Survey Of Literature: HUM1040_C1706

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I need each of these assignments done in apa format with at least 3 refs by this sunday october 21st 2018

Let's discuss the idea of the American hero regarding Death of a Salesman. The American idea of a tragic hero differs substantially from the Ancient Greek idea of the tragic hero and one's tragic flaw. How do you find value in reading about such American tragic heroes such as Willy Loman?

Be sure to support your ideas with details from the play as well as quoted passages. As always, make sure you use in-text citations and an end reference.

1.

In what ways does Will Loman recognize (or fail to recognize) his own shortcomings? Why does this matter? Would you say that Willy Loman's lack of self-awareness is a major part of the tragedy?

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2.

What did you personally learn about human behavior from the historical aspects of the play and does this play's commentary on American consumerism resonate with what we see and experience in our society today?

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3.

Is Willy Loman completely responsible for what became of him and his keeping-up-with the Joneses obsession or can we also blame the social and cultural environment in which he lived?

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THE HERO’S JOURNEY Joseph Campbell, an American mythological researcher, wrote a famous book entitled The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In his lifelong research Campbell discovered many common patterns running through hero myths and stories from around the world. Years of research lead Campbell to discover several basic stages that almost every hero-quest goes through (no matter what culture the myth is a part of). He calls this common structure “the monomyth.” George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, claims that Campbell’s monomyth was the inspiration for his groundbreaking films. Lucas also believes that Star Wars is such a popular saga because it taps into a timeless story-structure which has existed for thousands of years. Many followers of Campbell have defined the stages of his monomyth in various ways, sometimes supplying different names for certain stages. For this reason there are many different versions of the Hero’s Journey that retain the same basic elements. THE ORDINARY WORLD Heroes exist in a world is considered ordinary or uneventful by those who live there. Often the heroes are considered odd by those in the ordinary world and possess some ability or characteristic that makes them feel out-of-place.  The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: Dorothy in Kansas  The Hobbit: Bilbo Baggins in Hobbiton   Star Wars: Luke Skywalker on Tatooine The Lion King: Simba at Pride Rock THE CALL TO ADVENTURE For heroes to begin their journeys, they must be called away from the ordinary world. Fantastic quests don’t happen in everyday life. Heroes must be removed from their typical environment. Most heroes show a reluctance to leave their home, their friends, and their life to journey on a quest. But in the end they accept their destiny. Usually there is a discovery, some event, or some danger that starts them on the heroic path. Heroes find a mystic object or discover their world is in danger. In some cases, heroes happen upon their quest by accident. Campbell puts it like this, “A blunder—the merest chance—reveals an unsuspected world.” The new world the hero is forced into is much different than the old one. Campbell describes this new world as a “fateful region of both treasure and danger…a distant land, a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island, lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state…a place of strangely fluid and polymorphous beings, unimaginable torments, superhuman deeds, and impossible delight”. This description may seem pretty vague, but think of all the various fantasy realms characters have entered throughout the years: Middle-Earth, Oz, Narnia, Wonderland. It could even be outer space, a haunted house, or the Matrix. Regardless of the details, the new world is sure to be filled with adventure.  The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The tornado  The Hobbit: Gandalf the wizard arrives  Star Wars: R2D2’s cryptic message REFUSAL OF THE QUEST During the Call to Adventure heroes are given a task or quest which only they can complete. They are faced with a choice: accept the quest or deny it. Their choice might seem like a no-brainer. If they don’t accept the quest, there won’t be much of a story—or will there? Actually there are stories where heroes don’t accept their destinies. When this happens, the stage is set for disaster. There’s a reason why the powers-that-be have chosen a particular hero. A refusal of the quest only brings trouble. King Minos, the monarch of Crete who antagonizes the Greek hero Theseus, does not do what the gods ask of him. Poseidon, Lord of the Seas, sends him a beautiful white bull. The god’s only order is that Minos must sacrifice the creature back to him. After seeing the magnificent beast, Minos decides he just can’t bring himself to do what the god asks and keeps the bull as a personal trophy. Enraged, Poseidon vows revenge and causes Minos’ wife to burn with lust for her husband’s prized beast. The rest of this story is strictly NC-17. It results in the birth of the Minotaur, a creature half-bull, half-human, a curse to his father King Minos. Campbell notes that heroes who refuse their quest often become characters in need of rescuing or in Minos’ case, the villain of another hero’s journey.  Star Wars: Luke refuses the quest until he learns his aunt and uncle are dead  The Lion King: Simba refuses to return to Pride Rock and accept his destiny  Groundhog Day: Example of the negative cycle caused by refusing the call ACCEPTING THE CALL: Once the adventure is accepted, the heroes advance into the next stage of their journey. ENTERING THE UNKNOWN As they embark on their journey, the heroes enter a world they have never experienced before. Very often it is filled with supernatural creatures, breathtaking sights, and the constant threat of death. Unlike the heroes’ home, this outside world has its own rules, and they quickly learns to respect these rules as their endurance, strength, and mettle are tested time and time again. After all, it is not the end of the journey which teaches, but the journey itself.  The Wizard of Oz: Dorothy must learn the rules of Oz  The Matrix: Neo must come to grips with the realities and unrealities of the Matrix SUPERNATURAL AID Supernatural doesn’t have to mean magical. There are plenty of hero stories that don’t have wizards or witches per say. Supernatural simply means “above the laws of nature.” Heroes are almost always started on their journey by a character who has mastered the laws of the outside world and come back to bestow this wisdom upon them. This supernatural character often gives them the means to complete the quest. Some of the time the gift is simply wisdom. Other times it is an object with magical powers. In every instance it is something the hero needs to succeed. As Campbell says, “One has only to know and trust, and the ageless guardians will appear.” The job of the supernatural assistor is to give the heroes what they need to finish the quest—not finish it for them.  