Columbia Southern Gun Control Conclusion and Abstract Research Paper

User Generated

zhfvpsernx

Writing

Columbia Southern University

Description

Conclusion and Abstract

Follow the directions below for the completion of the conclusion and abstract assignment for Unit VIII. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to complete your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will first write your conclusion; then, you will write your abstract. The following components are requirements of the assignment:

  • Conclusion (150-200 words):
    • Revisit the controversy.
    • Emphasize the seriousness of the controversy.
    • Answer the “So what?” question.
    • Suggest a general solution (optional).
    • Call for awareness/action.
    • Leave the reader with a final thought.
  • Abstract (200 words or less): For this assignment, you may not exceed 200 words.
    • Restatement of the controversy (one to two sentences)
    • Your thesis (one sentence)
    • Reasons (three to four sentences)
    • Conclusion sentence (one sentence)
  • Add the conclusion and abstract to the rest of your paper so that you are turning in a complete research paper. The paper should include all of the following components (in order):
    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Literature review
    • Body paragraphs
    • Conclusion
    • References page

You may also seek out the guidance of the Success Center; the specialists are always there to assist you with your writing and comprehension.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1 Unit VIII Lesson 1: The Conclusion Introduction Arguably, the conclusion of a paper is the most neglected section of a paper because students are often unsure about how to finish. Additionally, students are often challenged to give it their all because of the hard work they have put into the rest of the paper. However, you should resolve yourself to writing this one last paragraph because the conclusion will leave your reader with that final thought that can drive home your entire effort. What Is a Conclusion? As we know, a conclusion is the last paragraph in a paper. However, what makes for a good conclusion? When we discussed the introduction in Unit IV, we examined ways in which the introduction moved from general ideas to one specific one—the thesis. The conclusion acts in a similar way to take the reader out of the specificity of the paper’s argument and toward a more general application of the topic in daily life. Along the way, you will address the “So what?” question, which asks why the topic, discussion, and argument presented in the paper matter. This is an extremely difficult question to answer because you have already done so much work to establish what is at stake in the paper. But now you must push your ideas just a bit further to establish why the entirety of your paper matters to people outside of the context of your paper. Bookend Structure In the images below, compare the structure of the introduction to that of the conclusion. You will see that the conclusion is absolutely not a simple repeat of the introduction. 2 S1: General topic S2: Pro side (general) S3: Con side (general) S4: Narrow the scope (1) S5: Example(s) of this narrowed scope S6: Narrow the scope (2) S7: Specific controversy S8: Pro side (specific) S9: Con side (specific) S10: Thesis Conclusion Revisit the controversy Emphasize the seriousness of it Answer the "So what?" question Suggest a general solution (optional) Call for awareness or action Leave the reader with a final thought The Purpose of the Conclusion 3 While it is obvious that a conclusion brings the paper to an end, the conclusion does more than finish the paper. The conclusion brings significance to the paper where the weight of your argument has only been hinted at in earlier parts of the paper. Further, and perhaps even more importantly, the conclusion provides the reader with something that he or she can do by calling for awareness of the issue or by calling for action toward a solution. The Content and the Form As the figure above suggests, there are a few basic elements that should be included in a conclusion, which are usually in the following order: 1. Revisit the controversy: In this first sentence, you want to summarize the main controversy once again in order to signal that you are concluding the paper. Additionally, your conclusion is positioned after the final paragraph of the body, so this sentence also signals that you are moving away from your argument to the conclusion. 2. Emphasize the seriousness of the controversy: This sentence acts like an explanation sentence in that you are adding to the summary of the controversy by highlighting what is at stake in the argument. 3. Answer the “So what?” question: You want to address this question. Why is your project so important? One way to think about it is to consider that “what is at stake” must be protected. Push yourself to answer this question. You may need a sentence or two to do so. 4. Suggest a general solution (optional): You might want to take a sentence or two to discuss a possible solution. Obviously, you do not have the space in a conclusion to lay out a detailed plan, but you can still include a general solution. 5. Call for awareness/action: One of the most common moves that a conclusion can make is to call for awareness about the problem/controversy. The other common move in a conclusion is to call for action, meaning that you call for action to be taken by a particular party or by the reader. 