Science
“Formal lab” “Dynamic Response” technical writing to complete a professional Control lab report

Question Description

Remember before u handle this work, this work is so important to me, so i will revise it many times before i turn it in and I will rate u depend on your work quality such as providing correct and full response and meet all requirements in the attached instructions. Please avoid the Lack of depth in your response and plagiarism bcz I’ll check it with the ((Turn it in website.))

I need the following:

  • Send it me as WORD document not a handwritten scanned document
  • See the “main lab Dynamic response” and the attached file named “Final data Excel & and frequency screen shots shape” which has internal 2 folders for both parts to make orginaised for u, and “Lab setup pictures & “R&C” measurement” to see our results.
  • See the lab procedures r done by the doctor for both parts inside outside lab with clarifying everything.
  • Then write A Formal lab by meeting all the requirements in the attached file name “Formal_Lab_reports”
  • See the good example from the teacher for another attachment that called “Good lab example from the teacher”
  • While that, you can use whether EXCEL or MATLAB to do the lab as u like
  • Finally, you need to include all the 7 following in the final formal lab
    • Objective
    • Background
    • Experiment
    • References
    • Results
    • Conclusions
    • Appendix

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Fall 2018 Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-1 Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Format This lab will be conducted during your regularly scheduled lab time in a group format. You may ask the lab instructors for assistance if needed, but successful completion of the lab is your responsibility. Report An individual, formal report consisting of two parts must be submitted from each of you. Part I will consist of a title page and Objective, Background, Experiment, and References sections and will be electronically submitted to a Turnitin link on your class’s ME 360 Blackboard site. A professional English grader will grade the quality of the writing in your report. Part II will be composed of the original Part I with the addition of Results and Conclusions sections, along with an Appendix. Part II will be submitted electronically through the same Turnitin link as Part I (it will be a draft revision). In addition, a paper submission of the complete report (Part II as composed of Part I and additional sections) to the lab TAs will be required. Submission of Part I to Turnitin will be due at the beginning of your registered laboratory time, the week following performance of the respective labs. The complete Part II (Part I and additional sections) will be due at the beginning of the class (12pm) on Monday, November 5 for all students. For every twenty-four hour period that you are late in submitting your report, a letter grade will be deducted from that lab grade. For example, if you hand your report in five minutes after the deadline, your maximum score is 90/100 for this formal lab; if you hand the report in twentyfour hours and five minutes after the deadline, your maximum score is 80/100 for this formal lab, etc. At a minimum, all of the information specifically requested in this lab manual should be in your report. Try to use the following naming convention for your file name for the electronic copy: ME360_FA18_Formal2_Last name (First letter capitalized)_First name (First letter capitalize). Background A solid understanding of dynamic response is important for mechanical engineers. Measures of dynamic response include - time constant (1st-order systems), - natural frequency and damping ratio (2nd-order systems; not covered in this lab), and - bandwidth (any order system). Of course, in order to evaluate a system’s dynamic response, it is first necessary that the timeresponse be captured. To that end, some data acquisition system must be implemented. You will accomplish the following tasks during the course of this laboratory: I. Evaluation of time-constant for a first order system by observing the transient response You will construct a basic RC circuit on your breadboard. You will then drive this system with a square wave. Voltage followers will be used to buffer both the input signal coming from the function generator and the voltage output of the RC circuit. The Fall 2018 II. I. Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-2 two signals will also drive LEDs on your breadboard, such that you may directly (with your own eyes!) observe (see!) the influence of a system’s time-constant on its output. Evaluation of bandwidth for a first order system by observing the steady state response Bandwidth is defined as the frequency at which an output signal drops below 70.7% of the “low frequency” output. This will be further explained below. You will use sine signals to drive the circuit constructed in Part I. You will record the input and output signals, such that you will later be able to determine the signals’ magnitudes and the corresponding phase shift between the two signals. In addition, you will visually observe the influence of the signals’ magnitude and phase response using the LEDs on the breadboard. Evaluation of time-constant for a first order system by observing the transient response As discussed in class, common first-order systems include (among others) a mass sliding on a viscous surface, a thermal “mass” immersed in different fluids, and basic RC circuits. Of those three systems, the easiest to construct and test is the RC circuit. To that end, you will be constructing an RC circuit on your laboratory station breadboard. To prevent loading of the circuit, you will use load followers to buffer the input and the output signals. You will also use the load followers to simultaneously drive LEDs such that you will be able to visually interpret the input and output signals. The circuit that you need to construct is shown in Figure 1 below. In that figure, the input signal, Vin, is indicated on the intput to the first load follower and the output signal, Vout, is the output of the second load follower. The dashed box around the four LEDs is meant to imply that the LEDs are part of the “bar graph” LED chip. The middle two LEDs are used to indicate the status of the input signal (one will be fully on when the input signal is +5V and the other will be fully on when the input signal is -5V). The outer two LEDs correspond to the output signal, one for positive voltages and one for negative voltages. (In fact, 0.7V is the minimum voltage to drive an LED, so the LEDs will not be lit for voltages between ± 0.7V.) Also note: the ±12V rail voltages for the op-amps are not shown, but they are necessary. 