Discussion - Week 8
PART 1 DUE IN 12 HOURS – PART 2 (RESPONSE TO COLLEAGUES)DUE IN 36 HOURS
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Planning for Data Collection
Data collection is an important part of both quantitative and qualitative research. Although the actual approach to gathering information may vary, for either research design, researchers need to plan in advance how the data will be gathered, reported, and stored, and they need to ensure that their methods are both reliable and valid. As nurses review research when considering a new evidence-based practice, it is important to be familiar with sound collection practices in order to ascertain the credibility of the data presented.
Consider the following scenario:
Nurses and other health care professionals are often interested in assessing patient satisfaction with health care services. Imagine that you are a nurse working in a suburban primary care setting that serves 10,000 patients annually. Your organization is very interested in understanding the patient’s point of view to help determine areas of care that can be improved. With this focus in mind, consider how you would create a survey to assess patient satisfaction with the services your organization provides. You may wish to consider variables such as the ease of accessing care, patient wait time, friendliness of the staff, or the likelihood that a patient would recommend your organization to others.
For this Discussion, you generate questions and an overall plan for data collection that would be appropriate for a patient satisfaction survey in relation to the above scenario.
- Consider the guidelines for generating questions presented in this week’s Learning Resources.
- Review the scenario and formulate at least five questions that you could use to evaluate patient satisfaction.
- Reflect on the different methods or instruments that can be used for gathering data described in Chapter 13 and Chapter 22 of the course text. Which methods or instruments would work well for the scenario?
- Determine an appropriate sample size for the scenario.
Post the questions that you created for gathering information about patient satisfaction based on the above scenario. Explain which method or instrument you would use to gather data. Describe the sample size appropriate for the population and how you would select participants. Provide a rationale for your choices, and explain how you can ensure high standard of reliability and validity.
AT LEAST 3 CITATIONS TO VALIDATE YOUR DISCUSSION
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
Respond to at least three of your colleagues on three different days using one or more of the following approaches:
- Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
- Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
- Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library.
- Validate an idea with your own experience and additional sources.
- Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from the readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
- USE AT LEAST TWO CITATIONS PER DISCUSSION TO VALID YOUR RESPONSE
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Colleague response #1
Main Discussion Post
This weeks objective is to evaluate different methods of data collection, specifically for patient satisfaction and improvement methods. The Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (2017) report a notable difference between patient satisfaction and patient experience. To determine if patients are satisfied with their care does not determine what their experience was like. It is with assessments of patient experiences that, variables can be analyzed and included or excluded into all patients care for consistency in quality, safety, and improve overall patient satisfaction. The data for collection is to determine the patient's experience, which renders the data to be collected as qualitative in nature. I think a descriptive phenomenology qualitative design would be best for describing the patient's experiences with with the health care services.
The target populations is the patients of the suburban primary care center. The organization is interested in knowing all of the patient's point of view, so essentially they are heterogeneous and no one patient's experience is more important than the others. There is no inclusion or exclusion criteria. This maximum variation sampling will include ample diversity among the sample and increase the results ability to be generalized (Polit & Beck, 2017). The sample size that will be obtained from the facilities population of 10,000 people will be determined from how information rich the participants that are selected are (Malterud, Siersma, & Guasora, 2016; Polit & Beck, 2017). As data is collected, typically the analysis should be taking place along side of the collection process. At this point the sample size may be increased if the researchers realized that certain significant aspects that have been left out of the study and this will improve the validity ( Malterud, Siersma, & Guasora, 2016). Another aspect to consider with the sample is how the sample will be selected. Randomized sampling would be fitting for this scenario. A randomized computer program could select participants at random to determine their inclusion into the research. This will improve the qualitative designs rigor due to non-random sampling being criticized for having selected bias participants that will have similar or desired opinions (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017).
Another criticized element of qualitative designs that tarnishes the studies rigor and validity is the bias of the researchers conducting the interviews and analyzing the data. The researchers must have reflexivity when conducting interviews. Having reflexivity means that the researcher is aware of their own opinions and beliefs and maintain intellectual honesty while conducting interviews, especially since they are the ones who will be analyzing the data (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017; Polit & Beck, 2017). Intellectual honesty and reflexivity will improve a studies rigor and validity. Because the scenario is set out to gather data about improvements for access to care, wait times, staff friendliness, and likelihood of facility being recommended to others, the interview must be semi-structured where there are a list of questions that will be asked of each participant without a prediction of responses (Polit & Beck, 2017). The guidelines would include to provide an environment where information can be discussed freely, questions are asked in a logical sequence, and the interviewer is attentive (Polit & Beck, 2017). The interviewer may also utilize probe questions to encourage the participants to explain richer details to explanations. The open-ended questions would be:
1. Describe to me the process of making an appointment at the office?
2. How often are you able to get an appointment within the time frame you are requesting?
3. When you arrive at the office, tell me about your wait time?
4. Tell me about your experience with each staff member?
5. What would your recommend to your family or friends about our office?
Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). What is patient experience? [online] Available at: https://www.ahrq.gov/cahps/about-cahps/patient-exp...
