Goetechnical proposal Assignment editing

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I got some notes from the professor to edit the proposal assinment, please edit it according to the professor notes.

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Running head: GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING Geotechnical/ Soil Engineering Tests Name of student Professor’s name Course title Date 1 GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 2 Abstract Generally, geotechnical engineering involves studying the behavior of soil as the main material used in any construction work. The study of soil properties is achieved through carrying out soil tests such as moisture content tests, soil analysis, water penetration rate and compaction tests. These tests are carried out for purposes of ground improvement before any construction work. Therefore, geospatial involves testing capability of foundation to withstand structural loading (Chen & Morris, 2001). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to discuss how to determine permeability constant (k) as the main test of geotechnical/ soil engineering. GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 3 Introduction Generally, soil permeability is defined as the property of soil samples to transmit or allow water and air to percolate through. Water permeability test is among the most important tests on soils. It helps in classifying soils based on their porosity. Before any engineering structure is constructed, permeability test should be conducted to determine whether the soils are porous or non-porous. As stated above, the aim of the paper was to conduct out permeability constant k sing both the falling head and constant head permeability tests (Chen & Morris, 2001). The two permeability tests are highly used to determine the rates of liquid flow through soil samples. Regardless of which method is selected in carrying out the test, the rate of flow is determined using the equation: q=KiA. In this case, q is defined as the rate of flow, k represents the coefficient of permeability and I represents the hydraulic gradient. The permeability constant k is taken as the capacity of soil to transmit water through. Being the main geotechnical test, the falling head test allows the water to flow through the soil in time t. During time t, water flows from the upper head ho to the lower head h1 (Dedousis & Bartzanas, 2010). On the other hand, the constant head test method measures permeability rate by determining the flow discharge Q or rate of flow flowing through the sample in time t under steady-state flow conditions. Materials The main materials used during the geotechnical test/ permeability test comprise of: - Constant head permeameter, graduated-cylinder (250 cc or 500 cc), weighing balance that was sensitive up to 0. lg, thermometer that was sensitive up to 0.1 °C, rubber-tubing, stop watch, the falling-head pentameter. GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 4 Methodologies Being a geotechnical test, permeability test requires computation of three to four tests and finding an average for accuracy purposes. After assembling all the required materials, we divided ourselves in to groups. The test started by carrying out a constant head test. At this point, the mass of the plastic tube, porous stones, spring and the two combined rubber stoppers were determined and recorded on the given table. The bottom of the porous rock was then slipped in to the specimen. The soil sample was then compacted constantly until the specimen length was obtained as 2/3 of the length of the tube. After reaching at this point, the top porous stone was slipped in to the tube and allowed to rest fully (Lancellotta, 2009). At the same time, the rubber stopper was fixed tightly fixed at the top of the specimen tube. The mass of the assembly was then determined and recorded on the data sheet. Water was then poured at a constant rate and allowed to percolate from the top of the specimen to the lower point through a plastic tube. It is important to understand that, a plastic tube was used for purposes of maintaining a constant rate of flow through the soil sample (Lancellotta, 2009). Differently, for the falling head test, the poured water flew through the sample using the plastic tube from the inlet in to the burrete. Expected Results and Outcomes Note that, the soil being tested was loamy-clay soil with an expected permeability constant of 0.02. The average value of permeability constant k was obtained as 0.01. The difference between the expected value and the experiment value was due to experimental error (Lancellotta, 2009). The main sources of experimental errors were due to inaccurate reading and recording of data values such as time and mass. GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 5 Observation Table 1: The Constant-head Data Results Item Area flow (Q)cm^3 Time of collectio n, t (s) Temperat ure of water (T) Head differenc e , h (cm) Diameter of the specimen D (cm) Length of the specimen L (cm) Area of specimen A(piD^2/ 4) K=QL/A ht Test No. 1 183.33 2 135 3 196.67 60 60 60 21.4 21.03 20.43 76 79 73 6.325 6.325 6.325 11 11 11 22/7*6.325^2/4=31.42 22/7*6.325^2/4=31.42 22/7*6.325^2/4=31.42 (183.33*11)/(31.42*76*60 (135*11)/(31.42*79*60) )=0.0141 =0.00997 (196.67*11)/(31.42*73*6 0)=0.016 Average k=(0.0141+0.00997+0.016)/3=0.006697 Temperature of water = (21.4+21.03+20.43)/3=20.95 degrees Celsius Table 2: The Falling head test Data Results Item Diameter specimen D cm Length of specimen Test No. 1 of 6.32 the 11 2 6.32 3 6.32 11 11 GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING Area of the specimen 88.5 85 Beginning head 60 70 difference h1 (cm) Ending head 21.27 24.5 difference h2 (cm) Test duration, t (s) 21.27 24.5 Vw (cm^3) 57.2 58 K =(2.303VwL)/(hi- 0.0148 0.0236 h2)*Log h1/h2 Average k=(0.0148+0.0236+0.01358)/3=0.01433 6 82.7 70 30.25 30.25 62 0.01358 Water temperature=21.5 degrees Celsius Analysis of the Results As computed above, the geotechnical permeability constant was obtained as 0.01 differently from the expected value of 0.02. Such a slight difference was due to experimental error. According to geotechnical /soil engineering principles, soil permeability rate of 0.01 is high enough to accommodate structural loading. Therefore, the tested soil could be used for high rise structures and buildings. Note an average of three tests were carried for each method to improve on the accuracy of the final value (Terzaghi & Peck, 2013). Scientific Discussion Scientifically, soils that have a higher value of permeability are capable of supporting high rise buildings as well as high loading structures due to high drainage rate. In other words, a high permeability constant implies that, the given soil mass is capable of draining away water from its surface. As per our test findings, we achieved the purpose our experiment. As presented above, the permeability constant was obtained as 0.006697 and 0.01433 for the constant head test and the falling head test. After rounding the obtained values to the nearest whole number, the permeability constant was obtained as 0.01. Scientifically, geotechnical tests are meant to determine whether the soil foundations are capable of withstanding the designed loading (Terzaghi & Peck, 2013). In case the tested samples appear to be too porous and submerged engineering processes such as cut GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 7 and fill and introduced. These processes involve replacing the muddy and submerged soils with high permeable soils. Conclusion By the end of the experiment, we learnt some of the benefits of carrying out geotechnical tests before beginning any construction work. As stated earlier, geotechnical engineering involves studying the behavior of soil as the main material used in any construction work. It helps engineers among other members of the construction team to determine the properties of soils through carrying out soil tests such as moisture content tests, soil analysis, water penetration rate and compaction tests for purposes of ground improvement before any construction work (Terzaghi & Peck, 2013). Through geotechnical/ soil tests it becomes easy to familiarize with soil properties as far as loading bearing capacity is concerned. GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 8 References Chen, F., & Morris, M. (2001). Soil engineering. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Dedousis, A., & Bartzanas, T. (2010). Soil engineering. Heidelberg: Springer. Lancellotta, R. (2009). Geotechnical engineering. London: Taylor & Francis. Terzaghi, K., & Peck, R. (2013). Soil mechanics in engineering practice. [England]: Read Books Ltd. GEOTECHNICAL/SOIL ENGINEERING 9 Appendix 1: Equipment for determination of coefficient of permeability as main test for geotechnical/ soil engineering Scanned with CamScanner Scanned with CamScanner Scanned with CamScanner Scanned with CamScanner Scanned with CamScanner Scanned with CamScanner Scanned with CamScanner ...
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