Presentation part of Vacuum Transistor

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Presentation part of "Vacuum Transistor" please make an easy to present what is like "Vacuum Transistor" along with graphs, pictures and history. Use power point

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Running Head: VACUUM TRANSISTOR 1 Vacuum Transistor Institutional Affiliation Date VACUUM TRANSISTOR 2 ABSTRACT Electrical and electronics devices contain microelectronic devices called transistors. A transistor is a vacuum tube that has been modified by the use of various techniques and technologies used in semiconductors. The functioning of a transistor is made possible by application of the method of field emission. Major developments in the vacuum tube have enabled in the present day vacuum transistor. The vacuum transistor came into existence in the year 1948 after they were invented by Bell Laboratory engineers and have continued to be used till today. A vacuum transistor is made of two P-N junctions who are forward and reverse biased. Of these junctions, the forward biased junction is the emitter while the reverse biased junction is known as the collector. By the field emission, electrons pass through a vacuum to the drain from the source when current is applied in a circuit. The vacuum transistors operation can be compared with that of vacuum tubes, stating the similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages of each. Both devices work under the same principle, controlling electricity. The major differences between the two are the size and the amount of heat generated by each device. A vacuum transistor can be used as a switch or an amplifier, when used as a switch, tiny electric current flows into one end of a vacuum transistor, the resulting current that flows out, in the end, is much bigger. When used as an amplifier, it converts small electric current inflows (input), into a larger output. Through the major developments on transistors, there have been advancements of the vacuum transistors and how they work and this has made it possible for the functioning of items such as wireless and portable radios, mobile phones, remote systems and other automobiles used in day to day activities. VACUUM TRANSISTOR 3 VACUUM TRANSISTOR Introduction Today, electrical and electronic devices such as watches, computers, cell phones, and computers contain micro-devices called transistors. A vacuum transistor can be defined as a vacuum tube that has been modified by application of various techniques and technologies in microelectronics of semiconductors. This shows there is nothing (vacuum) between an electrons source and its drain. This is made likely by the method of field emission, where electrons commencing from source are drawn to the drain through a vacuum when current is there. Vacuum transistors are made of P-type and N-type junctions which accounts for their tiny size for cool running. Historically, semiconductor effects where first used in the early 20th century when wireless radio sets were first used and have been in use and application for more than 100 years now. The developments that have resulted in the present day vacuum transistor can be traced back by the major developments that have occurred since the 1900s when vacuum tube technology was introduced. This was seen to be expensive in its operations and soon after, another device was discovered and was called Cats Whisker. This was considered to be less expensive as it was made of thin wire mounted in of the many type materials and later came the vacuum transistor (Song, Hong, Kwon, & Lee, 2008). The vacuum transistor came to existence after its invention 1947 and announced by Bell Laboratory engineers in 1948. These were John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain. This led to a major development since vacuum transistors started being used instead of the VACUUM TRANSISTOR 4 vacuum tubes, which has continued being used till today. For, example, today’s laptops and notebooks have a higher power when compared to the old computer systems. Theoretical analysis A vacuum transistor is made of two P-N junctions that are forward and reverse biased. Of these junctions, the forward biased junction is the emitter while the reverse biased junction is known as the collector. It’s worth noting that when a large current will flow in a collector, even though it’s reversed when current passes into the base. This is made likely by the method known as field emission. The vacuum transistor operates by the use of three electrodes which are based (a grid), the emitter (cathode) and collector (anode). The base originates from the old technology used in transistors, where the electrode known as the base made the devices base material and contact point. The emitter as the name suggests comes from the idea that it emits charges that are being transmitted. The collector is adopted by a fact of its ability to collect charges being transmitted (Molinari, Alves, Chen, Facchetti, & Morpurgo, 2009). By the field emission, electrons pass through a vacuum to the drain from the source when current is applied in a circuit. This uses the field emission method instead of the hot or the thermionic emission method because they don’t require any heat sources. Just as the name states, they require vacuum and they move a vacuum a lot faster than if they were to pass to a medium material. In an example, a P-N junction is considered, in an event where current flows in the emitter, the electrons flow out of the emitter into the base. The outcome is that electrons will be able to flow on the base and are attracted into the collector by potential positive electrodes. VACUUM TRANSISTOR 5 Comparison The vacuum transistors operation can be compared with that of vacuum tubes, stating the similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages of each. Vacuum Tube Similarities Vacuum Transistor VACUUM TRANSISTOR 6 Both the vacuum tube and vacuum transistor work under the same principle, controlling electricity. Differences Vacuum transistors are small in size thus they are cost-effective compared to