Concrete research

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am writing a research about testing a concrete samples by 3 deferent experiment which are compressive strength, Flexural strength, and porosity. I need you to summarize the three test in 5-6 pages and those pages should to be 0% plagiarism. Attached is the experiments methods and you have to use them as the mail resource. Please make sure that the writing style should to be strongly academic technical writing so do not use emotion or adjectivs. if you need any thing to provide feel free to ask.

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This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. Designation: C39/C39M − 18 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation C39/C39M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense. 2. Referenced Documents 1. Scope* 1.1 This test method covers determination of compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens such as molded cylinders and drilled cores. It is limited to concrete having a density in excess of 800 kg/m3 [50 lb/ft3]. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The inch-pound units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.(Warning—Means should be provided to contain concrete fragments during sudden rupture of specimens. Tendency for sudden rupture increases with increasing concrete strength and it is more likely when the testing machine is relatively flexible. The safety precautions given in the Manual are recommended.) 1.4 The text of this standard references notes which provide explanatory material. These notes shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. 1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee. 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.61 on Testing for Strength. Current edition approved Jan. 1, 2018. Published February 2018. Originally approved in 1921. Last previous edition approved in 2017 as C39/C39M – 17b. DOI: 10.1520/C0039_C0039M-18. 2.1 ASTM Standards:2 C31/C31M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field C42/C42M Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates C192/C192M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory C617/C617M Practice for Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements for Test Methods for Construction Materials C873/C873M Test Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders Cast in Place in Cylindrical Molds C943 Practice for Making Test Cylinders and Prisms for Determining Strength and Density of PreplacedAggregate Concrete in the Laboratory C1077 Practice for Agencies Testing Concrete and Concrete Aggregates for Use in Construction and Criteria for Testing Agency Evaluation C1176/C1176M Practice for Making Roller-Compacted Concrete in Cylinder Molds Using a Vibrating Table C1231/C1231M Practice for Use of Unbonded Caps in Determination of Compressive Strength of Hardened Cylindrical Concrete Specimens C1435/C1435M Practice for Molding Roller-Compacted Concrete in Cylinder Molds Using a Vibrating Hammer C1604/C1604M Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores of Shotcrete E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website. *A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Oct 14 03:05:56 EDT 2018 1 Downloaded/printed by University Of Dayton (University Of Dayton) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized. C39/C39M − 18 E74 Practice of Calibration of Force-Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force Indication of Testing Machines Manual of Aggregate and Concrete Testing 3. Terminology 3.1 Definitions—For definitions of terms used in this practice, refer to Terminology C125. 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3.2.1 bearing block, n—steel piece to distribute the load from the testing machine to the specimen. 3.2.2 lower bearing block, n—steel piece placed under the specimen to distribute the load from the testing machine to the specimen. 3.2.2.1 Discussion—The lower bearing block provides a readily machinable surface for maintaining the specified bearing surface. The lower bearing block may also be used to adapt the testing machine to various specimen heights. The lower bearing block is also referred to as bottom block, plain block, and false platen. 3.2.3 platen, n—primary bearing surface of the testing machine. 3.2.3.1 Discussion—The platen is also referred to as the testing machine table. 3.2.4 spacer, n—steel piece used to elevate the lower bearing block to accommodate test specimens of various heights. 3.2.4.1 Discussion—Spacers are not required to have hardened bearing faces because spacers are not in direct contact with the specimen or the retainers of unbonded caps. 3.2.5 upper bearing block, n—steel assembly suspended above the specimen that is capable of tilting to bear uniformly on the top of the specimen. 3.2.5.1 Discussion—The upper bearing block is also referred to as the spherically seated block and the suspended block. 