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Revise the research paper based on the rubric Word doc. Make sure to meet all requirements needed.

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SAFE 3120: Industrial Hygiene Research project - Grading Rubric Instructor: Miaozong Wu; Ph.D., ARMTM Fall 2018 Group #: Student(s): ________________________________________ Due Date: Oct 21, 2018 Category Title page: Are your paper title, author(s) and affiliation information, and word counts included? Abstract (200 – 300 words): clearly and briefly summarize the background, the needs to research the industry, methods you used to collect and analyze data, the key findings, and short conclusion. Introduction: Does the introduction section clearly and briefly summarize the industry, and describe the purpose, importance, and plan of the research? Does the rest of the paper follow through from this introduction? Main body: This section should follow the Introduction and include the methods and the findings or results. Does the paper provide a complete and accurate discussion of the topic using examples from the literature, data, regulations and standards, etc? Does it demonstrate critical thinking when evaluating and analyzing these information, data and ideas? Are the conclusions explained and backed by data, cases and/or reasons? You MUST also discuss and provide your own views how to comply with OSHA relevant regulations (https://www.osha.gov/law-regs.html). Conclusion: Are the main points summed up? Are the conclusions supported by the data and information provided in the study? Are some wider implications and limitations suggested? Citations and Bibliography: Are in-text citations appropriately used to credit all material from other sources? Are all citations listed in the Reference section? Are they appropriately distributed among web sites, peer reviewed journals, and other sources? Is the appropriate APA format properly followed? Organization: The length should be between 3000 - 5000 words, excluding references and the title page. Does the paper follow a linear progression of thought? Quality of writing and spelling: Is the paper written in a technical format? Are the sentences clear? Do the sentences flow in logical order to make a persuasive case? Are there spelling errors in the text? Any grammatical errors, typos or incomplete sentences? If the errors are distracting to the reader, points will be deducted. Presentation: Is the PowerPoint submitted before due date (10/21/2018)? Each group will present their findings in class for 10 min. The presentation will be judged by other students (25-point value) and by Dr. Wu (25 points). Point Value /2 /8 /5 / 50 /5 /5 / 10 / 15 /50 Total Points / 150 The changes and challenges for industrial hygiene in petroleum refineries: past, present and future. Industrial Hygiene is a discipline and skill dedicated to the anticipation, gratitude, assessment, deterrence, and manages of those ecological issues or pressure occurring in or from the place of work which may source illness, damage health and well being, or noteworthy uneasiness among workers or between people of the society. It is related to the mining and refinery industry where the proper disposal system of waste material is highly needed. There are thousands of problems that were caused by the inappropriate wastage of dispose material. But with the passage of time as the technological advancement took charge, there are many procedures are method are introduced in previous years to contaminate the material that is used by the human live as well as by the marine lives. It is hard to overcome completely but there are many ways that are discovered for the most possible solutions. Partially the conditions are being changed and the industrial areas are defined far away from the residents to keep them in healthy air and environments. Industrial hygienists utilize ecological supervision and systematic methods to become aware of the level of worker experience and employ production, work performs control, and other technique to manage probable health dangers. There has been a consciousness of manufacturing hygiene since olden days. The surroundings and its relation to worker health were documented as early as the fourth century BC. It is the time to note and guide toxicity in the petroleum industry. In the initial years, a Roman scholar, named Pliny the Elder, alleged health hazard to those functioning with zinc and sulfur. In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, precisely explained the pathology of guide poisonous and also documented the dangerous revelation of copper miners to acid mists. Petroleum refineries are multifaceted systems particularly intended to support on the preferred products and the properties of the crude oil feedstock. Refineries can be assorted from medium integrated refineries to fully integrated refineries depending on the utilization of diverse processing units. There are many challenges that are being faced but the most important challenges is safety and health practices which makes sure that their companies control in proactive, rather than reactive. For the petrochemical industry, Petroleum sanitization enveloped around processing operations which include from crude oil to complete liquid products, including Mo-Gas (motor gasoline), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel oil, kerosene, fuel oil, heating oil, asphalt, sulfur, bitumen, and transitional products that are virgin naphtha, propane / propylene mixtures, vacuum distillate and middle distillate are made from the purification process. Emission of waste gases cause various problem and majorly harm the eco system and the reason behind the global warming. A book named Climate Change: a Natural Hazard written by the William Kininmonth revealed that the climate change is a completely natural phenomenon and that the United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has ignored this basic reason for global warming because the climate models the IPCC has formed are excessively simplified. The influence of weather and climate edges has traditionally put support to the development and prolonged to the future particularly in developing countries. It is necessary to recognize how climatic modifications can apparent as weather and climate edges to put into practice the policies of sustainable growth. The rationale and the significance of this book is to reveal that natural processes of climatic changes that have reasons to modifications and it is improbable that human potentials can control the natural processes. It was recommended that accomplishment of the Kyoto Protocol can keep away from future infrastructure