Change Management Plans

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Question Description

Any change management plan must take into account the culture of an organization. For instance, some organizations prize the inclusion of their employees in all aspects of operations, while other organizations have a top-down approach to management. Creating a plan without taking this cultural background into context can be problematic for the success of a change initiative.

In a 5-page paper, search the virtual library to find scholarly articles relative to change initiatives which apply to an organization in the Saudi arabia. Assess the cultural elements that you believe may impact the development of change strategies and implementation of change plans. Synthesize the information and discuss challenges and strategies that should be considered to address (or overcome) these cultural elements which could negatively affect the implementation of a change strategy.

Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:

  • Be 5 pages in length, which does not include the title page, abstract or required reference page, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.
  • Use APA style guidelines.
  • Support your submission with course material concepts, principles and theories from the textbook and at least 4 scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.

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Organizational Change 3e ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* This book is dedicated to our partners: Heather, Bertha, and Steve. ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Organizational Change An Action-Oriented Toolkit 3e Tupper F. Cawsey Wilfrid Laurier University Gene Deszca Wilfrid Laurier University Cynthia Ingols Simmons College ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10-04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Copyright © 2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cawsey, T. F. Organizational change: an action-oriented toolkit / Tupper F. Cawsey, Gene Deszca, Cynthia Ingols. — Third edition. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978-1-4833-5930-4 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. Organizational change. I. Deszca, Gene. II. Ingols, Cynthia. III. Title. HD58.8.C39 2016 ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* 658.4′06—dc23 2015006458 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley Associate Editor: Abbie Rickard Editorial Assistant: Nicole Mangona eLearning editor: Katie Bierach Production Editor: Libby Larson Copy Editor: Terri Lee Paulsen Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreader: Bonnie Moore Indexer: Will Ragsdale Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe Marketing Manager: Liz Thornton ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Brief Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1. Changing Organizations in Our Complex World Chapter 2. Frameworks for Leading the Process of Organizational Change: “How” to Lead Organizational Change Chapter 3. Frameworks for Diagnosing Organizations: “What” to Change in an Organization Chapter 4. Building and Energizing the Need for Change Chapter 5. Navigating Change Through Formal Structures and Systems Chapter 6. Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture Chapter 7. Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing Internal Stakeholders Chapter 8. Becoming a Master Change Agent Chapter 9. Action Planning and Implementation Chapter 10. Measuring Change: Designing Effective Control Systems Chapter 11. Summary Thoughts on Organizational Change Appendix: Case Studies Case Study 1: Building Community at Terra Nova Consulting Case Study 2: Food Banks Canada: Revisiting Strategy 2012 Case Study 3: “Not an Option to Even Consider:” Contending With the Pressures to Compromise Case Study 4: Diego Curtiz at Highland State University Case Study 5: Ellen Zane—Leading Change at Tufts/NEMC Case Study 6: Ellen Zane at Tufts Medical Center: Spring 2011 Notes Index About the Authors ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Detailed Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1. Changing Organizations in Our Complex World Defining Organizational Change The Orientation of This Book Environmental Forces Driving Change Today The Implications of Worldwide Trends for Change Management Four Types of Organizational Change Planned Changes Don’t Always Produce the Intended Results Organizational Change Roles Change Initiators Change Implementers Change Facilitators Common Challenges for Managerial Roles Change Recipients The Requirements for Becoming a Successful Change Leader Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 2. Frameworks for Leading the Process of Organizational Change: “How” to Lead Organizational Change Differentiating How to Change From What to Change The Processes of Organizational Change (1) Stage Theory of Change: Lewin Unfreeze Change Refreeze (2) Stage Model of Organizational Change: Kotter Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process (3) Giving Voice to Values: Gentile GVV and Organizational Change (4) Emotional Transitions Through Change: Duck Duck’s Five-Stage Change Curve (5) Managing the Change Process: Beckhard and Harris (6) The Change Path Model: Cawsey–Deszca–Ingols Application of the Change Path Model Awakening: Why Change? Mobilization: Gap Analysis of Hotel Operations Acceleration: Getting From Here to There Institutionalization: Measuring Progress Along the Way and Using Measures to Help Make the Change Stick Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 3. Frameworks for Diagnosing Organizations: “What” to Change in an Organization Open Systems Approach to Organizational Analysis ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* (1) Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model History and Environment Strategy The Transformation Process Work The Formal Organization The Informal Organization People Outputs An Example Using Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model Evaluating Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model (2) Sterman’s Systems Dynamics Model (3) Quinn’s Competing Values Model (4) Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth (5) Stacey’s Complexity Theory Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 4. Building and Energizing the Need for Change Understanding the Need for Change Seek Out and Make Sense of External Data Seek Out and Make Sense of the Perspectives of Stakeholders Seek Out and Make Sense of Internal Data Seek Out and Assess Your Personal Concerns and Perspectives Assessing the Readiness for Change Heightening Awareness of the Need for Change Factors That Block People From Recognizing the Need for Change Developing a Powerful Vision for Change The Difference Between an Organizational Vision and a Change Vision Examples of Organizational Change Visions Google’s Implied Vision for Change in Telecommunications Xerox’s Vision for Creating Agile Business Processes IBM—Diversity 3.0 Ronald McDonald House Charities (RMHC) Vision Tata’s Vision for the Nano World Wildlife Fund: Vision for Its Community Action Initiative—Finding Sustainable Ways of Living Vision for the “Survive to 5” Program Change Vision for “Reading Rainbow” Summary Key Terms A Checklist for Change: Creating the Readiness for Change End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 5. Navigating Change Through Formal Structures and Systems Making Sense of Formal Structures and Systems Impact of Uncertainty and Complexity on Formal Structures and Systems Formal Structures and Systems From an Information Perspective Aligning Systems and Structures With the Environment Structural Changes to Handle Increased Uncertainty Making Formal Structure and System Choices ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Using Structures and Systems to Influence the Approval and Implementation of Change Using Formal Structures and Systems to Advance Change Using Systems and Structures to Obtain Formal Approval of a Change Project Using Systems to Enhance the Prospects for Approval Ways to Approach the Approval Process Aligning Strategically, Starting Small, and “Morphing” Tactics The Interaction of Structures and Systems With Change During Implementation Using Structures and Systems to Facilitate the Acceptance of Change Developing Adaptive Systems and Structures Summary Key Terms Checklist: Change Initiative Approval End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 6. Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture Power Dynamics in Organizations Departmental Power Organizational Culture and Change How to Analyze a Culture Tips for Change Agents to Assess a Culture Understanding the Perceptions of Change Identifying the Organizational Dynamics at Play Summary Key Terms Checklist: Stakeholder Analysis End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 7. Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing Internal Stakeholders Stakeholders Respond Variably to Change Initiatives Not Everyone Sees Change as Negative Responding to Various Feelings in Stakeholders Positive Feelings in Stakeholders: Channeling Their Energy Ambivalent Feelings in Stakeholders: They Can Be Useful Negative Reactions to Change by Stakeholders: These Too Can Be Useful Make the Change of the Psychological Contract Explicit and Transparent Predictable Stages in the Reaction to Change Stakeholders’ Personalities Influence Their Reactions to Change Prior Experience Impacts a Person’s and Organization’s Perspective on Change Coworkers Influence Stakeholders’ Views Feelings About Change Leaders Make a Difference Integrity Is One Antidote to Skepticism and Cynicism Avoiding Coercion But Pushing Hard: The Sweet Spot? Creating Consistent Signals From Systems and Processes Steps to Minimize the Negative Effects of Change Engagement Timeliness Two-Way Communication Make Continuous Improvement the Norm Encourage People to Be Change Agents and Avoid the Recipient Trap Summary ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Key Terms Checklist: How to Manage and Minimize Cynicism About Change End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 8. Becoming a Master Change Agent Factors That Influence Change Agent Success The Interplay of Personal Attributes, Situation, and Vision Change Leaders and Their Essential Characteristics Developing Into a Change Leader Intention, Education, Self-Discipline, and Experience What Does Reflection Mean? Developmental Stages of Change Leaders Four Types of Change Leaders Internal Consultants: Specialists in Change External Consultants: Specialized, Paid Change Agents Provide Subject-Matter Expertise Bring Fresh Perspectives From Ideas That Have Worked Elsewhere Provide Independent, Trustworthy Support Limitations of External Consultants Change Teams Change From the Middle: Everyone Needs to Be a Change Agent Rules of Thumb for Change Agents Summary Key Terms Checklist: Structuring Work in a Change Team End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 9. Action Planning and Implementation Without a “Do It” Orientation, Things Won’t Happen Prelude to Action: Selecting the Correct Path Plan the Work Engage Others in Action Planning Ensure Alignment in Your Action Planning Action Planning Tools 1. To-Do Lists 2. Responsibility