220 220  ‐ ‐ + + + Vin ‐ 156k 0.1µF 1µF 0.1µF 1µF + Vout ‐ Figure 1. RC circuit with indicating LEDs. To help you in understanding the circuit, a “Fritzing” breadboard layout of the circuit is shown in Figure 2. Note that (a) you will be using only four of the ten LEDs on the LED chip and (b) in Figure 2, some of the LEDs are shown red and some are white; for the chips used in lab, all LEDs are red. Also, there is a blue “Chiclet” shown connecting the non-inverting input of the second op-amp and GND. That is the capacitor that, in the laboratory, will be a Fall 2018 Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-3 deep red color (and will look even more like a Chiclet – don’t eat it). Finally, in Figure 2, only one capacitor is shown. However, in the lab, you will be using a pair of 1µF capacitors in parallel, to realize an equivalent capacitance of 2µF. Similarly, the 156k resistor is composed of a 100k and a 56k resistor in series. As you go through this first part of the lab, you will be evaluating the sytem’s time-constant for various combinations of resistors and capacitors. To that end, you should record all resistance and capacitance values in the table shown at the end of this section of the lab. In addition, you should record time-histories of the signals using Waveforms and the ‘Scope software. Ch1 Ch a0 Ch2 Ch a1 +12V +5V GND ‐12V Function Generator Signal Figure 2. Breadboard layout of RC circuit. 1. Construct the circuit shown in Figures 1 and 2. Use the DMM to measure the resistances of the 100k and 56k resistors and the capacitances of the two 1µF capacitors. RECORD the exact values that you measure for these components. 2. Test the circuit by MOMENTARILY connecting the +5V rail signal to the non-inverting input (pin 3) of the first op-amp. When you do that, the left two LEDs should light up. REMOVE the +5V rail signal before moving to the next step. 3. Use the Waveforms function generator to generate a 0.5 Hz square wave with an amplitude of ± 5V. To get the Waveforms function generator up and running, do the following: - Start Waveforms by double-clicking on the appropriate shortcut on your lab station PC’s desktop. - Select “Wavegen” from the menu on the left side of the Waveforms window. - Change the waveform type to “Square” by using the dropdown menu that is initially labeled “Sine.” - Change the frequency and amplitude to 0.5Hz and 5V, respectively, by using the appropriate text-entry boxes. Fall 2018 4. 5. 6. 7. Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-4 - Start the signal output by clicking on the “Run” button. - Start the oscilloscope function of Waveforms by selecting “Windows,” then “Waveforms,” and selecting “Scope” from the menu on the left side of the Waveforms window. Check the square wave with the oscilloscope to make sure that the signal has a zero mean (goes from +5V down to -5V) and that its frequency is 0.5 Hz. Apply the square wave to the input of the circuit shown above. If your circuit is working properly, the left two LEDs should be lighting together and the right two LEDs should be lighting together. The two pairs should be alternating as the square wave goes positive and negative (left-left, then right-right, then left-left, etc.). IT IS IMPORTANT THAT SCOPE CHANNEL 2 BE CONNECTED TO THE OUTPUT OF THE SECOND LOAD FOLLOWER, NOT THE INPUT. OTHERWISE, LOADING WILL OCCUR AND YOU WON’T GET THE FULL AMPLITUDE OF THE OUTPUT. Use Waveforms to monitor the input and output signals as measured on Channels 1 and 2. The two signals should look like those shown in Figure 3 below. Do you see a pattern in how the individual pairs of LEDs light? (Does one LED always turn on a little bit faster than the other in a given pair?) RECORD the input and output signals at a sufficient sampling rate and for a sufficient time that you will be able to estimate the time-constant of the system. That is, it would be difficult to estimate the time-constant of the system using the figure below. However, if you change the system to 250ms/div, or even 100ms/div, you will be able to zoom in on a single rising portion of the signal and, as such, make a better estimate of the time-constant. To make the best estimate of the time-constant, save your data using the “File,” and “Export” options. You can then bring up the .csv (comma-separated) file in Excel. SAVE THIS DATA. Figure 3. Input square wave and RC output with 220k resistor and 2x0.1µF capacitors in parallel. 8. Modify your circuit by adding a third 1µF capacitor in parallel with the first two. RECORD this third capacitor’s capacitance. Keep applying the 0.5Hz square wave. Again, visually observe the response of the outer LEDs (describe how they light) and Fall 2018 Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-5 RECORD the time response using Waveforms and with a time/div value that will allow you to estimate the time-constant in Excel. 9. Now, remove the three capacitors and replace them with a single 0.01µF capacitor. Record that capacitor’s value. Then repeat the observations and time response recording of Step 8, modifying the time/div value as appropriate. For each test, record the resistance and capacitance of any circuit elements and the time response at a time/div level that will make for an accurate estimation of the time constant. Outside of lab: Write a description of how the LED turns on and off during the different circuit cases listed above. Support your observations with plot(s) of the input and output signals. Explain why the differences occur, in terms of the components used. Your explanation should be quantitative, as well as qualitative (some math should be involved). Calculate the theoretical time-constants for the different systems using the appropriate resistor and capacitor values that you recorded above. Then calculate the time-constant of your experimental sytem using the time-records of the input and output signals. Compare the two time-constants. When you include uncertainty in all measurements, do the time-constants overlap? (Uncertainties should include resistance and capacitance values for the theoretical time constant and uncertainties due to sampling for the experimental time constant.) Write a description of how the LEDs light up and use your knowledge of the system timeconstants to explain the particular pattern that can be observed. Table 1. Data for evaluation of time-constant. Case R (k) C1(µF) R=156k, C=2x1µF R=156k, C=3x1 µF R=156, C=1x0.01µF Change roles in your group at this point. C2(µF) C3(µF) th(s) exp(s) Fall 2018 II. Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-6 Evaluation of Bandwidth for a first order system by observing the steady state response 1. Put your system back to the original configuration of the 156k resistor and the two 1µF capacitors in parallel. Switch the function generator output to provide a 0.1 Hz sine wave with a 5V amplitude (10V peak-to-peak). Check that your signal is zero-mean using the oscilloscope. 