Literature Review

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there are 2 attachments- 1. the paper to edit/add 2.more instructions and links

You are to add an abundance of content to the literature review section of the paper. also edit the remaining paper to reflect scholarly tone. AT LEAST 10 SOURCES NEED TO BE ADDED.

the major work is going to come from the literature review the rest of the paper is just editing it into a scholarly tone, not much else. Very easy assignment there is more info within the attachments.

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Running head: MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME Research Design, Instrumentation and Data Analysis: Relating Mental Illnesses such as Schizophrenia, stress disorder, and Substance Abuse Disorder to violent and non-violent crimes 1 2 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME Abstract The number of people being diagnosed with mental is increasing at a rate of 1.8% in the United States (Levin, 2005). This number is alarming and threatening considering the fact the good percentage of mental ills end up engaging in criminal activities. Schizophrenia and people under alcoholism rehabilitation are known to be a high risk due to their violent nature, for instance (Mulvey & White, 2014). The relevance of conducting a study in this field is to reduce the risk posed by the mentally ill people in the societies, and to reduce the issue of stereotyping mental ills as violent criminals (Faruqui, 2011). An investigation into the filed will embrace an interview with mentally ill individuals found guilty with varying crimes. The investigation will look into their mental illnesses, and relate this to the type of crimes they were found guilty of. Data will be collected in mental health asylums, prisons, and substance abuse rehabilitation centers. 3 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME Introduction According to Faruqui (2011), a lot of focus on research has been on the association between mental disorders and crime via the use of both longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs. Relatively, most people who are mentally ill or suffer from mental disorders are not involved in any violent acts and those who are involved in violent acts like crime do not suffer from any form of mental illness (Faruqui, 2011). According to a report released in 2016 by the World Health Organization (WHO), following a qualitative research study carried out in 2014 and 2015, it shows that more than two-thirds of the inmates in almost half of the prisons in the United States suffer from mental disorders both chronic and those induced by drug usage. Finding a relationship between mental disorders such as schizophrenia and violent and violent criminal activities is or critical relevance (Faruqui, 2011). A study carried out by Levin (2005), a psychologist in Guatemala Maximum Prison on 2014 related substance abuse and violent crimes. It noted a positive relationship, with a large number of violent crime prisoner’s confession to have abused at least a drug or substance. Most of the prisoners who were in for non-violent crimes were found to be either cleans of substance abuse, or mild substance abusers. Other than the interviews with the prisoners, the researchers had access to prison data and personal history of the offenders presented to them when the offender was first incarcerated. With the effect of changing normal desired and priorities, the researcher thus describe substance use as a mental disorder (Levin, 2005). Purpose of the Research 4 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME This research seeks to identify whether there is a relationship between mental disorders and criminal activities. It also seeks to identify whether, if there is any, how mental disorders influence the type and effects of the crime they participate in. Additionally, it also tried to offer some recommended courses of action appropriate in reducing the effect of mental disorder on social order, if at all mental disorders are found to influence and trigger criminal activities. Importance of the Study The first benefit of this study is restoring social order. As aforementioned in the objectives, it seeks to reinstate social order. The study will achieve this benefit by giving proper recommendation to reduce criminal occurrences due to substance abuse. Secondly, this study will work towards the reduction of the number of people incarcerate in prisons, yet they are supposed to be in rehabilitation or a mental health asylum centers for mental illnesses and substance abuse. Thirdly, the study will be beneficial to the general community because it will serve as a warning against the effects of mental illnesses on the people they live with. It will be a guide on how they will live with these people (Levin, 2005). Literature Review Mulvey and White’s Research (2014) found out that the members of the studied society could not merge properly with people with a history of mental illnesses. They realized that this was mainly so because people feared the violence that a mental ill is capable of achieving if the illness took the better of them. The study realized that mental ills were treated