4. Summary of Test Method 4.1 This test method consists of applying a compressive axial load to molded cylinders or cores at a rate which is within a prescribed range until failure occurs. The compressive strength of the specimen is calculated by dividing the maximum load attained during the test by the cross-sectional area of the specimen. 5. Significance and Use 5.1 Care must be exercised in the interpretation of the significance of compressive strength determinations by this test method since strength is not a fundamental or intrinsic property of concrete made from given materials. Values obtained will depend on the size and shape of the specimen, batching, mixing procedures, the methods of sampling, molding, and fabrication and the age, temperature, and moisture conditions during curing. 5.2 This test method is used to determine compressive strength of cylindrical specimens prepared and cured in accordance with Practices C31/C31M, C192/C192M, C617/C617M, C943, C1176/C1176M, C1231/C1231M, and C1435/C1435M, and Test Methods C42/C42M, C873/C873M, and C1604/ C1604M. 5.3 The results of this test method are used as a basis for quality control of concrete proportioning, mixing, and placing operations; determination of compliance with specifications; control for evaluating effectiveness of admixtures; and similar uses. 5.4 The individual who tests concrete cylinders for acceptance testing shall meet the concrete laboratory technician requirements of Practice C1077, including an examination requiring performance demonstration that is evaluated by an independent examiner. NOTE 1—Certification equivalent to the minimum guidelines for ACI Concrete Laboratory Technician, Level I or ACI Concrete Strength Testing Technician will satisfy this requirement. 6. Apparatus 6.1 Testing Machine—The testing machine shall be of a type having sufficient capacity and capable of providing the rates of loading prescribed in 8.5. 6.1.1 Verify the accuracy of the testing machine in accordance with Practices E4, except that the verified loading range shall be as required in 6.4. Verification is required: 6.1.1.1 Within 13 months of the last calibration, 6.1.1.2 On original installation or immediately after relocation, 6.1.1.3 Immediately after making repairs or adjustments that affect the operation of the force applying system or the values displayed on the load indicating system, except for zero adjustments that compensate for the mass of bearing blocks or specimen, or both, or 6.1.1.4 Whenever there is reason to suspect the accuracy of the indicated loads. 6.1.2 Design—The design of the machine must include the following features: 6.1.2.1 The machine must be power operated and must apply the load continuously rather than intermittently, and without shock. If it has only one loading rate (meeting the requirements of 8.5), it must be provided with a supplemental means for loading at a rate suitable for verification. This supplemental means of loading may be power or hand operated. 6.1.2.2 The space provided for test specimens shall be large enough to accommodate, in a readable position, an elastic calibration device which is of sufficient capacity to cover the potential loading range of the testing machine and which complies with the requirements of Practice E74. NOTE 2—The types of elastic calibration devices most generally available and most commonly used for this purpose are the circular proving ring or load cell. 6.1.3 Accuracy—The accuracy of the testing machine shall be in accordance with the following provisions: 6.1.3.1 The percentage of error for the loads within the proposed range of use of the testing machine shall not exceed 61.0 % of the indicated load. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Oct 14 03:05:56 EDT 2018 2 Downloaded/printed by University Of Dayton (University Of Dayton) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized. C39/C39M − 18 6.1.3.2 The accuracy of the testing machine shall be verified by applying five test loads in four approximately equal increments in ascending order. The difference between any two successive test loads shall not exceed one third of the difference between the maximum and minimum test loads. 6.1.3.3 The test load as indicated by the testing machine and the applied load computed from the readings of the verification device shall be recorded at each test point. Calculate the error, E, and the percentage of error, Ep, for each point from these data as follows: E5A2B (1) E p 5 100~ A 2 B ! /B where: A = load, kN [lbf] indicated by the machine being verified, and B = applied load, kN [lbf] as determined by the calibrating device. 6.1.3.4 The report on the verification of a testing machine shall state within what loading range it was found to conform to specification requirements rather than reporting a blanket acceptance or rejection. In no case shall the loading range be stated as including loads below the value which is 100 times the smallest change of load estimable on the load-indicating mechanism of the testing machine or loads within that portion of the range below 10 % of the maximum range capacity. 