constricted blood flow. Osillometric method is best suited for an automated electronic pressure transducer to record the changing oscillations and interpret them as blood pressure measurements. In electronic units, the cuff is automatically inflated and deflated over a period of about 20 seconds. In the range when the flow is constricted (cuff pressure below systolic but above diastolic), the cuff pressure will vary periodically with the expansion and contraction of the artery as the pulsatile turbulent blood flow passes through. This pressure fluctuation is recorded by an electronic pressure transducer and a correlation is used to display the systolic and diastolic blood pressure on a display. The period of the oscillations in the pressure essentially provides the heart rate, and therefore many off the shelf devices will also display the heart rate along with the blood pressure measurement. 2 A quantity known as Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is sometimes used to quantify blood pressure. It is a function of the heart’s delivery volume flow rate, the system’s pressure losses, and the return pressure to the heart. However, it can be approximated by the systolic and diastolic pressure as given in Equation (1) 3.4 Error in Blood Pressure Measurements As with any fluid measurements, error and uncertainly will always exists, blood pressure measurements is no exception. The very nature of the Auscultatory measurement method, (considered the standard in accuracy) requiring “listening” for certain sounds, requires a substantial level of experience and calls on the nurse’s or physician’s medical judgment to obtain an accurate measurement. Additionally, since emotions such as stress or anxiety can influence blood pressure, situations can occur where if the subject is nervous or not comfortable around the person measuring their blood pressure, the reading measured will be higher than what normally is supposed to be for that person. In the medical community, this is a well documented phenomenon, known as White Coat Hypertension, where patients exhibit elevated blood pressure at clinics or hospitals but not in other settings. It is therefore important to get a feel of the error in our measurements, by repeating them and quantifying the difference in our values using statistical analysis. Next term in STAT 3502 – Probability and Statistics, you will learn in great detail how to this. For now we will introduce a statistic know as Standard Error (SE). If we assume a normal distribution of our measurements for a fixed subject, at a nominally fixed physiological state, and take n measurements, we can define our standard error as follows: where, s is the standard deviation of the sample, and n is the number of samples. To try and understand what SE is, consider the following; we know from previous courses, that if we want to quantify a certain normally distributed measurmement, we can repeat it an infinite amount of times and average those results and that will give us our true mean, the best answer. Of course, in practice we don’t do that, we collect only a few points (a sample), and just average what we have. The question then is; how accurate is this average from our sample compared to the true average if we had done this an infinite amount of times? The answer is standard error, and as you would expect, you can see from Equation (2) that the larger the sample size the smaller the standard error. A range on your sample mean of two standard errors will bring you within 95% of your true mean, this is known as your 95% confidence level. 3 4.0 Experimental Procedure PART 1: Your TA will train you on how to use the Sphygmomanometer & Stethoscope, and the automated OMRON unit. Once you are confident in the use of both devices, collect 3 blood pressure measurements from a member of your group using each device (a total of 6 measurements). It is recommended that you choose a group member that is comfortable around you to avoid a “white coat hypertension” scenario. PART 2: With the guidance of your TA, come up with a test based on section 3.2 that would examine the effect exercise can have on the changes in blood pressure. Perform the test, and record the results. 5.0 Data Reduction a) For each of your 6 measurements from Part 1, calculate your systolic and diastolic pressures in Pascals. b) Using Equation (1), calculate the MAP for each of your 6 measurements from Part 1 (leave it in mm Hg). c) Calculate the 95% confidence levels (using standard error) separately for your Sphygmomanometer MAP results, and for your OMRON unit MAP results. Plot the results for each device’s data separately, but on the same plot using its corresponding confidence levels as your error bars. d) Calculate the 95% confidence level across all 6 MAP results. e) Plot the results of the MAP for all 6 measurements, and add error bars corresponding to the 95% confidence level calculated in part d. 6.0 Discussion a) Reflecting on your answers from section 5 part a, why is blood pressure traditionally measured in mm of Hg and not any other unit? b) Based on your answers from section 5 part c, how is the repeatability of the Auscultatory method? The repeatability of the Oscillometric method? How do they compare? Explain at least 2 possible sources of variation/error for each method. c) Based on your answers from section 5 parts c to e, do you think it is valid to use both devices to collect pressure measurement data for the same clinical study? Give explanations to support your answer. 4 d) As a senior student in the Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering program, armed with a solid foundation in fluid mechanics, you decide that a more accurate way to measure blood pressure can be achieved invasively. You have found a willing subject to test your design on; give a brief explanation of a prototype you would design using concepts you have learned in your fluid mechanics courses. How does your solution compare to medically sound invasive measurements methods being used today? e) Examining your results from Part 2, was there a significant change in the blood pressure? Heart rate? Explain the causes for the change or lack of change in the blood pressure. f) Automatic blood pressure monitors use the Oscillometric method, is it possible to have a fully automated blood pressure monitor that uses the Auscultatory method? What would such a device entail? 7.0 References [1] S.M. Kazan, “Measurement and Prediction of the Hemodynamic Effects of Passive Leg Elevation”, Ottawa: Carleton University, 2005. [2] R.E. Klabunde. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 5 ...
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hey, kindly find the attached solution. Kindly go through the document and in case of any question feel free to ask. Thank you.


Blood Pressure Measurements

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The objective of this experiment is to compare the result of two non-invasive methods
used to determine the blood pressure. Also, the experiment is used to examine the effect of
exercises on blood pressure. The two non-invasive methods used in this experiment were
Auscultatory and Oscillometric. The averages MAP of the two methods were found to be
82.222mmHg and 81.222mmHg respectively. There was an insignificant difference between
the values obtained from the two methods. Though the value of blood pressure obtained after
an exercise was high, they did not meet the expected values. Exercises were found to
increase both the blood pressure and the heart rate.








Sample standard deviation


Standard error


Sample mean




Diastolic Pressure



Systolic Pressure



Intensive Care Unit



Blood pressure is the force per unit area exerted by blood as it circulates through the
blood vessels in the perpendicular direction. The heart acts as the displacement pump and exerts
pressure on the blood. The pressure of the blood varies between systolic blood pressure, which is
the maximum, and diastolic blood pressure which is the minimum (Genç, 2008). The pressure of
the blood decreases as it flows away from the heart. Therefore, the blood pressure is maximum at
the aorta.
Blood pressure is affected by various factors. These factors include exercises or simple
activities, digestion, emotions, ingestion of Caffeine, Alcohol or nicotine and medical conditions.
In that case, blood pressure is used as a vital sign of the physiological state of the body.
There are several methods used to measure the blood pressure. They are classified as
either invasive or non-invasive. Invasive methods involve direct measurement of arterial pressure
and are commonly used at the Intensive Care Unit (ISU) and in operation theatre (Genç, 2008).
The non-invasive methods do not involve the breaking of the skin. These ...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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