6. Leave the reader with a final thought: Never end a conclusion with the words of another person; ending the paper with the words of another person in the form of a quotation makes for a weak conclusion. You want to end your paper with your thought. Think about the final thought you want the reader to have as he or she leaves the paper. What do you want the reader to walk away with? Review 1. A conclusion operates like an inverted introduction by moving away from the specificity of the paper to a more general application of the project. 2. The conclusion includes sentences that revisit the controversy, emphasize the seriousness of the controversy, answer the “So what?” question, call for awareness or action, and leave the reader with a final thought. 1 Unit VIII Lesson 2: The Abstract Introduction While the abstract is physically presented at the beginning of a research paper, it is actually the finishing touch of the writing process. Reading the abstract should be like reading a miniature version of the paper itself. The abstract includes the thesis statement and other essential information, such as the background, the reasons, and the conclusion. However, because the abstract is a shortened version of the work accomplished in the paper, each of these elements is reduced to one sentence or so. What Is an Abstract? The abstract is a one-paragraph summary of your paper. This paragraph is positioned after the title page and before the beginning of the introduction. The abstract should be no more than 200 words for the research paper in EH 1020. The Purpose of the Abstract The abstract allows the reader to quickly grasp the topic and argument of your paper. The Content and Form The abstract should be no more than 200 words in this course. The following elements should be included in the abstract: 1. Restatement of the controversy: You will include one to two sentences that summarize the controversy that you discuss in the paper. 2. Your thesis: You must include your thesis statement. You can even lift the thesis statement directly from the introduction of your paper. 3. Reasons (three to four): You should include your reasons, or supporting ideas, which are presented as topic sentences in each of your body paragraphs. If these are included in your thesis statement, then you may want to separate them into individual sentences so that these points are clearer. 4. Conclusional sentence: This sentence might be one from your conclusion. It could be your call to awareness or action. There are a few things to avoid as you write: Do not add information that is not already presented in the paper, and do not define any terms in the abstract. Further, while it is permissible to include source information, you want to avoid including too many sources because the abstract is really about summarizing your paper—summarizing your thoughts and contributions—rather than summarizing the work of others. 2 Further Assistance As always, the specialists in the Success Center are here to help. You can view their tutorial of the abstract, which includes an example abstract, by clicking here. RUNNING HEAD: EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME Effectiveness of Gun control regulations as a method to reduce crime Karl Argast Columbia Southern University 1 EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 2 Effectiveness of Gun control regulations as a method to reduce crime A lot has been said about the effectiveness of gun regulation laws as a method to reduce crime in the United States. The advocates of the control are in support of the federal and state legislation introduced throughout the time from an increase in taxes, limitations and background checks to prevent the guns from reaching the wrong people such as convicts and reduce the possibility of engaging in crime. On the other hand, those against the regulations and strive to prove the ineffectiveness fear that the restrictions lead to loss of safety and infringe on the people’s second amendment right to gun ownership for self-defense (Gun Control Overview, 2013). Today, all over the news there are cases of mass shootings in schools which have led to debates over gun control regulations, the shootings occur at both elementary, middle and high school level. All the attackers use a particular type of firearm to shoot injure or kill the victims. For instance, the latest shooting occurred in February at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High school where a nineteen-year-old boy used an AR-15 gun to attack the people in the school compound leaving seventeen people dead and several injured, and the shooting led to advocacy for stricter gun laws. Gun laws in California State are the strictest compared to other states in the U. S from licensure, open to carry and taxes on the manufacture and sale of guns due to the numerous cases of school shootings reported since the nineteenth century. Most people do not agree to gun control regulations is an effective way to minimize crime resulting from guns, however, some believe the measures are effective as a reduction in the number of guns available in homes and the streets will reduce the probability of committing a crime. Those against the control believe that they interfere with self-defense and personal safety thus promotes loss of lives. Those in support of the control measures believe that most of the guns are used to commit a crime and rarely for self-defense. Gun control laws are effective ways to reduce crime because limiting the EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 3 number of guns through regulation of ownership, implementation of safety practices and bans will keep the firearms away from high-risk individuals thus reduce the probability of committing a crime. Literature Review To better understand the controversy behind gun control measures as a way to