harm, ecological deprivation and loss of life from weather and climatic insurgencies is an impressive illusion. In this process, hazardous challenges are taken on serious note which impose great negative impact on the human live. Progressive planning deal with a wide choice of circumstances makes out resources, instruction and implementations. It guarantee that the tools and possessions can be attained as rapidly as promising, human resources are arranged with skills and training, and that further recruitment necessities are recognized and contracted in proceed so that the comeback effort is less risky and more efficient. Industrial hygiene professionals dedicate their time and power into considerate danger and threats and intriguing actions to put off damage and revelation. Impending exposure should be examined to conclude threat and recognize which controls can be used to avoid bad happening. Consequential suggestions linked to remedial proceedings and method to improvement must be put into practice to a damage or infirmity happening. In a practical approach, all mishaps are painstakingly avoidable, as contrasting to being casual and inevitable. Probable environmental problems connected with petroleum refining include the following: • Wastewater Water pollution is the contagion of water bodies, frequently as a effect of human activities or the waste water that deposed off by the petroleum refining which contain chemicals and waste material. It polluted the water bodies consist of for example oceans, aquifers, lakes, rivers, and groundwater. Water pollution consequences when contaminants are bring into the natural atmosphere due to the revelation of water and any other dispose material. • Hazardous materials Chemicals and dangerous liquid are found all over the place. They cleanse drinking water, amplify harvest production, and make things easier to household everyday jobs. But chemicals also can be dangerous to humans or the atmosphere if used or unconstrained inappropriately. Risks can happen throughout production produce, storage space, transportation, make use of, or discarding. Our society is at danger if a substance is used dangerously or unconstrained in damaging amounts into the surroundings where human life live, work, or occupy themselves. They can damage marine life or flee to the environment to make worse local air pollution, global warming, or ozone weakening. Most of the cleaning application products that includes disinfectants, general-purpose cleaners, degreasers, tile cleaners, toilet cleaners, and glass and window cleaners for this purpose. Hazardous waste can range from dangerous chemicals to sewage contaminated carpet to body fluids and includes materials that must be disposed of properly. Dangerous materials in diverse variety can be responsible of fatality, serious damage, continuing health belongings, and injure to buildings, residence, and other possessions. Many foodstuffs enclosed dangerous chemicals are used and store up in homes regularly. These products are also exported every day on the nation's railroads, highways, pipelines and waterways. It can cause severe health harms on human lives and animals in anyways if there will be no proper disposal planning and management system and it will pollute the environment and eco system not only on the surface of the earth but rather under the surface and up in the air too. • Air emissions Air pollution takes place when damaging or unnecessary amount of substances together with gases, particulates, and organic molecules are transmitted into Earth's environment. There are five major causes of air pollution. ✓ Releases of gases from industrial plants and manufacturing activities. ✓ Burning from fossil fuels. ✓ Unindustrialized chemicals and domestic products. ✓ Natural reasoning of air pollution. ✓ Other reasons that are not related to the traditional ways. • Noise Industrial Noise is generated from the sound with a high force noise caused by industry equipments and machinery. Reasons of such noise contamination are caused by machines from machines in diverse industrial unit, industries and refines. Noise pollution has an effect on both human and animal health. It cause diversified problems: • tightening of blood vessels • changing skin insipid • Unnecessary adrenalin in the blood watercourse which is accountable for high blood pressure. • loud and screaming sounds are recognized to source mental suffering • The unfavorable response are attached with a revolutionize in hormone contented of blood, which in-turn boost up the heart beat, constraint of blood vessels, digestive spam’s and dilation of the pupil of the eye. • Neurological problems, Heart attacks, birth problems and abortion • Muscle retrenchment most important to anxious collapse, tension, etc • unfavorable influence health, work competence and behavior. Noise pollution may source harm to the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, and may create affecting trouble. • The most instant and sensitive result of sound is harm of hearing that reduce some part of the hearing system. Extended revelation to sound of convinced incidence prototype that leads to constant injury to the internal ear. • Impetuous noise may responsible for pathological and psychosomatic disorders • The brain is unfavorably affected by loud and unexpected noise by airplanes and jets. People are subjected to psychiatric sickness. • Ultrasonic sound can influence the respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular system and semicircular canals of the internal ear. • Most of the research revealed that blood is thickened by extreme noise. Environmental protection programs for this sector should put into operation to address all activities that have been recognized to have potentially important effects on the environment, throughout usual operations and distress situations. The activities of this program should be based on direct or indirect indicator of release, waste matter, and reserves make use of appropriate to the specific project. Supervision frequency should be adequate to present envoy data for the restriction being monitored. Monitoring should be carried out by trained persons; subsequent monitoring and record-keeping measures and using correctly standardize and sustained equipment. Fatigue gas and flue gas release carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the petroleum refining sector consequence from the burning of gas and petroleum oil or boilers, compressors, diesel in turbines, and other engines for energy and reheat production. Flue gas is also produced in waste heat boilers linked with some method units throughout constant channel renaissance or liquid petroleum coke burning. Flaring