5 Part Assignment. Question 1-5

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Five Part Assignment. Question 1-5 - writing assignment

Please answer the questions separate. Each question is different and reading material is different. I have provided all materials, sources to be used and the links.

Format

  • 12 New Roman
  • APA format
  • All relevant sources must be CITED

Question 1. you have read about various goals of alcohol regulation.What do you think should be the goal of regulation - prohibition, prevention, revenue, or moderation?Explain why. Remember to cite to the resources.

Reading material attached below


Question 2. In Cook, Chapter 3 - The Alcoholism Movement, you read about the view that the degree to which one succumbs to alcoholism depends upon the "wetness" of their environment.Do you agree with this point of view and if so, why?If not, why not? Remember to cite to the resources.

Reading material attached below ----See Five part assignments instructions attached below



Question 3. read about Models of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse.One of the models is the "dependence syndrome."What is some of the support for the syndrome and what is some of the criticism of it? Remember to cite to your sources from the readings using the APA format.

Reading material attached below

  • Precaution Adoption Process Model (Source attached below)


Question 4. This week we looked at some of the demographics and risk factors for alcohol use disorders.What are some of the risk factors and which ones do you feel are most significant and why? Remember to cite to the resources.

Reading material attached below

  • Alcohol Consumption in Demographic (source attached below)


Question 5. your readings this week, we looked at Children of Alcoholics.What are some of the affects for children living with an alcoholic parent and how do these carry over into adulthood? Remember to cite to the resources.

Reading material attached below

  • The Path to Alcohol Problems (source attached below)

