Discussion for the Research Paper

timer Asked: Oct 17th, 2018
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Hi, you just finish the literature review for me days ago as part of this research paper.

Could you finish the discussion, abstract and conclusion this time.

Thank you very much!

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Running head: VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 1 Green text boxes contain explanations of APA style guidelines. The title should summarize the paper’s main idea and identify the variables under discussion and the relationship between them. Blue boxes contain directions for writing and citing in APA style. Varying Definitions of Online Communication and Their Effects on Relationship Research The title should be centered on the page, typed in 12point Times New Roman Font. It should not be bolded, underlined, or italicized. Elizabeth L. Angeli The author’s name and institution should be doublespaced and centered. State University Author Note Elizabeth L. Angeli, Department of Psychology, State University. Elizabeth Angeli is now at Department of English, Purdue University. This research was supported in part by a grant from the Sample Grant Program. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Elizabeth Angeli, Department of English, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 55555. Contact: author@boiler.edu The author note should appear on printed articles and identifies each author’s department and institution affiliation and any changes in affiliation, contains acknowledgements and any financial support received, and provides contact information. For more information, see the APA manual, 2.03, page 24-25. Note: An author note is optional for students writing class papers, theses, and dissertations.. An author note should appear as follows: First paragraph: Complete departmental and institutional affiliation Second paragraph: Changes in affiliation (if any) Third paragraph: Acknowledgments, funding sources, special circumstances Fourth paragraph: Contact information (mailing address and e-mail) The running head is a shortened version of the paper’s full title, and it is used to help readers identify the titles for published articles (even if your paper is not intended for publication, your paper should still have a running head). The running head cannot exceed 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation. The running head’s title should be in capital letters. The running head should be flush left, and page numbers should be flush right. On the title page, the running head should include the words “Running head.” For pages following the title page, repeat the running head in all caps without “Running head.” VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 2 Abstract The abstract is a brief summary of the paper, allowing readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper. The abstract should be between 150-250 words. Abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper should be defined in the abstract. This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their definitions and uses of CMC. Butler and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as “email,” in creating feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore, offer different results. This paper examines Cummings, Butler, and Kraut’s (2002) research in relation to three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC should be studied in order to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline relationships. Keywords: computer-mediated communication, face-to-face communication The word “Abstract” should be centered and typed in 12 point Times New Roman. Do not indent the first line of the abstract paragraph. All other paragraphs in the paper should be indented. The title should be centered on the page, typed in 12point Times New Roman Font. It should not be bolded, underlined, or italicized. The introduction presents the problem that the paper addresses. See the OWL resources on introductions: http://owl.en glish.purdue.e du/owl/resou rce/724/01/ VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 3 Varying Definitions of Online Communication and Their Effects on Relationship Research Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of Internet relationships, focusing on the levels of intimacy, closeness, different communication modalities, and the frequency of use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). However, contradictory results are suggested within this research because only certain aspects of CMC are investigated, for example, email only. Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC (read: email) in creating feelings of closeness or intimacy, while other studies suggest the opposite. To understand how both online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships are affected by CMC, all forms of CMC should be studied. This paper examines Cummings et al.’s research against other CMC research to propose that additional research be conducted to In-text citations that are direct quotes should include the author’s/ authors’ name/s, the publication year, and page number/s. If you are paraphrasing a source, APA encourages you to include page numbers: (Smith, 2009, p. 76). The title of the paper is centered and not bolded. better understand how online communication affects relationships. If an article has three to five authors, write out all of the authors’ names the first time they appear. Then use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” Literature Review In Cummings et al.’s (2002) summary article reviewing three empirical studies on online social relationships, it was found that CMC, especially email, was less effective than FtF contact in creating and maintaining close social relationships. Two of the three reviewed studies focusing on communication in non-Internet and Internet relationships mediated by FtF, phone, or email modalities found that the frequency of each modality’s use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et al., 2002). The strength of the relationship was predicted best by FtF and phone APA requires you to include the publication year because APA users are concerned with the date of the article (the more current the better). VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 4 communication, as participants rated email as an inferior means of maintaining personal Use an appendix to provide brief content that supplement s your paper but is not directly related to your text. relationships as compared to FtF and phone contacts (Cummings et al., 2002). If you are including an appendix, refer to it in the body of your paper. found that participants corresponded less frequently with their Internet partner (5.2 times Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed an additional study conducted in 1999 by the HomeNet project (see Appendix A for more information on the HomeNet project). In this project, Kraut, Mukhopadhyay, Szczypula, Kiesler, and Scherlis (1999) compared the value of using CMC and non-CMC to maintain relationships with partners. They per month) than with their non-Internet partner (7.2 times per month) (as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). This difference does not seem significant, as it is only two times less per month. However, in additional self-report surveys, participants responded feeling more distant, or less intimate, towards their Internet partner than their nonInternet partner. This finding may be attributed to participants’ beliefs that email is an inferior mode of personal relationship communication. Intimacy is necessary in the creation and maintenance of relationships, as it is defined as the sharing of a person’s innermost being with another person, i.e., selfdisclosure (Hu, Wood, Smith, & Westbrook, 2004). Relationships are facilitated by the reciprocal self-disclosing between partners, regardless of non-CMC or CMC. Cummings et al.’s (2002) reviewed results contradict other studies that research the connection between intimacy and relationships through CMC. Hu et al. (2004) studied the relationship between the frequency of Instant Messenger (IM) use and the degree of perceived intimacy among friends. The use of IM instead of email as a CMC modality was studied because IM supports a non-professional VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 5 environment favoring intimate exchanges (Hu et al., 2004). Their results suggest that a positive relationship exists between the frequency of IM use and intimacy, demonstrating that participants feel closer to their Internet partner as time progresses through this CMC modality. Similarly, Underwood and Findlay (2004) studied the effect of Internet relationships on primary, specifically non-Internet relationships and the perceived intimacy of both. In this study, self-disclosure, or