and venting are significant operations and protective measures that are used in petroleum refining services to make sure that release gases are carefully disposed of. Petroleum hydrocarbons are discharge from urgent conditional process of venting and protection valve release. These are composed into the blow-down system to be burn. Additional gas should not be expel, but as a substitute sent to a competent burning gas system for removal. Urgent situation expel may be suitable under precise conditions were burning of the gas stream is not probable, on the source of an exact hazard examination and veracity of the system needs to be secured. Rationalization for not using a gas flaring system should be completely recognized before an urgent situation gas venting capability is measured. The following pollution anticipation and manage measures must be careful for gas flaring: • inside air eminence like second-hand tobacco smoke and sick building syndrome • assessing and calculating ecological lead revelation • crisis development and society right-to-know • industrial infections (AIDS in the workplace, tuberculosis, silicosis) • Potentially dangerous agents such as radon gas • Growing disturbance problems like recurring stress injuries. • Emission of waste gases • Reproductive health issues in the workplace • Imposing restrictions on revelation to physical and chemical agents • Recognition and control of probable work-related danger such as radiation, noise, and enlightenment. • Dangerous and inappropriate waste disposal measures. • Release of basis gas diminution measures to the greatest degree latent. • Consumption of competent flare instructions, and optimization of number of burning nozzles. • To get the most out of flare burning capability by calculating and analyzing flare fuel / steam/ air flow rates to make sure the accurate proportion to flare stream • Reduction of gas from cleanse and pilots, without cooperation protection, through dealings together with setting up of flush out gas reduction devices, flare gas revival units, motionless purge gas, supple seat valve technology where suitable, and fitting of protection pilots; • Diminishing the risk of funnel blow-out by make sure enough exit speed and provided that wind protector; • Use of a consistent pilot explosion system; • Setting up of high reliability tool force defense systems, where proper, to decrease over pressure events and keep away from or decrease flaring situations; • Fitting of sensation drums to stop condensate discharge • Reduction of liquid carry-over and entrainment in the gas flare stream with a appropriate liquid severance system; The Engineering sector manages to reduce worker disclosure by either dropping or elimination the danger at the cause or separating the worker from the vulnerability. It most of the time took controls to comprise eliminating toxic chemicals and replace with nontoxic chemicals, surround work development or confine work functions, and the setting up of all-purpose and local exposure to air systems to clean it. It is important to tackle the problem through ventilating because polluted air can cause various diseases. The environment is constantly changing so they have the major effects on ecological system on the earth because of the continues pollution problems that are being created by the emission of gasses from the purification process. At this age, we are suffering with the major environmental challenge that has ever seen. According to the research, over the past 150 years, humans are transforming their necessities to get a better live and for this purpose they burnt massive amounts of fossil fuels which includes coal, oil, and gas, bred huge amounts of methane- producing livestock and cut down vast swathes of forests, which logically soak up carbon dioxide from the air. If we talk about the foresting related to the remedy for environmental change perspective, they are significantly imperative as they soak up carbon dioxide, the major greenhouse gas accountable for global warming, and help to control the world’s climate. Influences are diversified according to the type of forests. Sub-Arctic boreal forests are probably to be specifically defectively unnatural, with tree lines slowly thinning as temperatures go up. In tropical forests such as the Amazon, they have rich biodiversity; even unpretentious levels of climate change can source high levels of destruction. Greenpeace is a great initiate that urgently modify from the polluting, hazardous energy systems. They are working to increase the dive to a intense new future assemble on 100 percent safe, clean energy from the sun, water, wind and earth. They are contributing to prevent the flow of money to these dirty and critical fossil fuel industries. Instead they are keen to develop a finance industry to lift for positive change. It is considered that the healthy oceans can improved many influences of climate change, Greenpeace is occupying for a system of ocean sanctuaries in the North Pole and around the globe which is a good step ahead. Scientist revealed that the air is the mixture if many gases but most importantly carbon dioxide that are trapped and slow down the heat that is expected to escape in the space. For this purpose, greenhouse effect was opted in which the warmness of the sun is trapped in the lower temperature because of the great transparency of the climate for the radiation from the sun. Now the question is how humans are responsible for the increase in the carbon dioxide. It is clearly answered that the usage of radioactivity to make a distinction in industrial emanation from the natural production exposed that the excessive gas is released from the human activity. The level of carbon dioxide is increased from the past decades and we are pumping the gas much faster than nature. Matter of the problem is does the natural factors also influence the warming. The article stated that the natural factors can be responsible because if the sun starts providing more radiation than the temperature will automatically increase. An article concluded the current refinery problems and issues while refining petroleum which was imported by the developing countries. As it is stated above that hazardous gases are emission prom the purification process which pollutes the environment in an intensive way. This article concludes the refinery capacity and repair facing refinery operators. The cryosphere means the frozen water on Earth is melting because of the warmth changes. A heated environment causes snowpack, th ...
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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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