like violent criminals in the society. They go ahead to suggest that this stereotyping caused some MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME 5 psychological effects on the people who had some history of mental illnesses, and it even made them introverted (antisocial); a trait that makes people paranoid and violent (Mulvey & White, 2014). Additionally, Mulvey also realized that social media and other technologies play a role in worsening mental illnesses. This is because such platforms showed a frequency of relating mental illnesses to violence (Mulvey & White, 2014). According to a quantitative research study conducted by Stevens (2013), in the year 2010, involving 30 participants suffering from mental disorders from Guatemala Maximum Prison, results showed that the occurrence of violence in mentally ill patients is board variability, in correspondence to the treatment being given. Minimal incidence rates of violence have been recorded at a percentage range of between 22% to 46% in involuntarily committed patients, 13% to 38% in the acute care setting and 3% to 12% to outpatients (Stevens, 2013). According to Stevens (2013), approximately 11% of individuals with schizophrenia or other mental disorder behave violently compared to 3% in public. He suggested that the treatment model of schizophrenia also affects the individuals’ aggressiveness and violence. He suggests that is better to treat them from home and not in a mental health asylum because schizophrenia is full of episodes. He mentions that treating this population and following up with their progress can reduce their perceived threat to the public through a reduced rate of violent acts (Stevens, 2013). Fazel, Långström, Hjern, Grann, and Lichtenstein, (2009) studied the effect of substance abuse and schizophrenia on criminal activities. They realized that alcohol and other commonly abused substances such as heroin increase chances of violence. Schizophrenia was found to increase an individual’s chances of participating in violent actions. Some substances commonly abused such as marijuana was found to reduce chances of violence, but users were commonly MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME 6 found doing non-violent criminal activities such as stealing. Schizophrenia subjects in the study showed positive outcome to treatment, as their participation in violent activities declined. Former substance users who showed violent acts also showed positive changes after rehabilitation (Fazel, Långström, Hjern, Grann, and Lichtenstein, 2009). In another the same study, it was found out that one-year populace attributable risk of a crime connected to severe psychological disorder was attained to be 4% of the Epidemiologic Catchment area survey even though the previous statistics suggested mental illness does not contribute to risk violence. 95% of the crime currently taking place could continue even when the risk of abuse in individual suffering mental disease is minimized to moderate danger to those with no psychological illness (Stevens, 2013). Fazel, Gulati, Linsell, Geddes, & Grann, (2009) researched on schizophrenia and violent crimes. The investigation realized that schizophrenias are more likely to engage in violent activities, including violent crimes. However, it also found out that those who were schizophrenic and abused substances were at a higher risk of participating in violent crimes like homicide. In fact, the study realized that comorbidity heightened the chances of the individual’s participation in violent acts severally (Fazel, Gulati, Linsell, Geddes, & Grann, 2009) Anderson (2017) argues in his report released in 2017 following a meta-analysis research conducted in 2016 that people with mental disorders usually feel unsafe. It also concludes that, for this reason they end up becoming violent. He argues that one of the major symptoms that people with mental disorders experience include hallucinations which makes them feel like their minds are being vanquished or crushed by certain external forces they are experiencing and when this happens there is a high chance that they might resolve in violent acts like committing suicide or murdering those he or she feels threatened by. Due to this, it is therefore evident that people 7 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME with mental disorders are four times more likely to indulge in such violent acts as compared to healthy people in a society (Anderson). Hypothesis This paper has two hypotheses; a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. Alternative hypothesis: There is a relationship between the mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, stress disorder, and others and engagement in criminal activities. Null Hypothesis: There is no relationship between substance abuse and violent crimes. Problem Statement According to Hare (2015), there is an on-going debate that deliberates the association between mental illness and crime. Approximately 18.5% of people in the United States only are diagnosed with a mental illness. If these people are positively related to criminal activities, it means that this high percentage of new crimes will be experienced every year. Even worse, the large numbers are. Schizophrenia, for instances, is associated with violence. 