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Please answer the questions separate. Each question is different and reading material is different. I have provided all materials, sources to be used and the links. Format • 12 New Roman • APA format • All relevant sources must be CITED Question 1. you have read about various goals of alcohol regulation. What do you think should be the goal of regulation - prohibition, prevention, revenue, or moderation? Explain why. Remember to cite to the resources. Reading material attached below • • Sequence of alcohol involvement (Source attached below) http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/umuc/reader.actio n?docID=10477124&ppg=14 (Read Chapter 1 in Cook, P.J. (2008) Paying the tab: The costs and benefits of alcohol control.) • http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/prohibition/watch-video/#id=2082675582 Question 2. In Cook, Chapter 3 - The Alcoholism Movement, you read about the view that the degree to which one succumbs to alcoholism depends upon the "wetness" of their environment. Do you agree with this point of view and if so, why? If not, why not? Remember to cite to the resources. Reading material attached below • http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/umuc/reader.actio n?docID=10477124&ppg=14 (Read Chapter 3 ) An explanation of the origin of the term alcoholism, from the Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior. • http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2699700043&v=2.1&u=umd_umuc&it=r&p=GVRL&sw= w&asid=2f91e1c0ece30d5a5f037702703ba04d Question 3. read about Models of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. One of the models is the "dependence syndrome." What is some of the support for the syndrome and what is some of the criticism of it? Remember to cite to your sources from the readings using the APA format. Reading material attached below • Precaution Adoption Process Model (Source attached below) • An explanation of models of alcoholism and drug abuse, from the Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2699700294&v=2.1&u=umd_umuc&it=r&p=GVRL&sw= w&asid=4a42c3ff390a1f858ccc2aaf6f88975d Question 4. This week we looked at some of the demographics and risk factors for alcohol use disorders. What are some of the risk factors and which ones do you feel are most significant and why? Remember to cite to the resources. Reading material attached below • • Alcohol Consumption in Demographic (source attached below) A discussion of the epidemiology of alcohol use disorders, from the Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX269970019 1&v=2.1&u=umd_umuc&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=4c5ff42569357d04b6c894b743d700d7 Question 5. your readings this week, we looked at Children of Alcoholics. What are some of the affects for children living with an alcoholic parent and how do these carry over into adulthood? Remember to cite to the resources. Reading material attached below • The Path to Alcohol Problems (source attached below) • A discussion of crime and alcohol, from the Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX269970014 0&v=2.1&u=umd_umuc&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=53ced1a6850ec8082dad8842523a8c75 bs_bs_banner RESEARCH REPORT doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03987.x Sequence of alcohol involvement from early onset to young adult alcohol abuse: differential predictors and moderation by family-focused preventive intervention W. Alex Mason1 & Richard L. Spoth2 Boys Town National Research Institute for Child and Family Studies, Boys Town, NE, USA1 and Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA2 ABSTRACT Aims This study tests risk factors for four dimensions of alcohol use in the sequence from (i) early onset prior to age 13 to (ii) adolescent alcohol use and (iii) alcohol problems to (iv) young adult alcohol abuse. It also examines whether family-focused preventive interventions buffer predictive relationships. Design Data were from a randomized prevention trial extending from ages 11 to 21 years. Setting Families of sixth graders enrolled in 33 rural schools in the Midwestern United States were invited to participate. Participants Families (n = 667) were pretested and assigned randomly to a control group (n = 208) or to family interventions (n = 459). The average age of participating youth was 11.3 years when the study began (52% female). Measurements Questionnaire data were collected on alcohol dimensions during adolescence (early onset, alcohol use, alcohol problems) and young adulthood (alcohol abuse), and on risk factors in early adolescence (male gender, impulsive behaviors, aggression–hostility, peer deviance and parent problem drinking). Findings Impulsive behaviors predicted early onset, peer deviance predicted alcohol use and parent problem drinking predicted alcohol problems (P < 0.05). Aggression–hostility and alcohol problems predicted alcohol abuse in the control group (P < 0.05), but not in the family interventions group (P > 0.05). Conclusions Different dimensions of alcohol use and problems from before age 13 to young adulthood are predicted by different risk factors. Family-focused preventive interventions can reduce the influence of some of these risk factors, including early adolescent aggression–hostility and late adolescent alcohol problems. Keywords Alcohol abuse, alcohol use, family, prevention, risk factors, youth. Correspondence to: W. Alex Mason, Boys Town National Research Institute for Child and Family Studies, 14100 Crawford Street, Boys Town, NE 68010, USA. E-mail: masonwa@boystown.org Submitted 3 December 2011; initial review completed 24 February 2012; final version accepted 13 June 2012 INTRODUCTION Alcohol is the most commonly used substance among youth in many developed countries [1], including the United States [2]. Of concern, alcohol can disrupt normative brain development among teenagers [2], and is associated with a range of cognitive, behavioral, emotional and physical difficulties [3]. Consequently, the global public health burden and economic costs of alcohol involvement are high [4]. Alcohol involvement is multi-dimensional [5,6], manifest in different behaviors that unfold in a developmental progression over time. Early onset occurs before age 13 [7]. Alcohol use and alcohol problems increase steadily throughout adolescence [2], and the past year © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction prevalence of alcohol abuse peaks in young adulthood [8]. Although early alcohol onset has been shown to increase risk for alcohol disorders [9], there is a lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of alcohol involvement in the sequence from early onset to alcohol abuse. Thus, important questions remain unanswered. It is unclear whether prominent risk factors are common or specific predictors of different alcohol dimensions. Among risk factors, male gender [10], impulsivity [11], aggression and related externalizing problems [12], peer deviance [13] and parent problem drinking [14] are potent predictors