6.1.3.5 In no case shall the loading range be stated as including loads outside the range of loads applied during the verification test. 6.1.3.6 The indicated load of a testing machine shall not be corrected either by calculation or by the use of a calibration diagram to obtain values within the required permissible variation. 6.2 Bearing Blocks—The upper and lower bearing blocks shall conform to the following requirements: 6.2.1 Bearing blocks shall be steel with hardened bearing faces (Note 3). 6.2.2 Bearing faces shall have dimensions at least 3 % greater than the nominal diameter of the specimen. 6.2.3 Except for the inscribed concentric circles described in 6.2.4.7, the bearing faces shall not depart from a plane by more than 0.02 mm [0.001 in.] along any 150 mm [6 in.] length for bearing blocks with a diameter of 150 mm [6 in.] or larger, or by more than 0.02 mm [0.001 in.] in any direction of smaller bearing blocks. New bearing blocks shall be manufactured within one half of this tolerance. NOTE 3—It is desirable that the bearing faces of bearing blocks have a Rockwell hardness at least 55 HRC as determined by Test Methods E18. NOTE 4—Square bearing faces are permissible for the bearing blocks. 6.2.4 Upper Bearing Block—The upper bearing block shall conform to the following requirements: 6.2.4.1 The upper bearing block shall be spherically seated and the center of the sphere shall coincide with the center of the bearing face within 65 % of the radius of the sphere. 6.2.4.2 The ball and the socket shall be designed so that the steel in the contact area does not permanently deform when loaded to the capacity of the testing machine. NOTE 5—The preferred contact area is in the form of a ring (described as preferred bearing area) as shown in Fig. 1. 6.2.4.3 Provision shall be made for holding the upper bearing block in the socket. The design shall be such that the bearing face can be rotated and tilted at least 4° in any direction. 6.2.4.4 If the upper bearing block is a two-piece design composed of a spherical portion and a bearing plate, a mechanical means shall be provided to ensure that the spherical portion is fixed and centered on the bearing plate. 6.2.4.5 The diameter of the sphere shall be at least 75 % of the nominal diameter of the specimen. If the diameter of the sphere is smaller than the diameter of the specimen, the portion of the bearing face extending beyond the sphere shall have a thickness not less than the difference between the radius of the sphere and radius of the specimen (see Fig. 1). The least dimension of the bearing face shall be at least as great as the diameter of the sphere. 6.2.4.6 The dimensions of the bearing face of the upper bearing block shall not exceed the following values: Nominal Diameter of Specimen, mm [in.] 50 [2] 75 [3] 100 [4] 150 [6] 200 [8] T≥R–r r = radius of spherical portion of upper bearing block R = nominal radius of specimen T = thickness of upper bearing block extending beyond the sphere FIG. 1 Schematic Sketch of Typical Upper Bearing Block Maximum Diameter of Round Bearing Face, mm [in.] 105 [4] 130 [5] 165 [6.5] 255 [10] 280 [11] 105 130 165 255 280 Maximum Dimensions of Square Bearing Face, mm [in.] by 105 [4 by 4] by 130 [5 by 5] by 165 [6.5 by 6.5] by 255 [10 by 10] by 280 [11 by 11] 6.2.4.7 If the diameter of the bearing face of the upper bearing block exceeds the nominal diameter of the specimen by more than 13 mm [0.5 in.], concentric circles not more than 0.8 mm [0.03 in.] deep and not more than 1 mm [0.04 in.] wide shall be inscribed on the face of upper bearing block to facilitate proper centering. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved); Sun Oct 14 03:05:56 EDT 2018 3 Downloaded/printed by University Of Dayton (University Of Dayton) pursuant to License Agreement. No further reproductions authorized. C39/C39M − 18 6.2.4.8 At least every six months, or as specified by the manufacturer of the testing machine, clean and lubricate the curved surfaces of the socket and of the spherical portion of the upper bearing block. The lubricant shall be a petroleum-type oil such as conventional motor oil or as specified by the manufacturer of the testing machine. exceed the clear distance between the smallest graduations. The scale shall be provided with a labeled graduation line load corresponding to zero load. Each dial shall be equipped with a zero adjustment located outside the dial case and accessible from the front of the machine while observing the zero mark and dial pointer. NOTE 6—To ensure uniform seating, the upper bearing block is designed to tilt freely as it comes into contact with the top of the specimen. After contact, further rotation is undesirable. Friction between the socket and the spherical portion of the head provides restraint against further rotation during loading. Pressure-type greases can reduce the desired friction and permit undesired rotation of the spherical head and should not be used unless recommended by the manufacturer of the testing machine. Petroleum-type oil such as conventional motor oil has been shown to permit the necessary friction to develop. NOTE 9—Readability is considered to be 0.5 mm [0.02 in.] along the arc described by the end of the pointer. If the spacing is between 1 and 2 mm [0.04 and 0.08 in.], one half of a scale interval is considered readable. If the spacing is between 2 and 3 mm [0.08 and 0.12 in.], one third of a scale interval is considered readable. If the spacing is 3 mm [0.12 in.] or more, one fourth of a scale interval is considered readable. 