Charting 3. Contingency Planning 4. Surveys and Survey Feedback 5. Project Planning and Critical Path Methods 6. Tools to Assess Forces That Influence Outcomes and Stakeholders 7. Leverage Analysis 8. Operation Management Tools Working the Plan Ethically and Adaptively Developing a Communication Plan Timing and Focus of Communications Key Principles in Communicating for Change Influence Strategies Transition Management Summary Key Terms Checklist: Developing an Action Plan End-of-Chapter Exercises ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Chapter 10. Measuring Change: Designing Effective Control Systems Selecting and Deploying Measures Focus on Key Factors Use Measures That Lead to Challenging but Achievable Goals Use Measures and Controls That Are Perceived as Fair and Appropriate Avoid Sending Mixed Signals Ensure Accurate Data Match the Precision of the Measure With the Ability to Measure Control Systems and Change Management Controls During Design and Early Stages of the Change Project Controls in the Middle of the Change Project Controls Toward the End of the Change Project Other Measurement Tools Strategy Maps The Balanced Scorecard Risk Exposure Calculator The DICE Model Summary Key Terms Checklist: Creating a Balanced Scorecard End-of-Chapter Exercises Chapter 11. Summary Thoughts on Organizational Change Putting the Change Path Model Into Practice Future Organizations and Their Impact Becoming an Organizational Change Agent: Specialists and Generalists Paradoxes in Organizational Change Orienting Yourself to Organizational Change Summary End-of-Chapter Exercises Case Studies Case Study 1: Building Community at Terra Nova Consulting Case Study 2: Food Banks Canada: Revisiting Strategy 2012 Case Study 3: “Not an Option to Even Consider:” Contending With the Pressures to Compromise Case Study 4: Diego Curtiz at Highland State University Case Study 5: Ellen Zane—Leading Change at Tufts/NEMC Case Study 6: Ellen Zane at Tufts Medical Center: Spring 2011 Notes Index About the Authors ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Preface Since the publishing of the second edition of this text, the world has continued to churn in very challenging ways. Uneven and shifting global patterns of growth, sluggish Western economies, continuing fallout from the financial crisis, stubbornly high unemployment levels in much of the world, and heightened global uncertainty in matters related to health, safety, and security define the terrain. Their consequences continue to unfold. The massive credit crisis was followed by unprecedented worldwide government stimulus spending, followed by sovereign debt crises, followed by . . . ??? Wars and insurrections in parts of Africa, the Ukraine, and much of the Middle East; deteriorating international relationships involving major powers; fears of global pandemics (Ebola and MERS); and the rise of ISIS and Boko Haram and their unprecedented inhumanity have shaken all organizations, big or small, public or private. They have also made us, your authors, much more aware of the extreme influence of the external environment on the internal workings of an organization. As we point out in our book, even the smallest of firms have to adapt when banks refuse them normal credit, and even the largest and most successful of firms have to learn how to adapt when disruptive technologies or rapid social and political changes alter their realities. Our models have always included and often started with events external to the organization. We have always argued that change leaders need to scan their environments and be aware of trends and crises in those environments. The events of the past two years have reinforced our sense of this even more. Managers must be sensitive to what happens around them, know how to make sense of this, and then have the skills and abilities that will allow them to both react effectively to the internal and external challenges and remain constant in their visions and dreams of how to make their organizations and the world a better place to live. A corollary of this is that organizations need a response capability that is unprecedented, because we’re playing on a global stage of increasing complexity and uncertainty. If you are a bank, you need a capital ratio that would have been unprecedented a few years ago. If you are a major organization, you need to build in flexibility into your structures, policies, and plans. If you are a public sector organization, you need to be sensitive to how capricious granting agencies or funders will be when revenues dry up. In today’s world, organizational resilience and adaptability gain new prominence. Further, we are faced with a continuing reality that change is endemic. All managers are change managers. All good managers are change leaders. The management job involves creating, anticipating, encouraging, engaging others, and responding positively to change. This has been a theme of this book which continues. Change management is for everyone. Change management emerges from the bottom and middle of the organization as much as from the top. It will be those key leaders who are embedded in the organization who will enable the needed adaptation of the organization to its environment. Middle managers need to be key change leaders. In addition to the above, we have used feedback on the second edition to strengthen the pragmatic orientation that we had developed. The major themes of action orientation, analysis tied with doing, the management of a nonlinear world, and the bridging of the “Knowing– Doing” gap continue to be central. At the same time, we have tried to shift to a more userfriendly, action perspective. To