Gray, J. R, Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Guassora, A. D. (2016). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power. Qualitative health research, 26(13), 1753-1760.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer
Robinson, O. C. (2014). Sampling in interview-based qualitative research: A theoretical and practical guide. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY, 11(1), 25–41. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/147...
Colleague response 2
Introduction: Polit and Beck state that "Both the study and the participants and those collecting the data are considered during the collection of qualitative data. The goal is to achieve consistency in what is asked and how the answers are reported. This is done to reduce biases and facilitate analysis." (Polit, Beck. 2017) I currently work in the surgical services unit and take part in patient satisfaction surveys daily. I will be asking questions regarding our patients experiences during their surgical experience with us.
My five questions are based off of patients who have been discharged from our surgical services unit after having a surgical procedure in our hospital. Upon discharged our patients will have experienced our preop, operating room, and post anesthesia care units. Some may have been admitted and spent some time on our medsurg unit. These questions are focused around how overall satisfied they were with our surgical services.
- How do you feel about the overall access to care in our surgical services unit?
- How do you feel about the overall processing and wait time from admission to surgical start time?
- How do you feel about the friendliness and care of our staff?
- Do you feel like you and your loved ones were given good discharge instructions on how to care for yourself and manage your post op pain at home?
- How likely are you to recommend us to your family and friends to receive care in our surgical services unit if ever needed?
These questions provide unbiased data from patients who have had a surgical procedure performed in the facility. i feel they follow the Poilt and Beck, (2017)guidelines and focus on a set population of patients.
As for the instrument to gather and collection of data, I would refer to Polit and Beck (2017) and use both closed and open ended questions. These questions and data will be collected through phone surveys and mail surveys. It's important to stress that the survey is voluntary and the reason for the survey. The participant should also know that the survey in anonymous and that no identifiers will be used. (Polit, Beck. 2017)
This survey will have validity because of the population sample that will be used to gather the data. Participants will have experienced the same areas and many similar situations throughout their visit. Validity is achieved through larger sample populations with repetition.
In conclusion, as nurses we must be involved in the collection of the data. This helps to validate where the information should be gathered from and how. Using the guidelines of Polit and Beck (2017) will help to ensure that the questions in the survey are appropriate for the study.
Beck, C. T., & Polit, D. F. (2017). Nursing research generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice
(Tenth ed., pp. 32-34). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Colleague Post #3
Based on the above scenario, as a nurse working in primary care setting that serves 10,000 patients annually, quality of care and patient satisfaction are important. A satisfaction survey is needed to understand what satisfies our patients and what areas need improvement but to keep the quality of the study, careful selection of the sample is needed. To prevent biased and too small of a sample, statistics would be used to determine the sample size and length of the study. Convenience sampling might be a good place to start, it is easy and efficient (Polit & Beck, 2017). I would provide the patients with a link where they could go online and fill out five questions that rank 0-10 from extremely dissatisfied (1) to extremely satisfied (5), these are simple closed-ended questions that are easy to answer. From experience keeping surveys short and simple are going to have a better impact on responses. People are busy and don’t like taking surveys if they are too time consuming, so I picked five questions to rank.
Research question drives the research methods, as noted in our assigned video (Laureate Education 2012). The five survey questions ranking 1-5 being extremely dissatisfied, very dissatisfied, satisfied, very satisfied, and extremely satisfied and at the end they can add comments if needed to explain any of the answers. The goal is to make the patients feel that they are being heard.
- Wait time until seen
- Friendliness of the office staff
- Office environment
- All issues & concerns were addressed
- Understanding of discharge summary
Reliability and Validity
Survey research is flexible and can be used in large studies or small groups. The research question will be the most important step in the process, it should be measurable, clear and concise. Although there are some challenges to web-based method it is still easy to access, and the patients can respond in their own time. Sending out email reminders with the link may also be helpful if the patient misplaced the link. Conducting a power analysis to determine the amount of responses needed will add significance to the study. With the questions being asked are simple and the patients should be able to interpret them in the same manner which makes it more reliable (Keough & Tanabe, 2011). The results of this survey will be easy to identify by the researchers because they are very straightforward with easy ranking.
Keough, V. A., & Tanabe, P. (2011, January). Survey research: An effective design for conducting nursing research. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 1(4), 37-44. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/USW1/201770_27/MS_NURS/NURS_5052/readings/USW1_NURS_5052_Keough%202011.pdf
Laureate Education. (Producer). (2012). Qualitative and mixed methods research designs. Baltimore, MD: Author
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kl