1% of Americans are diagnosed with the mental disorder every year. 1.2% of Americans are living with the mental conditions and only less than 50% of the schizophrenia patients have access to psychological therapy. If the relationship holds to be true, then there are a good number of violent people out there who are not undergoing mental treatment (Hare, & Hart, 2015). 8 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME Purpose of Research A lot of research studies have been done over the years to determine whether there is a relationship between mental disorders or rather mental illness and crime. The results that have been obtained are still contradicting as others support while others differ with the same. The goal of this research study, therefore, via this paper tries to investigate the nature of the dynamic relationship between crime and mental disorder. It will cover the effects of drug substance abuse on the mental health and more specifically how mental health disorder can lead to increased criminal activities for addicts. According to Faruqui (2011), there is no general conclusion that people involved in criminal offenses suffer from mental illnesses or that people suffering from mental illnesses are involved in criminal offenses Methodology Research Design A descriptive research design will be used in this study. Descriptive research design usually answers the question “what” via the use of statistical characteristics of the population under investigation (Hare, 2015). In this case, will involve the collection of quantifiable data tabulated in a continuum mathematical formula. This data will then be analyzed, and a conclusion drawn upon a discussion on how mental illness and crime are related. The resign will also allow the accretion of both quantitative and qualitative data which will be analyzed to determine the type of relationship between mental illness and crime. MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME 9 In the process of data collection, I will seek permission to speak to several prisoners incarcerated due to different crimes. I will also seek information from the prison authorities about the histories of their prisoners. I will take specific interest on three factors: the type of crime committed; involvement in substance abuse, and any prior or current diagnosis with any mental disorder. These parameters will be correlated on SPSS data analysis software using Spearman’s correlation or person’s correlation, depending on the trend of data. A paired t-test will be used to compare means of the given sets of data. Target Population The study will require 300 individuals with mental illnesses and disorders from correctional centers, rehabilitation centers, and mental hospitals. To ensure even representation, a random selection of 100 individuals will be selected from a prison, a mental asylum, and a rehabilitation center. The reason why this amount of number is required is that according to Anderson (2017), the more the number of participants in a study, the more accurate the results and the easier it becomes to draw conclusions upon a discussion of the findings. Moreover, the individuals will be selected from the three areas to ensure ease in research since these the areas where individuals have been selected from have the needed personnel required to perform the experiments including the psychiatrists and at the same time they have the files of the participants and hence ease in finding other needed details. It will also save the time on research and experiments. The best area to explore is a county since it is not too extensive. The county should have a mental health asylum, a prison, and rehabilitation center. Sample Size and Sampling Procedure MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME 10 To ease and fasten the process of collecting data from the participants, a relatively minor sampling size will be chosen. A sampling size of 20 participants will be chosen from the three locations; which are correctional centers, rehabilitation centers, and mental hospitals. This is to mean that there will be 15 groups of participants from the 300 individuals from the three areas. To come up with this estimate, the sampling procedure used will be the normal distribution method. This is to say that all data will be collected without bias, having equal number of representatives from each point of study. According to Stevens (2013), normal distribution increases the ease of coming up with the normal distribution graph to compare the variables under investigation of which in our case are mental illness and crime. Research Instruments One research instrument to be used is an interview questionnaire in the collection of primary data. It will be administered on the aforementioned population of some offenders who are incarcerated, those who are in mental health asylums, and those who are in rehabilitation centers for substance abuse and crime cases. Questionnaires increase the chances to Read the respondent’s facial expressions when talking to them. This is beneficial in the evaluation of whether they are honest or not (Faruqui, 2011). Another requirement for the study, other than the filled