6.2.5 Lower Bearing Block—The lower bearing block shall conform to the following requirements: 6.2.5.1 The lower bearing block shall be solid. 6.2.5.2 The top and bottom surfaces of the lower bearing block shall be parallel to each other. 6.2.5.3 The lower bearing block shall be at least 25 mm [1.0 in.] thick when new, and at least 22.5 mm [0.9 in.] thick after resurfacing. 6.2.5.4 The lower bearing block shall be fully supported by the platen of the testing machine or by any spacers used. 6.2.5.5 If the testing machine is designed that the platen itself is readily maintained in the specified surface condition, a lower bearing block is not required. NOTE 7—The lower bearing block may be fastened to the platen of the testing machine. NOTE 8—Inscribed concentric circles as described in 6.2.4.7 are optional on the lower bearing block. 6.3 Spacers—If spacers are used, the spacers shall be placed under the lower bearing block and shall conform to the following requirements: 6.3.1 Spacers shall be solid steel. One vertical opening located in the center of the spacer is permissible. The maximum diameter of the vertical opening is 19 mm [0.75 in.]. 6.3.2 The top and bottom surfaces of the spacer shall be parallel to each other. 6.3.3 Spacers shall be fully supported by the platen of the test machine. 6.3.4 Spacers shall fully support the lower bearing block and any spacers above. 6.3.5 Spacers shall not be in direct contact with the specimen or the retainers of unbonded caps. 6.4 Load Indication—The testing machine shall be equipped with either a dial or digital load indicator. 6.4.1 The verified loading range shall not include loads less than 100 times the smallest change of load that can be read. 6.4.2 A means shall be provided that will record, or indicate until reset, the maximum load to an accuracy within 1.0 % of the load. 6.4.3 If the load is displayed on a dial, the graduated scale shall be readable to at least the nearest 0.1 % of the full scale load (Note 9). The dial shall be readable within 1.0 % of the indicated load at any given load level within the loading range. The dial pointer shall be of sufficient length to reach the graduation marks. The width of the end of the pointer shall not 6.4.4 If the load is displayed in digital form, the numbers must be large enough to be read. The numerical increment shall not exceed 0.1 % of the full scale load of a given loading range. Provision shall be made for adjusting the display to indicate a value of zero when no load is applied to the specimen. 6.5 Documentation of the calibration and maintenance of the ...
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Running head: MEASUREMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete
Name
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MEASUREMENT OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

2

Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete
As happens with many other structural materials used in the construction of buildings,
measurements of the mechanical properties of concrete is especially critical considering how
they will affect its structural stability, as well as that of the building material constructed using
such concrete (Muller et al., 2014). In this regard, the addition of individual components such as
surfactants, pozzolans, fibers, or steel bars will have a direct impact on the concrete’s strength,
among other mechanical properties (Muller et al., 2014).
Similarly, the water content during the curing process as well as the environmental
humidity and the temperature may affect the porosity of the resulting concrete material (Muller
et al., 2014). Lastly, the proportion of the different constituents and the environmental
temperature have a direct impact on the concrete's tensile strength. An unbalanced composition
or an excessively low or high temperature during the curing of the concrete material may result
in the preparation of a highly fragile concrete, that will easily crack during the curing process or
if installed on regions with cold water (Muller et al., 2014). The present report illustrates the
different methods used for the measurement of the flexibility, strength, and porosity of the
concrete material.
The flexibility of the concrete material
Relevance
While the concrete material is hard, it needs to have a certain flexibility, most especially
during the curing process of the material. Such flexibility will enable the resulting concrete
material to adapt to the changes in volume and size upon variations in the environmental
temperature. Thus, an appropriate flexibility level will contribute to minimizing the ri...

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