make the material more accessible to a diversity of readers, ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* some theoretical material has been altered, some of our models have been clarified and simplified, and some of our language and formatting has been modified. As we stated in the preface to the first edition, our motivation for this book was to fill a gap we saw in the marketplace. Our challenge was to develop a book that not only gave prescriptive advice, “how-to-do-it lists,” but one that also provided up-to-date theory without getting sidetracked by academic theoretical complexities. We hope that we have captured the management experience with change so that our manuscript assists all those who must deal with change, not just senior executives or organizational development specialists. Although there is much in this book for the senior executive and organizational development specialist, our intent was to create a book that would be valuable to a broad cross section of the workforce. Our personal beliefs form the basis for the book. Even as academics, we have a bias for action. We believe that “doing is healthy.” Taking action creates influence and demands responses from others. While we believe in the need for excellent analysis, we know that action itself provides opportunities for feedback and learning that can improve the action. Finally, we have a strong belief in the worth of people. In particular, we believe that one of the greatest sources of improvement is the untapped potential to be found in the people of the organization. We recognize that this book is not an easy read. It is not meant to be. It is meant as a serious text for those involved in change—that is, all managers! We hope you find it a book that you will want to keep and pull from your shelf in the years ahead, when you need to lead change and you want help thinking it through. Your authors, Tupper, Gene, and Cynthia ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the many people who have helped to make this book possible. Our students and their reactions to the ideas and materials continue to be a source of inspiration. Cynthia’s Leadership and Organizational Change course, spring 2014, included Mshael Alessa, Daniella Comito, Katrice Krumplys, Jill Peterson, and other students who applied the concepts in this book and made a difference through their change projects at Simmons College. Managers, executives, and frontline employees that we have known have provided insights, case examples, and applications while keeping us focused on what is useful and relevant. Ellen Zane, former CEO of Tufts Medical Center, Boston, is an inspiring change leader; her turnaround story at Tufts Medical Center appeared in the second edition of this book and is published again in this third edition. Cynthia has also been fortunate to work with and learn from Gretchen Fox, founder and former CEO, FOX Relocation Management Corporation. The story of how she changed her small firm appeared in the second edition of the book and the case continues to be available through Harvard Business Publishing ( Katharine Schmidt, a former student of Gene‘s and the CEO of Food Banks Canada, is another of the inspiring leaders who opened her organization to us and allowed us to learn from their experience, and share it with you in this edition. Several colleagues have provided guidance and feedback along the way that have helped us test our logic and develop our thinking and writing. Cynthia would like to especially thank Professor Mary Shapiro, a colleague at the School of Management, Simmons College, who read each chapter thoroughly and gave insightful feedback on the manuscript. Dr. Paul Myers, consultant, Boulder, CO, read Chapters 2 and 3 with a fi ...
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Organization Culture
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Change is inevitable in all aspects of life including the corporate world. Occasionally, a
new system needs to be put in place to replace the normal one or make improvements to it.
However, a lot has to be considered while undertaking these changes to ensure they work for the
good of everyone. In organizations and in the corporate world at large, a change in the typical
day to day running of business needs to be effected after extensive consultation with all
stakeholder, i.e. employees and the managers, and after a keen analysis of the effect, it would
have on a company's performance. Hence, an organization needs to come up with a Change
Management Plan. This is a framework that guides an organization on the steps, factors to
consider and implications of adopting a new way of running the day to day business (Dessler,
Organizational changes are influenced by some reasons. It could be due to changes in
technology, changes in government policies, globalization and organization culture.
Organizational culture is a key factor that influences organization changes. This is because it is
an internal factor and it relates to the employees' cultural values. Organizational Culture refers to
a set of beliefs and values that influence the behavior of everyone in an organization (Cawsey,
Deszca, & Ingols 2016). It dictates how people dress, act and perform their duties at work. It is
the values that people working in a specific organization can be identified with. These
Organization cultures differ from one organization to another depending on factors like religion,
subscription to specific political ideologies, type of business being carried out by the
organization and the geographical location of the business. This paper looks at the...

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