minimize crime, the history of gun violence rates and gun control must be considered. The review will then evaluate the pro and con sides of the controversy on gun law measures. History of Gun violence and regulations According to Lott (2013), gun control laws were developed to manage the numerous rates of violence arising from misuse of guns. There have been more than ninety mass shootings in the U.S since 1982. Marjory Stoneman Douglas shooting is one of the latest mass shooting cases resulting from guns and has led to advocacy for gun control to manage the rates of crime. Despite gun ownership protection in the constitution, several incidents since 1791 led to the development of the federal gun control laws. In 1791, the ten amendments to the constitution were ratified to promote gun ownership for security reasons; it means the protection of the state. The first gun control regulation was passed in 1934, the National Firearms Act (NFA) which was part of the New Deal of Crime by president Roosevelt D. Franklin to end crimes such as the St Valentine’s day massacre. The regulation involved imposing a tax on the manufacture, sale and transportation of firearms such as rifles, silencers etc. This measure would reduce the number of guns as it limited their production and transportation. EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 4 In 1938, the Federal Firearms Act (FFA) was implemented that required the manufacturers and dealers to obtain a license of operation from the federal government. The law provided a record of people who could not purchase or own guns such as convicted felons. The act required the sellers to keep customer records for checks. The act was after preventing the guns from reaching the criminals. In 1968, after the assassination of President Kennedy, President Lyndon Johnson pushed for the Gun Control Act of 1968. The GCA replaced the FFA. The act also updated the NFA to include devices such as bombs, grenades, mines and ways to define a machine gun. The GCA stated the age limit for purchasing handguns at 21 years. The purpose for buying guns and requirement for serial numbers on imported guns. The GCA also stated those who cannot own guns, the mentally ill and felons. The Congress passed the Firearm Owners Protection Act in 1986 to protect gun owners. The act loosened the regulations on sales, registry and inspections. The Brady Handgun violence prevention act was implemented in 1993. The law requires background checks before purchasing a gun. In 2003, the Tiahrt amendment aimed at protecting the dealers from public scrutiny, protecting the black markets. In 2005, the president signed the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act to protect gun sellers from mention in court or harm in case their guns were used to commit a crime. Finally, in 2008, District of Columbia v. Heller ruled that the control laws hinder the second amendment right, however, affirmed the restrictions and regulations on ownership (Metzl & MacLeish, 2015). The arguments for Gun control regulations as a method to reduce crime Guns promote violent behavior. Several cases of mass shootings and killings in schools occur by use of guns. Most of the time, teenagers commit the crimes on their classmates. Firearms result in 51% suicide deaths in the U.S. The guns reach the young ones as a result of poor storage by the owners. Although legally right people owned the guns, they manage to get to EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 5 the wrong people or rather high-risk individuals. According to Lott (2013), gun control laws will minimize the incidences of deaths from firearms. The presence of loaded and unlocked guns increased the chances of suicide and homicide. The restrictions on gun manufacture, sale and purchase, background checks and other regulations significantly reduce the rates of crime by minimizing the number of guns among the people and chances of reaching the bad people. Treatment of gunshot victims takes up a lot of the health care costs; the control will reduce the costs. The restrictions will prevent women deaths during domestic violence. Approximately, five women die every day by guns due to domestic issues. McGinty, Wolfson, Sell & Webster (2016), believe that the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary school would not have occurred if the gun was kept locked and safe from the juvenile. Arguments against Gun control regulations The gun control laws interfere with an individual second amendment right to own guns for self-defense. The second amendment protects gun ownership rights (Everitt & Pratt, 2015). The people have a right to own and bear guns to use for traditional reasons and self-defense at homes. Therefore, the regulations prevent the people’s right to safety. Background checks invade a person’s privacy as it requires information such as name, address, criminal records and mental health information. The information is obtained for purposes that they were not meant for. The opponents argue that education on gun safety is required and not regulation to prevent the accidental gun deaths (Gun Control Overview, 2013). If students are taught about the firearms rather than prevent their freedom the delinquency rates reduce. The gun control laws are racist in nature, and they aim at the inner city where the poor and black people live. EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 6 In summary, the proponents continue to advocate for more strict measures on guns to reduce crime. They hold that reducing the number of guns will reduce the crime rates. The proposed acts are still in control they include the Brady handgun, the National Firearms Act, Federal Firearms Act among