intimacy, was measured in terms of shared secrets through the discussion of personal problems. Participants reported a significantly higher level of self-disclosure in their Internet relationship as compared to their primary relationship. In contrast, the participants’ primary relationships were reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the current level of disclosure was perceived to be lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004). This result suggests participants turned to the Internet in order to fulfill the need for intimacy in their lives. In further support of this finding, Tidwell and Walther (2002) hypothesized CMC participants employ deeper self-disclosures than FtF participants in order to overcome the limitations of CMC, e.g., the reliance on nonverbal cues. It was found that CMC partners engaged in more frequent intimate questions and disclosures than FtF partners in order to overcome the barriers of CMC. In their 2002 study, Tidwell and Walther measured the perception of a relationship’s intimacy by the partner of each participant in both the CMC and FtF conditions. The researchers found that the participants’ partners stated their CMC partner was more effective in employing more intimate exchanges than their FtF VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 6 partner, and both participants and their partners rated their CMC relationship as more intimate than their FtF relationship. Discussion In 2002, Cummings et al. stated that the evidence from their research conflicted with other data examining the effectiveness of online social relationships. This statement is supported by the aforementioned discussion of other research. There may be a few possible theoretical explanations for these discrepancies. Limitations of These Studies A Level 2 heading should be flush with the left margin, bolded, and title case. The discrepancies identified may result from a number of limitations found in the materials reviewed by Cummings et al. These limitations can result from technological constraints, demographic factors, or issues of modality. Each of these limitations will be examined in further detail below. Technological limitations. First, one reviewed study by Cummings et al. (2002) A Level 3 heading should indented 0.5” from the left margin, bolded, and lower case (except for the first word). Text should follow immediately after. If you use more than three levels of headings, consult section 3.02 of the APA manual (6th ed.) or the OWL resource on APA headings: http://owl.en glish.purdue. edu/owl/reso urce/560/16 / examined only email correspondence for their CMC modality. Therefore, the study is limited to only one mode of communication among other alternatives, e.g., IM as studied by Hu et al. (2004). Because of its many personalized features, IM provides more personal CMC. For example, it is in real time without delay, voice-chat and video features are available for many IM programs, and text boxes can be personalized with the user’s picture, favorite colors and text, and a wide variety of emoticons, e.g., :). These options allow for both an increase in self-expression and the ability to overcompensate for the barriers of CMC through customizable features, as stated in Tidwell and Walther A Level 1 heading should be centered, bolded, and uppercase and lower case (also referred to as title case). Because all research has its limitations, it is important to discuss the limitations of articles under examination . VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 7 (2002). Self-disclosure and intimacy may result from IM’s individualized features, which are not as personalized in email correspondence. Demographic limitations. In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college students (see Appendix B for demographic information). It is possible the participants’ CMC through email was used primarily for business, professional, and school matters and not for relationship creation or maintenance. In this case, personal self-disclosure and intimacy levels are expected to be lower for non-relationship interactions, as this communication is primarily between boss and employee or student and professor. Intimacy is not required, or even desired, for these professional relationships. Modality limitations. Instead of professional correspondence, however, Cummings et al.’s (2002) review of the HomeNet project focused on already established relationships and CMC’s effect on relationship maintenance. The HomeNet researchers’ sole dependence on email communication as CMC may have contributed to the lower levels of intimacy and closeness among Internet relationships as compared to nonInternet relationships (as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). The barriers of non-personal communication in email could be a factor in this project, and this could lead to less intimacy among these Internet partners. If alternate modalities of CMC were studied in both already established and professional relationships, perhaps these results would have resembled those of the previously mentioned research. VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 8 Conclusions and Future Study In order to gain a complete understanding of CMC’s true effect on both online and offline relationships, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all aspects of CMC. This includes, but is not limited to, email, IM, voice-chat, video-chat, online journals and diaries, online social groups with message boards, and chat rooms. The effects on relationships of each modality may be different, and this is demonstrated by the discrepancies in intimacy between email and IM correspondence. As each mode of communication becomes more prevalent in individuals’ lives, it is important to examine the impact of all modes of CMC on online and offline relationship formation, maintenance, and even termination. The conclusion restates the problem the paper addresses and can offer areas for further research. See the OWL resource on conclusions: http://owl. english.pur due.edu/ow l/resource/ 724/04/ VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION References Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108. Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendships through IM: Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, 38-48. Tidwell, L. C., & Walther, J. B. (2002). Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: Getting to know one another a bit at a time. Human Communication Research, 28, 317-348. Underwood, H., & Findlay, B. (2004). Internet relationships and their impact on primary relationships. Behaviour Change, 21(2), 127-140. Start the reference list on a new page, center the title “References,” and alphabetize the entries. Do not underline or italicize the title. Double-space all entries. Every source mentioned in the paper should have an entry. 9 VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 10 Appendix A The HomeNet Project The first paragraph of the appendix should flush with the left margin. Additional paragraphs should be indented. Started at Carnegie Mellon University in 1995, the HomeNet research project has involved a number of studies intended to look at home Internet usage. Researchers began this project because the Internet was originally designed as a tool for scientific and corporate use. Home usage of the Internet was an unexpected phenomenon worthy of extended study. Each of HomeNet’s studies has explored a different facet of home Internet usage, such as chatting, playing games, or reading the news. Within the past few years, the explosion of social networking has also proven to be an area deserving of additional research. Refer to Table A1 for a more detailed description of HomeNet studies. Table A1 Label tables and figures in the appendix as you would in the text of your manuscript, using the letter A before the number to clarify that the table or figure belongs to the appendix. Description of HomeNet Studies by Year Year  of  Study   1995-­‐1996   1997-­‐1999   1998-­‐1999   2000-­‐2002   Contents  of  Study   93 families in Pittsburgh involved in school or community organizations 25 families with home businesses 151 Pittsburgh households National survey Begin each appendix on a new page., with the word appendix in the top center. Use an identifying capital letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) if you have more than one appendix. If you are referring to more than one appendix in your text, use the plural appendices (APA only). VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION Appendix B Demographic Information for Cummings et al. (2002)’s Review If an appendix consists entirely of a table or figure, the title of the table or figure should serve as the title of the appendix. 11 ...
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School: UT Austin