2. Use Waveforms to record at least four full periods of the input and output signals. Make sure that the sampling rate is sufficiently high to allow for a good estimation of the two signals’ magnitudes, as well as any time delay between the two signals. The time delay will be used to estimate the phase difference between the two signals. You may want to examine your data in Excel during the lab, to be sure that you can predict the amplitudes of the input and output signals and the phase lag. Carefully observe the lighting patterns (again) and consider how the recorded data supports the lighting patterns. Note – you may be seeing a “dead-band” between when one pair of LEDs turns off and the other pair has not yet turned on. Do you know why it is there? Consider that an LED doesn’t start to conduct until 0.7V is applied and you will probably figure it out. 3. Now, increase your frequency to 0.2Hz and repeat Step 2. You may need to adjust your sampling rate to accommodate the faster signal (faster in the sense that corn syrup flows faster than molasses – they’re still both slow). 4. Repeat Step 2 for frequencies of 0.25, 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 4 Hz, 8Hz, 16 Hz, and 32 Hz. Record input and output signals at all frequencies and adjust the sampling rate to ensure that you capture sufficient data to accuractly estimate the amplitudes of the two signals and the phase differences between them. As the frequency gets higher, you should carefully examine the LEDs. What is happening to the LEDs corresponding to the output signal? Be prepared to explain this in your results. When finished, you should have input and output records for each of the following frequencies so that you can fill in Table 1 below. Make sure that, for each frequency, you capture the data at a sufficient rate to be able to estimate the amplitudes and phase accurately! Outside of lab: Fill in Table 1 shown below. The linear gain is the ratio of the output amplitude divided by the input amplitude. The dB gain is 20*log10(G), where G is the linear gain. To calculate the phase angle, define tin as the time that the input signal passes through 0V and tout as the time that the output signal next passes through that same value. The time lag between the two signals is then defined as dt=tout-tin. Divinding dt by the period of the signals, T, gives the time lag as a fraction of the full period. Since one full period corresponds to 360, you can multiply the result by 360 t  t  to get the phase lag. That is, the phase lag, , is given by   out in  360 . T Next, create four plots of the frequency response in either MATLAB or Excel. The first plot should be a plot of the linear gain vs. linear frequency (gain on the vertical axis and frequency on the horizontal). The second plot should be the phase lag (deg) vs. linear frequency. For the third and fourth plots, the horizontal axes should be frequency, but the axes should use a logarithmic scale. The vertical axis of the third plot should then be the gain in dB. The vertical axis of the fourth plot should be the phase lag in degrees (as in the second plot). Fall 2018 Lab 6 – Dynamic Response Lab 6-7 The bandwidth of a dynamic system is defined as the frequency at which the output amplitude drops to 70.7% of the level at “low” frequencies. Also, for a first-order system, the bandwidth is determined by the frequency at which the phase lag between the input and output goes to 45. Use your third and fourth frequency response plots to estimate the bandwidth of your system. 1 Finally, for a first-order system, the bandwidth is also given by the formula bw  , where  is  the system’s time constant. In this case,  is given by the product RC. So, calculate the theoretical bandwidth based on the RC time-constant and compare this to the bandwidth as evaluated above. In all, you will have three separate methods for calculating the system’s bandwidth. Write a description of the LED lighting behavior at the different frequencies. Can you relate the lighting behavior to the frequency response of the system as presented in your four plots? Think about the implications of magnitude and phase as functions of frequency and how they are manifest in the lighting behavior. Table 2. Frequency response data and results. Frequency (Hz) 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 Frequency (rad/s) Input Amp. (V) Output Amp. (V) Gain (linear) Gain (dB) Phase lag (deg) Required Sections and Word Limits Objective – 50 words  Background – 450 words  Experiment – 450 words  Results – 150 words  Conclusions – 100 words  ME 360 Formal Reports Objective(s) – 50 words or less  Address the questions: – “What is the purpose of the lab experiment?” – “What were you trying to accomplish?” BE CLEAR  You have 15 seconds to convince your boss why and what you did is important  Do NOT say the purpose was to  – “introduce the student to…”, – “become familiar with…”, etc. Background – 450 words or less Gives information necessary to understand and appreciate the report.  EDUCATE the reader on  – Relevant equations – Relevant schematics – Utility of the technology/subject of the lab – Specific applications where the technology/subject of the lab is used in the “engineering world” Experiment – 450 words or less  A description of the experimental setup – dimensions of beams, weights, component values in op-amp circuits, etc., – diagrams (sketches or schematics) showing all relevant dimensions and/or component values, – descriptions of all test equipment used, – complete schematics of circuits used, – a brief description of the experimental procedure, but not a "cookbook recipe" Experiment (Continued)  The "Experiment" section focuses on the "how" of your lab experience  Do not duplicate the "Background" section which contains general truths  NOT a cut-and-paste of the lab handout!  Write so that a missing lab partner could reproduce what you did in the lab! Results – 150 words or less  Present in concise terms the significant results of the effort in – words, – tables, – figures:    comparison of actual results to theory, if appropriate, an uncertainty analysis and evaluation of its results, and an analysis of sources of error (if any) in your experimental technique Results Address any questions specifically asked in your lab handout  Using tables and figures? They MUST be discussed or mentioned in the text!  Note - This is the most important single section of a 360 lab report! Conclusions – 100 words or less Should be a short paragraph that restates the major results and, perhaps more importantly, interpretations of those results with numerical values, if appropriate.  Were the objectives of the lab met?  What can you conclude from the lab? References – at least three, preferably more  Any material taken directly from another author must be given proper reference.  You may NOT reference your ME 360 course manual for anything  Using a picture that you didn’t create? CITE IT in the caption, as well as in the references  References  Use engineering-quality references Appendix  – Books, journal papers, and technical papers – index / table of contents (typewritten!) – raw data sheets, – sets of sample calculations, May be neatly – uncertainty analysis hand-written! – Manufacturer’s application notes and “white papers”  Wi ...
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Final Answer