The Hobbit: Gandalf  Star Wars: Obi-Wan Kenobi  Cinderella: Fairy Godmother TALISMAN: A Special (and often magical) items that assist the heroes on their quest.  The Wizard of Oz: Ruby Slippers  The Hobbit: The Ring  Star Wars: Lightsaber ALLIES/HELPERS Every hero needs a helper, much like every superhero needs a sidekick. Without the assistance of their companions and helpers along the way, most heroes would fail miserably. For example, in the Greek hero story of Theseus, Minos’ daughter Ariadne, after falling hopelessly in love, helps Theseus navigate the Labyrinth. She does this by holding one end of a golden thread while Theseus works his way inward to slay the Minotaur. Without her help, Theseus would never have fulfilled his quest or found his way out of the maze once he did so.  Lord of the Rings: Samwise Gamgee  The Wizard of Oz: The Tin Woodsman, Scarecrow, and Cowardly Lion TESTS & THE SUPREME ORDEAL The heroes progress through a series of tests, a set of obstacles that make them stronger, preparing them for their final showdown. At long last they reach the Supreme Ordeal, the obstacle they have journeyed so far to overcome. All the heroes’ training and toil comes into play now. The journey has hardened them, and it’s time for them to show their prowess. Once this obstacle is overcome, the tension will be relieved. The worst is passed, and the quest, while not officially over, has succeeded.  Star Wars: Blowing up the Death Star  Lord of the Rings: Mount Doom  The Wizard of Oz: Defeating the Wicked Witch REWARD AND THE JOURNEY HOME Typically, there is a reward given to heroes for passing the Supreme Ordeal. It could be a kingdom. It could be the hand of a beautiful princess. It could be the Holy Grail. Whatever it is, it is a reward for the heroes’ endurance and strength. After the heroes complete the Supreme Ordeal and have the reward firmly in hand, all that is left is for them to return home. Just because the majority of the adventure has passed doesn’t mean that the return journey will be smooth sailing. There are still lesser homebound obstacles to overcome.  The Hobbit: The Battle of Five Armies  The Lord of the Rings: Return to Hobbiton MASTER OF TWO WORLDS/ RESTORING THE WORLD Success on the heroes’ quest is life-changing, for them and often for many others. By achieving victory, they have changed or preserved their original world. Often they return with “the exilir,” an object or personal ability that allows them to save their world. The heroes have also grown in spirit and strength. They have proved themselves worthy for marriage, kingship, or queenship. Their mastery of the outside world qualifies them to be giants in their own.  Lord of the Rings: Frodo saves the Shire  The Wizard of Oz: Dorothy rids Oz of the Wicked Witch THE MONOMYTH: NOT JUST FOR MYTHOLOGY While Joseph Campbell’s monomyth works best with the traditional form of the quest—folk and fairy tales, myths, legends, and other fantasies—it can be applied to many different genres or types of stories. A quest does not have to include swords and monsters. It can just as easily occur in the real world. The monomyth, ageless and universal, exists anywhere and everywhere. ARCHETYPES APPEARING IN THE HERO’S JOURNEY Joseph Campbell was heavily influenced by the Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung whose theory of the collective unconscious involved archetypes—recurring images, patterns, and ideas from dreams and myths across various cultures. Below are several archetypes often found in myths.  HEROES: Central figures in stories. Everyone is the hero of his or her own myth.  SHADOWS: Villains, enemies, or perhaps the enemy within. This could be the repressed possibilities of the hero, his or her potential for evil. MENTORS: The hero’s guide or guiding principles. HERALD: The one who brings the Call to Adventure. This could be a person or an event. THRESHOLD GUARDIANS: The forces that stand in the way at important turning points, including jealous enemies, professional gatekeepers, or even the hero’s own fears and doubts.        SHAPESHIFTERS: In stories, creatures like vampires or werewolves who change shape. In life, the shapeshifter represents change. TRICKSTERS: Clowns and mischief-makers. ALLIES: Characters who help the hero throughout the quest. WOMAN AS TEMPTRESS: Sometimes a female character offers danger to the hero (a femme fatale) CHAPTER 25 UNDERSTANDING DRAMA S A Dramatic Literature N The distinctive appearance of a script, with F its divisions into acts and scenes, identifies drama as a unique form of literature. A play is written to be perO take on the roles of the characformed in front of an audience by actors who ters and who present the story through dialogue R and action. (An exception is a closet drama, which is meant to be read, not performed.) In fact, the term D which means “to view” or “to theater comes from the Greek word theasthai, see.” Thus, drama is different from novels, and short stories, which are meant to be read. B Origins of Modern Drama E T The dramatic presentations of ancient Greece developed out of religious H rites performed to honor gods or to mark the coming of spring. PlayA Sophocles (496–406 b.c.), and wrights such as Aeschylus (525–456 b.c.), Euripides (480?–406 b.c.) wrote plays to be performed and judged at comN petitions held during the yearly Dionysian festivals. Works were chosen by Y of judges. To compete in the a selection board and evaluated by a panel The Ancient Greek Theater contest, writers had to submit three tragedies, which could be either based on a common theme or unrelated, and one comedy. Unfortunately, very few 1 of these ancient Greek plays survive today. The open-air, semicircular ancient Greek 3 theater, built into the side of a hill, looked much like a primitive version of a modern sports stadium. Some 5 Greek theaters, such as the Athenian theater, could seat almost seventeen thousand spectators. Sitting in tiered seats, 3 the audience would look down on the orchestra, or “dancing place,” occupied by the chorus—originally T the choragos) who danced and a group of men (led by an individual called chanted and later a group of onlookers who S commented on the drama. 