of various adolescent and young adult alcohol-related outcomes [15,16]. Typically, research examining differential predictors has simultaneously Addiction, 107, 2137–2148 2138 W. Alex Mason & Richard L. Spoth considered only two dimensions of alcohol involvement, usually alcohol use and alcohol problems [17–20]. For example, Stice, Barrera & Chassin [21] tested the hypothesis that socialization factors (e.g. peer influences) predict alcohol use, whereas psychopathology factors (e.g. externalizing symptoms) predict alcohol problems. Results partially supported the hypothesis by showing that externalizing symptoms and other psychopathology factors were related directly to alcohol problems in multivariate analyses; however, peer influences also were related directly to problem drinking [22]. Research is needed that examines more than two alcohol dimensions at a time to capture more fully the multi-dimensional and developmental nature of alcohol involvement. Such research could contribute further to an understanding of the unique etiology of specific alcohol behaviors and inform prevention. Family-focused substance misuse preventive interventions can delay alcohol onset [23,24], decrease adolescent alcohol use [25,26] and prevent young adult alcohol misuse and abuse [27,28]. The extent to which effective family-focused preventive interventions moderate or alter the strength of relationships among the multiple dimensions of alcohol involvement remains unexamined. Such interventions might buffer links in the progression from early onset to alcohol abuse, making it less likely that youth will advance to problematic drinking. Moreover, family-focused preventive interventions, with their inclusion of components such as communication and coping skills and parent training, might attenuate the influences of risk factors on specific alcohol behaviors. Using data from a longitudinal prevention trial that has followed a sample of rural youth aged 11–21 years [28], this study has two aims. The first aim is to examine the sequence of alcohol involvement from early alcohol onset to adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems to young adult alcohol abuse, and test differential predictors (gender, impulsive behaviors, aggression–hostility, peer deviance and parent problem drinking) of these alcohol dimensions. Positive links in the alcohol sequence are hypothesized. Psychopathology factors (e.g. aggression– hostility) are expected to predict alcohol problems and alcohol abuse, whereas socialization factors (e.g. peer and parent influences) are expected to predict early onset and alcohol use, although peer factors might also predict problem drinking [21,22]. Because problem drinking is more common among males than females [8], male gender is expected to predict alcohol problems and alcohol abuse. The second aim is to examine the extent to which effective family-focused substance misuse preventive interventions moderate both the developmental progression of alcohol dimensions and the influences of prominent risk factors. It is hypothesized that associations in the alcohol sequence will be buffered by © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction family-focused preventive interventions, and that such interventions will attenuate risk factor influences. METHOD Participants Participants were families of 6th graders enrolled in 33 rural schools in 19 counties of a Midwestern state in the United States. Schools in communities with a population of less than 8500 and in districts with at least 15% of families eligible for free or reduced cost lunches were selected. After blocking on school size and proportion of students residing in low-income households, 11 schools each were assigned randomly to one of three conditions: a minimal-contact control condition, a Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY; [29]) condition and an Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP; [30]) condition. A CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) flow diagram for the randomized trial that generated the data used in the current study is provided elsewhere [28]. Of the 1309 eligible families, 667 (51%) were enrolled and completed pretesting in fall 1993, including 208 control, 221 PDFY and 238 ISFP families. Reflecting the region, most participants were Caucasian (98.6%). Families had an average of three children, and 85% were dualparent. The average age of target children was 11.3 years when the study began; 52% of these children were girls (n = 345). Nineteen per cent of mothers and 22% of fathers had graduated from college. The median annual household income in 1993 was $33 400. Of the 667 pretested families, 551 (83%) completed post-testing in the 6th grade at approximately age 12. Follow-up assessments were conducted with 472, 438, 447 and 457 families when youth were in the 7th (age 13), 8th (age 14), 10th (age 16) and 12th (age 18) grades, respectively, and with 483 target youth at age 21. Prior research [26,31,32] has (i) documented the representativeness of enrolled families; (ii) established baseline equivalence of the conditions; (iii) ruled out differential attrition across conditions; and (iv) found little evidence for selective attrition from the study. Procedures Parents provided informed consent for their participation and for that of their adolescent children; youth provided assent during adolescence and consent in early adulthood. Families were mailed a packet that included information about the study and initial questionnaires. Subsequently, home visits, which lasted about 2.5 hours, were conducted with families to obtain additional assessments. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Each family member received $10/hour for their participation. Similar procedures were used at Addiction, 107, 2137–2148 Sequence of alcohol involvement the post-test and follow-up assessments during adolescence. Telephone interviews were conducted with target participants at age 21. Procedures were approved by the Human Subjects Review committees at Iowa State University and the University of Washington. Interventions PDFY and ISFP have been described in detail elsewhere [28]. Briefly, PDFY helps parents to develop and communicate clear expectations and consequences regarding substance use, and increases involvement, reduces conflict and promotes bonding in the family. One of the five sessions focuses on peer resistance skills and is attended by parents and adolescents. Sessions are about 2 hours long. In each of the seven ISFP sessions, adolescents and parents participate separately in the first hour and then join together during the second hour. ISFP helps parents to improve communication and parenting skills and reduces family conflict. Adolescents learn problem solving, coping and peer resistance skills. Control families received four leaflets describing different aspects of adolescent development. Effects of both interventions on alcohol outcomes are summarized above and in prior project reports [24,26–28,31,32]. Measures Family interventions Family interventions status was coded 1 