others but vary from state to state. Those against the control measures claim it hinders the second amendment rights and is not as effective as education on gun use. In as much as people may argue, most crime originate from firearms thus gun control laws still prove effective in reducing the rates of crime in the U.S. Body Paragraphs Without gun control regulations and laws such as ownership, the rates of crimes in the United States will be tremendously high. The crime rates in the U.S as a result of guns are high, and the incidences include mass shootings, school attacks, homicide and suicide, and continue to increase each day with an increase in the number of guns and gun owners. According to Towers & White (2017), the U.S has 120.5 guns per 100 people those are more than 3000 million guns of which 50% are owned by 3% of the total population. If the number of guns is higher than the number of people in the country the rates of crime are bound to be high, availability and accessibility to a weapon increase the likelihood of committing a crime. There have been numerous cases of school shooting attacks the latest one being the attack on Florida school shooting that left seventeen people dead (Grinberg & Levenson, 2018). The attacks occur as a result of the presence of guns in the homes of the perpetrators. The question often raised is on the use of the guns, do they harm or protect the citizens. Guns are often used to cause harm than good to the people. The reality is guns are hardly used in self-defense, in 2010 there were only 230 cases where an individual used a gun to kill a EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 7 felon compared to 8,275 cases where guns have been used to kill civilians. According to Everitt & Pratt (2015), close to thirty million crimes were committed between the year 2007 and 2011, of all the incidences only 0.79% of the victims used firearms to protect themselves by either using it to scare the attacker or injuring the individual. For that reason, it is evident that guns are hardly used for protection instead lead to social harm, owning a gun increases the chances of committing murder or suicide if angered. Hsiao & Bernstein (2016), only individuals who need self-protection go through gun handling training sessions, therefore, the rest of gun owners are untrained and mostly mishandle the guns committing crimes instead of self-defense. If an individual is not trained to handle guns they often mishandle through storage which despite being legally owned can be stolen and used by criminals. Comparing the U.S gun laws to other countries with stricter regulations will enhance the understanding of its effectiveness in reducing crime. The countries with stricter gun laws experience low gun homicides and suicides compared to the United States. The United States gun ownership laws are less severe than in other countries like Switzerland, they take into account the second amendment rights of individuals to own guns for self-defense. According to Kleck (2015), while the U.S has permissive gun laws thus having 120.5 guns per 100 people, Switzerland has 45.7 guns per 100 people, and in the year 2010 they had only 24 gun homicides and 253 gun suicides per 100,000 people compared to the U.S which had 12,632 homicides and 17,352 suicides related to guns. In countries where the laws were permissive, there were more gun-related homicides and suicides compared to those which have strict laws like Switzerland. Gun suicides in the U.S were higher than the rates in other countries; suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the U.S with 51% being the results of firearms (Kposowa, Hamilton & Wang, 2015). The rates of suicide in the U.S EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME were higher than other countries like Finland and Switzerland because of their permissive laws such as less strict background check that allow for numerous people to own guns. 8 EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME 9 References Everitt, L., & Pratt, E. (2015). Does the U.S. Need Tougher Gun-Control Laws?. New York Times Upfront, 147(12), 22-23. Gun Control Overview. (2013). Congressional Digest, 92(3), 3. Grinberg, E., & Levenson, E. (2018). At Least 17 Dead in Florida School Shooting, Law Enforcement Says. CNN, February, 14, 17. Hsiao, T., & Bernstein, C. (2016). Against moderate gun control. Libertarian Papers, 8 Retrieved from https://login.libproxy.edmc.edu/login?url=https://search-proquestcom.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/2001924933?accountid=34899 Kleck, G. (2015). The impact of gun ownership rates on crime rates: A methodological review of the evidence. Journal of criminal justice, 43(1), 40-48. Kposowa, A. a., Hamilton, D., & Wang, K. (2016). Impact of Firearm Availability and Gun Regulation on State Suicide Rates. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 46(6), 678-696. Lott, J. R. (2013). More guns, less crime: Understanding crime and gun control laws. University of Chicago Press. McGinty, E. E., Wolfson, J. A., Sell, T. K., & Webster, D. W. (2016). Common sense or gun control? Political communication and news media framing of firearm sale background checks after Newtown. Journal of health politics, policy, and law, 41(1), 3-40. Metzl, J. M., & MacLeish, K. T. (2015). Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms. American journal of public health, 105(2), 240-249. EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME Towers, S., & White, M. D. (2017). The “Ferguson effect”, or too many guns?. Significance, 14(2), 26-29. 10
Purchase answer to see full attachment
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Explanation & Answer