Invisible Gender Discrimination at Workplace
Student’s Name
Instructor’s Name
Institutional Affiliation



Gender discrimination at the workplace is the tendency of one gender being given
preference over another at work. Time is long gone when women were known to stay at
home and look after their children and take care of the house while men went out to the field
to work and provide for their families. It is during those days that certain jobs were
designated for men. Men were seen as brave, responsible and cautious hence given the vital
roles to play in the community.
On the other hand, the women were seen as weak, responsible and were recognized as
objects which needed to be submissive to the male gender. The reason for such beliefs was
justified in those societies for men had to work hard and toil in the fields, mines or factories.
That was considered strenuous for women. Time has passed, and society has changed, the
economic culture has also changed. The changes have also proven that women are robust and
capable of putting all genders at the same level. The women have shown the society that they
can no longer be used as objects and they surely needed the chance to prove themselves at the
workplace as well as being competitive. However, perceptions of some managers have not
changed about women, and during jobs allocation, gender has been used as one of the
qualifications. There are still biases in the workplace which hit at several women, the women
seen as people who cannot take specific responsibilities. For instance, the women have not
been given a chance to get elected as the presidents of the countries.
The women have been seen as people who cannot take the responsibilities of the
president. The perception should be given great thought. It may not be a requirement on the
job advertisement but should there be two people of different genders, considerations are
given to the candidate best suited to the job because of their gende...

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