the vacuum tubes which are large in size and expensive. Vacuum transistors generate no heat because they are very small in size compared to the vacuum tubes which generates a lot of heat. Vacuum transistors can be used in portable electronics due to their small size while it’s impossible to use vacuum tubes in portable electronics because they are big in size (Xia, Cho, Lee, Ruden, & Frisbie, 2009). Vacuum transistor is made by considering the current flow while the vacuum tubes are made by consideration of the voltages. Vacuum tubes are made of bulbs with a vacuum in it while vacuum transistors are solid made of silicon. Vacuum transistors are less cheap and their power consumption is usually low, thus there is minimal heat loss and more efficient than the vacuum tubes (operate on low voltages to achieve a greater output). Additionally, they are tiny and thus are used in portable devices. Typical applications A vacuum transistor is a semiconductor microelectronic that can perform many simple and complex tasks. They can perform two different jobs, that is, can work as either a switch or an VACUUM TRANSISTOR 7 amplifier. When used as a switch, a vacuum transistor applies the idea of multiplying and increasing the amount of current that flows in a circuit. When a tiny electric current flows into one end of a vacuum transistor, the resulting current that flows out, in the end, is much bigger. In simpler words, a small input current will switch into a much larger output current (English, Shine, Dorgan, Saraswat, & Pop, 2016). Switch application For an example, this is basically explained as of how computer chips work. A computer chip is made up of very many, probably millions or billions, of microelectronic vacuum transistors and they are able to operate individually. This is a way of saying that they are switched on and off separately. With these numerous transistors, it makes it easy for a chip to store millions of billions of similar numbers or similar words and characters or more of these in a moment. A transistor can also be used as an amplifier. In this case, it converts small electric current inflows (input), into a larger output. This works as a kind of booster that boosts small current into larger outputs. This is what is applied when making microphones and how it works. You notice that the input is usually a low voice but the output is very loud from the speakers. VACUUM TRANSISTOR 8 Also, this is applied in the process of making hearing aids. These hearing aids operate by use of tiny microphones used for the purpose of picking sound from the environment and then loud by use of a tiny loudspeaker (Wu, & Wei, 2016). Amplifier application Through the major developments on transistors, there have been advancements of the transistors and how they work, by control of how electrons and their movements in controlling electricity. Take an example of the modern day chips used in computers. They are small in size and you’ll notice that they have multiple million or even billions of transistors, separately operating. Conclusion Since the invention of vacuum tubes in the 1900s, the world has witnessed major developments in technology which is associated with transistors and microelectronics technology today. Vacuum tubes were applied to old generation electronic systems and devices such as radio, computers, and radios. In the modern days, vacuum transistors have been developed and VACUUM TRANSISTOR 9 have come to replace the tubes with semiconductors which are in a solid state. These semiconductors are usually cheaper, smaller, reliable and more efficient. The vacuum transistor came to existence after its invention 1947 and announced by Bell Laboratory engineers in 1948. These were John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain. This led to a major development since vacuum transistors started being used instead of the vacuum tubes, which has continued being used till today. Through the major developments on transistors, there have been advancements of the vacuum transistors and how they work, by control of how electrons and their movements in controlling electricity. Take an example of the modern day chips used in computers. They are small in size and you’ll notice that they have multiple million or even billions of transistors, separately operating. For, example, today’s laptops and notebooks have a higher power when compared to the old computer systems even though they use batteries (Locklin, Roberts, Mannsfeld, & Bao, 2006). Transistors have made the possible the functioning of items such as wireless and portable radios, mobile phones, remote systems and other automobiles used in day to day activities. VACUUM TRANSISTOR 10 REFERENCE English, C. D., Shine, G., Dorgan, V. E., Saraswat, K. C., & Pop, E. (2016). Improved contacts to MoS2 transistors by ultra-high vacuum metal deposition. Nano letters, 16(6), 38243830. Molinari, A. S., Alves, H., Chen, Z., Facchetti, A., & Morpurgo, A. F. (2009). High electron mobility in vacuum and ambient for PDIF-CN2 single-crystal transistors. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 131(7), 2462-2463. Xia, Y., Cho, J. H., Lee, J., Ruden, P. P., & Frisbie, C. D. (2009). Comparison of the mobility– carrier density relation in polymer and single‐crystal organic transistors employing vacuum and liquid gate dielectrics. Advanced Materials, 21(21), 2174-2179. Song, S., Hong, W. K., Kwon, S. S., & Lee, T. (2008). Passivation effects on ZnO nanowire field effect transistors under oxygen, ambient, and vacuum environments. Applied Physics Letters, 92(26), 263109. Locklin, J., Roberts, M. E., Mannsfeld, S. C., & Bao, Z. (2006). Optimizing the Thin Film Morphology of Organic Field‐Effect Transistors: The Influence of Molecular Structure and Vacuum Deposition Parameters on Device Performance. Journal of Macromolecular Science Part C: Polymer Reviews, 46(1), 79-101. Wu, G., & Wei, X. (2016, July). Graphene-based micro-emitters and vacuum transistors. In Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC), 2016 29th International (pp. 1-2). IEEE. ...
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