in questions for the interviews is an audio recorder to collect the information Also needed will be consent forms, signed from the school to prove to the authorities that I am conducting an educational research. Data Collection Procedure Data will be collected via various methods including camera recordings, and forms filled by the participants in questionnaires and interview sessions. The collected data will then be 11 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME scaffold as per the data. To ensure that ethics of research are followed, a consent of agreement will be obtained from the Rehabilitation Center, Correction Center, and from the Institute of Mental Health Care Facility. This will be done by an associate researcher who has undergone training for the sake of ethics of the research. The professionals will also participate in the development of the questionnaire to ensure that the questions asked to their patients and other participants are not too sensitive or personal. It will have few and guiding questions with multiple choice answers for higher ease of quantifying the output. Questionnaires will then be employed for acquiring evidence form the participants easily (Levin, 2005). All the data will then be soughed and put together in terms of whether they are quantitative or qualitative data before analysis of the same is done. Data Analysis The collected data will be tabulated and sorted to pool all the similar results. After pooling and tabulating data, it will be important to calculate the measures of central tendency and skewness. More specifically, it will be relevant to calculate the mean, which will show the average measures of the data. I intend for the data to be analyzed quantitatively, given the data size of 300 participants. Skewness will be measured using the standard deviation or variance. These parameters will be used in the paired t-test analysis. With data sets that exceed 30 participants, the study should be quantitative and not qualitative. Additionally, the data will be paired in a paired t-test. The tests compare the means of the given data sets. Another way to confirm the comparison will be Pearson’s correlation coefficient which is used for normally distributed data. The IBM SPSS software will be of absolute importance in these data analysis processed. 12 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME Conclusion Mental ills are stereotyped as criminals in the society (Anderson, 2017). Where stereotyping is wrong, it should be investigated whether they are really what they are stereotyped to be. According to research, certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia make people violent (Faruqui, 2011). The effect of substance abuse is also closely related to mental illnesses, and there has been some cases relating substance abuse to criminal activities. Schizophrenia and alcohol abuse are related to violent crimes, for instance (Hare, & Hart, 2015). In a bid to investigate the two parameters, identifying the relationship between mental illnesses, substance abuse and criminal activities is essential (Levin, 2005). The specific criminal activities, for instance, violent crimes should be looked into alongside their relationship with mental illnesses. This can assist in helping mentally ill individuals in the society overcome the influence of their conditions, thus becoming more acceptable and less stereotyped as criminals. It can also reduce the fear of the community living with people suffering from mental illnesses (Mulvey, White, 2014). 13 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME References Anderson, M. (2017). Mental illness and criminal behavior: A literature review. Journal of Psychiatric and mental health nursing, 4(4), 243-250. Retrieved on September 15, 2018, from; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9362827 Faruqui, R. (2011). P01-525-Mental illness and moral panic: a qualitative study of perceptions of A link between violent crime and mental illness. European Psychiatry, 26, 529. Hare, R. D., & Hart, S. D. (2015). Psychopathy, mental disorder, and crime. Levin, A. (2005). People With Mental Illness More Often Crime Victims. Psychiatric News, 40(17), 16-16. Mulvey, P., White, M. (2014) "The potential for violence in arrests of persons with mental Illness", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 37 Issue: 2, pp.404-419. Retrieved on September 15, 2018, from; https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/PIJPSM-07-2013-0076 Stevens, H. (2013). Crime and mental disorders. Aarhus University, Aarhus. Retrieved on September 15, 2018, from; http://www.antoniocasella.eu/archipsy/Stevens_2013.pdf Fazel, S., Långström, N., Hjern, A., Grann, M., & Lichtenstein, P. (2009). Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime. Jama, 301(19), 2016-2023. Fazel, S., Gulati, G., Linsell, L., Geddes, J. R., & Grann, M. (2009). Schizophrenia and violence: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS medicine, 6(8), e1000120. 14 MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME Quality of Response Content (worth a maximu m of 50% of the total points) No Response Poor/Unsatisfact ...
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Tutor Answer