Hello buddy, I am done with all the sections apart from the results and conclusion. Please have a look at this that I have done so far.

Formal Lab 6

Dynamic System Response

Name

Lab Partners

Date

Dynamic Response Lab Report
Objective
The objectives of this lab experiment is to determine the time-constant of a first order system by
observing the transient response and to determine the bandwidth of a first order system by
observing the steady state response by using an RC circuit configured around an op-amp with LEDs
as outputs and square wave or sinusoidal signal of given amplitude and frequency as the input.
Background
When a system (including mechanical system, electrical system, thermal system, fluid system etc.)
can be subjected to a given input and the dynamic response of the system denotes the condition of
that given system in reaction to the input to it. Such a state of the system is time dependent and
therefore, it is usually referred to as a time response for the given system. This time response for a
given system consists of a combination of two states i.e. the steady state response which is the state
of the dynamic system that vary with the input to the system and the transient response which is
the dynamic response of the system that vary with on the given initial conditions for the system.
For any system, by observing the transient response then the time constant can be determined and
also by observing the steady state response then the bandwidth of the system can be determined.
Most systems when considered under system dynamic response can be modelled using differential
equations and therefore the solution of the differential equations gives the two component states of
the system response. Therefore, analysis of the differential equations representing the system gives
the transient response as the homogenous solution of the differential equation and steady state
response as the particular solution of the differential equation.
A system whose response is given by a differential equation has an order which is given by the
highest index in the derivative. When, the system is represented in form of a transfer function (i.e.
the ratio of the output to the input to the system) then the order is given...

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