SAFE 3120: Industrial Hygiene
Research project - Grading Rubric
Instructor: Miaozong Wu; Ph.D., ARMTM
Due Date: Oct 21, 2018
Title page: Are your paper title, author(s) and affiliation information, and
word counts included?
Abstract (200 – 300 words): clearly and briefly summarize the background,
the needs to research the industry, methods you used to collect and
analyze data, the key findings, and short conclusion.
Introduction: Does the introduction section clearly and briefly summarize
the industry, and describe the purpose, importance, and plan of the
research? Does the rest of the paper follow through from this introduction?
Main body: This section should follow the Introduction and include the
methods and the findings or results. Does the paper provide a complete
and accurate discussion of the topic using examples from the literature,
data, regulations and standards, etc? Does it demonstrate critical
thinking when evaluating and analyzing these information, data and ideas?
Are the conclusions explained and backed by data, cases and/or reasons?
You MUST also discuss and provide your own views how to comply with
OSHA relevant regulations (https://www.osha.gov/law-regs.html).
Conclusion: Are the main points summed up? Are the conclusions
supported by the data and information provided in the study? Are some
wider implications and limitations suggested?
Citations and Bibliography: Are in-text citations appropriately used to
credit all material from other sources? Are all citations listed in the
Reference section? Are they appropriately distributed among web sites,
peer reviewed journals, and other sources? Is the appropriate APA format
Organization: The length should be between 3000 - 5000 words, excluding
references and the title page. Does the paper follow a linear progression of
Quality of writing and spelling: Is the paper written in a technical format?
Are the sentences clear? Do the sentences flow in logical order to make a
persuasive case? Are there spelling errors in the text? Any grammatical
errors, typos or incomplete sentences? If the errors are distracting to the
reader, points will be deducted.
Is the PowerPoint submitted before due date (10/21/2018)?
Each group will present their findings in class for 10 min.
The presentation will be judged by other students (25-point value) and by
Dr. Wu (25 points).
The changes and challenges for industrial hygiene in petroleum refineries: past, present
Industrial Hygiene is a discipline and skill dedicated to the anticipation, gratitude,
assessment, deterrence, and manages of those ecological issues or pressure occurring in or from
the place of work which may source illness, damage health and well being, or noteworthy
uneasiness among workers or between people of the society. It is related to the mining and refinery
industry where the proper disposal system of waste material is highly needed. There are thousands
of problems that were caused by the inappropriate wastage of dispose material. But with the
passage of time as the technological advancement took charge, there are many procedures are
method are introduced in previous years to contaminate the material that is used by the human live
as well as by the marine lives. It is hard to overcome completely but there are many ways that are
discovered for the most possible solutions. Partially the conditions are being changed and the
industrial areas are defined far away from the residents to keep them in healthy air and
Industrial hygienists utilize ecological supervision and systematic methods to become
aware of the level of worker experience and employ production, work performs control, and other
technique to manage probable health dangers. There has been a consciousness of manufacturing
hygiene since olden days. The surroundings and its relation to worker health were documented as
early as the fourth century BC. It is the time to note and guide toxicity in the petroleum industry.
In the initial years, a Roman scholar, named Pliny the Elder, alleged health hazard to those
functioning with zinc and sulfur. In the second century AD, the Greek physician, Galen, precisely
explained the pathology of guide poisonous and also documented the dangerous revelation of
copper miners to acid mists. Petroleum refineries are multifaceted systems particularly intended
to support on the preferred products and the properties of the crude oil feedstock. Refineries can
be assorted from medium integrated refineries to fully integrated refineries depending on the
utilization of diverse processing units. There are many challenges that are being faced but the most
important challenges is safety and health practices which makes sure that their companies control
in proactive, rather than reactive. For the petrochemical industry, Petroleum sanitization enveloped
around processing operations which include from crude oil to complete liquid products, including
Mo-Gas (motor gasoline), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel oil, kerosene, fuel oil,
oil, asphalt, sulfur, bitumen, and transitional products that are virgin naphtha, propane / propylene
mixtures, vacuum distillate and middle distillate are made from the purification process. Emission
of waste gases cause various problem and majorly harm the eco system and the reason behind the
global warming. A book named Climate Change: a Natural Hazard written by the William
Kininmonth revealed that the climate change is a completely natural phenomenon and that the
United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has ignored this basic reason for
global warming because the climate models the IPCC has formed are excessively simplified. The
influence of weather and climate edges has traditionally put support to the development and
prolonged to the future particularly in developing countries. It is necessary to recognize how
climatic modifications can apparent as weather and climate edges to put into practice the policies
of sustainable growth. The rationale and the significance of this book is to reveal that natural
processes of climatic changes that have reasons to modifications and it is improbable that human
potentials can control the natural processes. It was recommended that accomplishment of the
Kyoto Protocol can keep away from future infrastructure harm, ecological deprivation and loss of
life from weather and climatic insurgencies is an impressive illusion.
In this process, hazardous challenges are taken on serious note which impose great negative
impact on the human live. Progressive planning deal with a wide choice of circumstances makes
out resources, instruction and implementations. It guarantee that the tools and possessions can be
attained as rapidly as promising, human resources are arranged with skills and training, and that
further recruitment necessities are recognized and contracted in proceed so that the comeback
effort is less risky and more efficient.
Industrial hygiene professionals dedicate their time and power into considerate danger and threats
and intriguing actions to put off damage and revelation. Impending exposure should be examined
to conclude threat and recognize which controls can be used to avoid bad happening.
Consequential suggestions linked to remedial proceedings and method to improvement must be
put into practice to a damage or infirmity happening. In a practical approach, all mishaps are
painstakingly avoidable, as contrasting to being casual and inevitable.