802 9781337509633, PORTABLE Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing, Ninth edition, Kirszner - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Origins of Modern Drama 803 S A N F O R . .), aD Greek settlement in what is now Turkey , Grand Theater at Ephesus (3rd century B C Da v e G . Ho u s e r/Do c u m e n ta ry Va l u e /Co rb i s Raised a few steps above the orchestra was a platform on which the B was a skene, or building, that origiactors performed. Behind this platform nally served as a resting place or dressing room. (The modern word scene E is derived from the Greek skene.) Behind the skene was a line of pillars T called a colonnade, which was covered by a roof. Actors used the skene for entrances and exits; beginning withHthe plays of Sophocles, painted backdrops were hung there. These backdrops, however, were most likely more A decorative than realistic. Historians believe that realistic props and scenery N Greek theater. Instead, the setting were probably absent from the ancient was suggested by the play’s dialogue, Yand the audience had to imagine the physical details of a scene. Two mechanical devices were used. One, a rolling cart or platform, was sometimes employed to introduce 1 action that had occurred offstage. For example, actors frozen in position could be rolled onto the roof of the skene to illustrate an event such as3the killing of Oedipus’s father, which occurred before the play began. Another 5 mechanical device, a small crane, was used to show gods ascending to or descending from heaven. Such 3 the myths that were celebrated at devices enabled playwrights to dramatize the Dionysian festivals. T The ancient Greek theater was designed to enhance acoustics. The S flat stone wall of the skene reflected the sound from the orchestra and the stage, and the curved shape of the amphitheater captured the sound, 9781337509633, PORTABLE Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing, Ninth edition, Kirszner - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 804 Chapter 25 • Understanding Drama enabling the audience to hear the lines spoken by the actors. Each actor wore a stylized mask, or persona, to convey to the audience the personality traits of the particular character being portrayed—a king, a soldier, a wise old man, a young girl (female roles were played by men). The mouths of these masks were probably constructed so they amplified the voice and projected it into the audience. In addition, the actors wore kothorni, high shoes that elevated them above the stage, perhaps also helping to project their voices. Due to the excellent acoustics, audiences who see plays performed in these ancient theaters today S can hear clearly without the aid of microphones or speaker systems. A Because actors wore masks and because males played the parts of women and gods as well as men, acting methodsN in the ancient Greek theater were probably not realistic. In their masks, F high shoes, and full-length tunics (called chiton), actors could not hope to appear natural or to mimic the attiO tudes of everyday life. Instead, they probably recited their lines while standing in stylized poses, with emotions conveyed R more by gesture and tone than by action. Typically, three actors had all the speaking roles. One actor—the D protagonist—would play the central role and have the largest speaking part. , lines between them. Although Two other actors would divide the remaining other characters would come on and off the stage, they would usually not have speaking roles. B divided into five parts. The first Ancient Greek tragedies were typically part was the prologos, or prologue, in which E an actor gave the background or explanations that the audience needed to follow the rest of the drama. T Then came the párodos, in which the chorus entered and commented on the events presented in the prologue. H Following this were several episodia, or episodes, in which characters spoke to one another on the stage and A Alternating with episodes were developed the central conflict of the play. stasimon (choral odes), in which the chorus N commented on the exchanges that had taken place during the preceding episode. Frequently, the choral Y which were recited or sung as odes were divided into strophes, or stanzas, the chorus moved across the orchestra in one direction, and antistrophes, which were recited as it moved in the opposite direction. (Interestingly, the 1 chorus stood between the audience and the actors, often functioning as an 3 social, and moral views of the additional audience, expressing the political, community.) The fifth part was the exodos, the last scene of the play, during 5 which the conflict was resolved and the actors left the stage. 3 as a variety of architectural and Using music, dance, and verse—as well technical innovations—the ancient Greek T theater was able to convey the traditional themes of tragedy. Thus, the Greek theater powerfully expressed S in which they first appeared: ideas that were central to the religious festivals the reverence for the cycles of life and death, the unavoidable dictates of the gods, and the inscrutable workings of fate. 9781337509633, PORTABLE Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing, Ninth edition, Kirszner - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Origins of Modern Drama 805 The Elizabethan Theater The Elizabethan theater, influenced by the classical traditions of Roman and Greek dramatists, traces its roots back to local religious pageants performed at medieval festivals during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Town guilds—organizations of craftsmen who worked in the same profession— reenacted Old and New Testament stories: the fall of man, Noah and the flood, David and Goliath, and the crucifixion of Christ, for example. Church fathers encouraged these plays because S they brought the Bible to a largely illiterate audience. Sometimes these spectacles, called mystery plays, were A presented in the market square or on the church steps, and at other times actors appeared on movable stages or N wagons called pageants, which could be wheeled to a given location. (Some of these wagons were quite elaborate, F with trapdoors and pulleys and an upper tier that simulated heaven.) As mysO were performed in series over several tery plays became more popular, they days, presenting an entire cycle of aRholiday—the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ during Easter, for example. D , B E T H A N Y 1 3 5 3 T S Performance of a mystery play Art Resource 9781337509633, PORTABLE Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing, Ninth edition, Kirszner - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 806 Chapter 25 • Understanding Drama Related to mystery plays are morality plays, which developed in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Unlike mystery plays, which depict scenes from the Bible, morality plays allegorize the Christian way of life. Typically, characters representing various virtues and vices struggle or debate over the soul of man. Everyman (1500), the best known of these plays, dramatizes the good and bad qualities of Everyman and shows his struggle to determine what is of value to him as he journeys toward death. By the middle of the sixteenth century, mystery and morality plays had S for this decline was that myslost ground to a ...
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School: Duke University