EinsteintheProf
School: New York University

Hello, review the attached document and contact me in case you need any changes. Otherwise, good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your assignments, please let me know. Always invite me to answer your questions.

Running head: MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME

Research Design, Instrumentation and Data Analysis:
Relating Mental Illnesses such as Schizophrenia, stress disorder, and Substance Abuse
Disorder to violent use and mass shootings

1

2

MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME

Abstract
The number of people being diagnosed with mental is increasing at a rate of 1.8% in the United
States (Levin, 2005). This number is alarming and threatening considering the fact the good
percentage of mental ills end up engaging in criminal activities. Schizophrenia and people under
alcoholism rehabilitation are known to be a high risk due to their violent nature, for instance
(Mulvey & White, 2014). The relevance of conducting a study in this field is to reduce the risk
posed by the mentally ill people in the societies, and to reduce the issue of stereotyping mental
ills as violent criminals (Faruqui, 2011). An investigation into the filed will embrace an interview
with mentally ill individuals found guilty with varying crimes. The investigation will look into
their mental illnesses, and relate this to the type of crimes they were found guilty of. Data will be
collected in mental health asylums, prisons, and substance abuse rehabilitation center in Harris
County, which is in Texas.

3

MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME
Introduction
According to Faruqui (2011), a lot of focus on research has been on the association

between mental disorders and crime via the use of both longitudinal and cross-sectional research
designs. Relatively, most people who are mentally ill or suffer from mental disorders are not
involved in any violent acts and those who are involved in violent acts like crime do not suffer
from any form of mental illness (Faruqui, 2011). According to a report released in 2016 by the
World Health Organization (WHO), following a qualitative research study carried out in 2014
and 2015, it shows that more than two-thirds of the inmates in almost half of the prisons in the
United States suffer from mental disorders both chronic and those induced by drug usage.
Finding a relationship between mental disorders such as schizophrenia and violent and violent
criminal activities is or critical relevance (Faruqui, 2011).
A study carried out by Levin (2005), a psychologist in Guatemala Maximum Prison on
2014 related substance abuse and violent crimes. It noted a positive relationship, with a large
number of violent crime prisoner’s confession to have abused at least a drug or substance. Most
of the prisoners who were in for non-violent crimes were found to be either cleans of substance
abuse, or mild substance abusers. Other than the interviews with the prisoners, the researchers
had access to prison data and personal history of the offenders presented to them when the
offender was first incarcerated. The idea which is being propagated is that the researcher created
a correlation between the abuse of drugs and the engagement to violent crime, especially when it
comes to mass shootings. With the effect of changing normal desired and priorities, the
researcher thus describe substance use as a mental disorder (Levin, 2005).

4

MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME
Purpose of the Research
This research seeks to identify whether there is a relationship between mental disorders
and criminal activities. It also seeks to identify whether, if there is any, how mental disorders
influence the type and effects of the crime they participate in. Additionally, it also tried to offer
some recommended courses of action appropriate in reducing the effect of mental disorder on
social order, if at all mental disorders are found to influence and trigger criminal activities. In
most cases, when it comes to mass shootings, there are four assumptions which apply in the US.
First, the first assumption is that mental illness is the main cause of mass shootings. Secondly,

that psychiatric diagnoses can lead to prediction of crime, and mass shootings are the epitome of
deranged individuals of mentally ill individuals, and lastly, gun control cannot come to deal with
such issues and people in the society. While the research will not dwell on mass shootings, there
is a need to note that the paper seeks to understand the role of substance abuse and mental
illnesses on violent crimes, and thus, the overall conclusion of weapons not being exposed to
people with mental illnesses.

Importance of the Study
The first benefit of this study is restoring social order. As aforementioned in the
objectives, it seeks to reinstate social order. The study will achieve this benefit by giving proper
recommendation to reduce criminal occurrences due to substance abuse. Secondly, this study
will work towards the reduction of the number of people incarcerate in prisons, yet they are
supposed to be in rehabilitation or a mental health asylum centers for mental illnesses and
substance abuse. Thirdly, the study will be beneficial to the general community because it will

5

MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME

serve as a warning against the effects of mental illnesses on the people they live with. It will be a
guide on how they will live with these people (Levin, 2005). Furthermore, there is a need to try
and call for more funding to the mental programs in the prisons, since research indicates that
there is a massive underfunding towards mental welfare in the prison system. There is a need to
have an objective framework through which all the people who have been engaged in violent
crime, and mass shootings in America are accorded the expected mental care, rather than being
subjected to the media bias and vindictive approach.
Literature Review
Mulvey and White’s Research (2014) found out that the members of the studied society
could not merge properly with people with a history of mental illnesses. The authors realized that
this was mainly so because people feared the violence that a mental ill is capable of achieving if t
took the better of them. The study realized that the mentally ill were treated like violent criminals
in the society. The researchers further suggest that this stereotyping caused some psychological
effects on the people who had a history of mental illnesses, and made them introverted
(antisocial); a trait that makes people paranoid and violent (Mulvey & White, 2014).
Additionally, Mulvey also realized that social media and other technologies play a role in
worsening mental illnesses and these platforms have shown a frequency of relating mental
illnesses to violence (Mulvey & White, 2014).
According to a quantitative research study conducted by Stevens (2013), in the year
2010, involving 30 participants suffering from mental disorders from Guatemala Maximum
Prison, results showed that the occurrence of violence in mentally ill patients is board variability,
in correspondence to the treatment being given. Minimal incidence rates of violence have been

MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIME

6

recorded at a percentage range of between 22% to 46% in involuntarily committed patients, 13%
to 38% in the acute care setting and 3% to 12% to outpatients (Stevens, 2013).
According to Stevens (2013), approximately 11% of individuals with schizophrenia or
other mental disorder behave violently compared to 3% in public. He suggested that the
treatment model of schizophrenia also affects the individuals...

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Anonymous
awesome work thanks

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