on it buddy
Attached.

RUNNING HEAD: EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME

Effectiveness of Gun control regulations as a method to reduce crime
Karl Argast
Columbia Southern University

1

EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME

2

Abstract
Effectiveness of gun control regulations as a method to reduce crime has been talked about for
years now since the implementation of the first law to regulate control. Opponents argue the laws
infringe with the constitutional rights of citizens to own guns. Gun control laws are effective
ways to reduce crime because limiting the number of guns through regulation of ownership,
implementation of safety practices and bans will keep the firearms away from high-risk
individuals thus reduce the probability of committing a crime. Without gun control laws the
crime rates will be tremendously high as they are high due to the presence of guns in the country.
Guns are often used to cause harm more than they are used in self-defense. Countries with
stricter gun laws such as Switzerland have low rates of crime; implementing stricter gun laws in
the U.S will minimize crime. What is necessary and effective to enforce the regulations and
protect human lives or allow for free gun ownership to uphold the constitutional right to own
guns?

EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN CONTROL REGULATIONS AS A METHOD TO REDUCE CRIME

3

Effectiveness of Gun control regulations as a method to reduce crime
A lot has been said about the effectiveness of gun regulation laws as a method to reduce
crime in the United States. The advocates of the control are in support of the federal and state
legislation introduced throughout the time from an increase in taxes, limitations and background
checks to prevent the guns from reaching the wrong people such as convicts and reduce the
possibility of engaging in crime. On the other hand, those against the regulations and strive to
prove the ineffectiveness fear that the restrictions lead to loss of safety and infringe on the
people’s second amendment right to gun ownership for self-defense (Gun Control Overview,
2013). Today, all over the news there are cases of mass shootings in schools which have led to
debates over gun control regulations, the shootings occur at both elementary, middle and high
school level. All the attackers use a particular type of firearm to shoot injure or kill the victims.
For instance, the latest shooting occurred in February at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High school
where a nineteen-year-old boy used an AR-15 gun to attack the people in the school compound
leaving seventeen people dead and several injured, and the shooting led to advocacy for stricter
gun laws. Gun laws in California State are the strictest compared to other states in the U. S from
licensure, open to carry and taxes on the manufacture and sale of guns due to the numerous cases
of school shootings reported since the nineteenth century. Most people do not agree to gun
control regulations is an effective way to minimize crime resulting from guns, however, some
believe the measures are effective as a reduction in the number of guns available in homes and
the streets will reduce the probability of committing a crime. Those against the control believe
that they interfere with self...


Anonymous
Awesome! Perfect study aid.

Studypool
4.7
Indeed
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4

Related Tags