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Running Head: SURVEY OF LITERATURE

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Survey of Literature
Name
Institutional Affiliation

SURVEY OF LITERATURE

2

A.
Reading American tragic hero such as Willy Loman enables one to understand that a
tragic flaw and holding to a “false dreams” causes the downfall of a hero. Willy Loman may be
regarded as an antihero or a tragic hero because he plays a big role in his downfall as a result of
an internal flaw. Willy Loman does not mysteriously die in his car or encounters his nemesis
because of external factors. Willy ultimate death was not as a result of a struck by a bolt of
lightning or another driver. Instead, his own desires to acquire external recognition, praises, and
success and his inability to accept the truth about his predicaments and his situation in general
triggers him to make foolish decision of taking his own life (Marino, 2015). Even though one
may argue that Willy is a victim of circumstances, he is a victim of his own inner illusions and
false dreams. Willy is crowded by exterior reality, similar to his fragile house that is crowded by
the towering apartment buildings.
1
Willy Loman seems not to have recognizes his shortcomings. In his family, it is only
Linda Loman that seems to be aware of the denial. Even though Willy committing suicide might
make him looks like to have recognizes his shortcomings, with him thinking that acquiring best
grades did not matter only being well-liked, appearances, and popularity exposes him as a person
who did not recognize his shortcomings. When Willy states that “That’s just what I mean.
Bernard can get the best marks in school, y’understand, but when he gets out in the business
world, y’understand, you are going to be five times ahead of him…” (Miller, 1949, Act 1), it
depicts he is not aware of his shortcomings.

SURVEY OF LITERATURE

3

Willy sense of pride also justify that he did not recognizes his shortcomings. When Willy
asserts that “You and Hap and I, and I’ll show you all the towns. America is full of beautiful
towns and fine, upstanding people. And they know me, boys, they know me up and down New
England. …,” (Miller, 1949, Act 1), he seems not to be admitting that his elusive point view
denies him with an opportunity to recognize his shortcomings. Failure to understand his woes
and skewed perspective really matter because it denies him with a good opportunity to se...

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