for randomization into either the PDFY or ISFP groups (n = 459) and 0 for randomization into the control group (n = 208), as the purpose was to examine the moderating influence of family interventions, in general, and because prior project analyses have already examined specific program effects. PDFY and ISFP have similar program components, and direct comparisons have revealed very few statistically significant differences in intervention effects across PDFY and ISFP conditions [26]. Alcohol involvement Early onset of alcohol use prior to age 13 is measured with responses to a questionnaire item at post-test that asked youth to indicate if they had ever drunk beer, wine or liquor without a parent’s permission (coded 1 for yes and 0 for no). Alcohol use at age 16 is a latent variable, with two indicators (a = 0.64). First, adolescents reported how many times they had consumed beer, wine, wine coolers or other liquor within the past month and also indicated how much they usually drink on a drinking occasion using a scale ranging from 0, ‘I don’t drink alcohol’ to 5, ‘more than six drinks’. Responses to these items were standardized and summed to compute a quantity–frequency index. Secondly, adolescents © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction 2139 reported how many times they had consumed three or more drinks in a row within the past month as a measure of heavy episodic drinking. An alcohol problems latent variable at age 18 is measured with four items (a = 0.67) that assessed memory problems, becoming sick and getting into fights due to alcohol (on a scale ranging from 0 ‘never’ to 4 ‘four or more times’) and use of alcohol-related services (coded 1 for presence and 0 for absence of service use). Past year alcohol abuse at age 21 is measured using a short form of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule [33], indicating the presence (coded 1) or absence (coded 0) of a disorder according to DSM-IV criteria [34]. Risk factors Male gender is coded 1 for males and 0 for females. Peer deviance at age 11 is a latent variable represented by two questionnaire items (a = 0.73) that assessed serious deviance and asked adolescents to report how much they agree that their close friends sometimes get into trouble with the police and sometimes break the law, with response options ranging from 1, ‘strongly disagree’ to 5, ‘strongly agree’. An impulsive behaviors latent variable at age 11 is measured with four indicators (a = 0.73; e.g. ‘If someone annoys me, I tell them what I think of them’) on a scale ranging from 1, ‘not at all (like me)’ to 5, ‘exactly (like me)’. Separate adolescent-, mother- and father-report scales calculated as the mean of five items each drawn from the questionnaire portion of the Iowa Youth and Family Ratings Scales ([35]; e.g. ‘hit, push, grab or shove’ and ‘criticize’) serve as indicators of an aggression–hostility latent variable at age 11 (a = 0.63); response options for the items ranged from 1, ‘never’ to 7, ‘always’. Seven items from the Iowa Youth and Families Project [36] asked mothers and fathers about their problem drinking in the past 12 months on a scale ranging from 1, ‘never’ to 4, ‘often’ (e.g. ‘how often have you had family problems because of drinking?’). Items were averaged within gender to create both maternal and paternal problem drinking scales, which serve as indicators of a parent problem drinking latent variable at age 11 (a = 0.51). Analyses The conceptual model depicted in Fig. 1 was estimated with multiple group structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus 6.1 [37] using the weighted least-squares means- and variance-adjusted (WLSMV) estimator, which is appropriate for models with binary and ordered categorical dependent variables (i.e. early onset, alcohol abuse and alcohol service use) and is generally robust to deviations from normality in the latent response distribution assumed to underlie the observed data [38]. Family Addiction, 107, 2137–2148 2140 W. Alex Mason & Richard L. Spoth Early Onset (< age 13) Peer Deviance (age 11) Impulsive Behaviors (age 11) Alcohol Use (age 16) Male Gender Alcohol Problems (age 18) AggressionHostiility (age 11) Parent Problem Drinking (age 11) Alcohol Abuse (age 21) Figure 1 Conceptual model of the alcohol sequence and risk factor influences interventions was the grouping variable, and school was specified as a clustering variable. In Mplus, the WLSMV estimator incorporates a pairwise deletion strategy for handling missing data, which resulted in the loss of one case from the sample. Model fit was evaluated using the c2 statistic, the comparative fit index (CFI) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). To begin, the measurement model was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the full sample and also in a multiple group context to test for group differences in the factor loadings. Next, tests of structural differences between the family interventions and control groups were conducted with multiple group SEM in three steps. In step 1, a ‘structurally unconstrained’ model was estimated that allowed all path coefficients to be different across groups. In step 2, a series of models was estimated in which each of the three paths in the alcohol sequence was independently constrained to take on the same value across groups. The fit of each constrained model was t ...
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Running head: ALCOHOL USE AND ADDICTION

Alcohol Use and Addiction
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ALCOHOL USE AND ADDICTION

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Alcohol Use and Addiction
Question 1
The goal of alcohol regulation should be to moderate the amount of alcohol that people
drink in their lives. Moderation is important because alcohol has been found to have several
importance in the lives of people and the development of the American economy as well as
disadvantages (Cook, 2007). Alcohol is used for celebrations, relaxation and economic purposes
among other reasons. According to Michael Lerner, a historian who studies the history of the
United States of America, alcohol is a big part of the history of the United States of America.
People drug to work effectively and celebrate or mourn. In the beginning, people drug alcohol of
very low concentration. According to Daniel Okret, Americans initially drunk Cider and bear
that has a very low percentage of alcohol (PBS). However, people started drinking Whiskey, and
therefore the use of alcohol ran out of control that the money spent on alcohol became more than
the money used to fund the federal budget. Catherine Gilbert talks about how alcohol has
disadvantages on the people when taken in very high amounts. According to the historian, too
much alcohol makes men behave unmanly and become inebriated. Therefore, it is clear that even
though alcohol is important, it has limitations when taken in excess. Therefore regulations should
seek to moderate the intake of alcohol (PBS).
Reference
PBS. (n.d.). A Nation o...

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