Probable environmental problems connected with petroleum refining include the following:
Water pollution is the contagion of water bodies, frequently as a effect of human
activities or the waste water that deposed off by the petroleum refining which contain
chemicals and waste material. It polluted the water bodies consist of for example oceans,
aquifers, lakes, rivers, and groundwater. Water pollution consequences when contaminants
are bring into the natural atmosphere due to the revelation of water and any other dispose
Chemicals and dangerous liquid are found all over the place. They cleanse drinking
water, amplify harvest production, and make things easier to household everyday jobs. But
chemicals also can be dangerous to humans or the atmosphere if used or unconstrained
inappropriately. Risks can happen throughout production produce, storage space,
transportation, make use of, or discarding. Our society is at danger if a substance is used
dangerously or unconstrained in damaging amounts into the surroundings where human
life live, work, or occupy themselves. They can damage marine life or flee to the
environment to make worse local air pollution, global warming, or ozone weakening. Most
of the cleaning application products that includes disinfectants, general-purpose cleaners,
degreasers, tile cleaners, toilet cleaners, and glass and window cleaners for this purpose.
Hazardous waste can range from dangerous chemicals to sewage contaminated carpet to
body fluids and includes materials that must be disposed of properly.
Dangerous materials in diverse variety can be responsible of fatality, serious
damage, continuing health belongings, and injure to buildings, residence, and other
possessions. Many foodstuffs enclosed dangerous chemicals are used and store up in homes
regularly. These products are also exported every day on the nation's railroads, highways,
pipelines and waterways. It can cause severe health harms on human lives and animals in
anyways if there will be no proper disposal planning and management system and it will
pollute the environment and eco system not only on the surface of the earth but rather under
the surface and up in the air too.
Air pollution takes place when damaging or unnecessary amount of substances
together with gases, particulates, and organic molecules are transmitted into Earth's
There are five major causes of air pollution.
✓ Releases of gases from industrial plants and manufacturing activities.
✓ Burning from fossil fuels.
✓ Unindustrialized chemicals and domestic products.
✓ Natural reasoning of air pollution.
✓ Other reasons that are not related to the traditional ways.
Industrial Noise is generated from the sound with a high force noise caused by industry
equipments and machinery. Reasons of such noise contamination are caused by machines
from machines in diverse industrial unit, industries and refines.
Noise pollution has an effect on both human and animal health. It cause diversified
tightening of blood vessels
changing skin insipid
Unnecessary adrenalin in the blood watercourse which is accountable for high blood
loud and screaming sounds are recognized to source mental suffering
The unfavorable response are attached with a revolutionize in hormone contented of blood,
which in-turn boost up the heart beat, constraint of blood vessels, digestive spam’s and
dilation of the pupil of the eye.
Neurological problems, Heart attacks, birth problems and abortion
Muscle retrenchment most important to anxious collapse, tension, etc
unfavorable influence health, work competence and behavior. Noise pollution may source
harm to the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, and may create affecting trouble.
The most instant and sensitive result of sound is harm of hearing that reduce some part of
the hearing system. Extended revelation to sound of convinced incidence prototype that
leads to constant injury to the internal ear.
Impetuous noise may responsible for pathological and psychosomatic disorders
The brain is unfavorably affected by loud and unexpected noise by airplanes and jets.
People are subjected to psychiatric sickness.
Ultrasonic sound can influence the respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular system and
semicircular canals of the internal ear.
Most of the research revealed that blood is thickened by extreme noise.
Environmental protection programs for this sector should put into operation to address all
activities that have been recognized to have potentially important effects on the environment,
throughout usual operations and distress situations. The activities of this program should be based
on direct or indirect indicator of release, waste matter, and reserves make use of appropriate to the
specific project. Supervision frequency should be adequate to present envoy data for the restriction
being monitored. Monitoring should be carried out by trained persons; subsequent monitoring and
record-keeping measures and using correctly standardize and sustained equipment.
Fatigue gas and flue gas release carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the petroleum refining
sector consequence from the burning of gas and petroleum oil or boilers, compressors, diesel in
turbines, and other engines for energy and reheat production. Flue gas is also produced in waste
heat boilers linked with some method units throughout constant channel renaissance or liquid
petroleum coke burning.
Flaring and venting are significant operations and protective measures that are used in
petroleum refining services to make sure that release gases are carefully disposed of. Petroleum
hydrocarbons are discharge from urgent conditional process of venting and protection valve
release. These are composed into the blow-down system to be burn. Additional gas should not be
expel, but as a substitute sent to a competent burning gas system for removal. Urgent situation
expel may be suitable under precise conditions were burning of the gas stream is not probable, on
the source of an exact hazard examination and veracity of the system needs to be secured.
Rationalization for not using a gas flaring system should be completely recognized before an
urgent situation gas venting capability is measured.
The following pollution anticipation and manage measures must be careful for gas flaring:
inside air eminence like second-hand tobacco smoke and sick building syndrome
assessing and calculating ecological lead revelation
crisis development and society right-to-know
industrial infections (AIDS in the workplace, tuberculosis, silicosis)
Potentially dangerous agents such as radon gas
Growing disturbance problems like recurring stress injuries.
Emission of waste gases
Reproductive health issues in the workplace
Imposing restrictions on revelation to physical and chemical agents
Recognition and control of probable work-related danger such as radiation, noise, and
Dangerous and inappropriate waste disposal measures.
Release of basis gas diminution measures to the greatest degree latent.
Consumption of competent flare instructions, and optimization of number of burning
To get the most out of flare burning capability by calculating and analyzing flare fuel /
steam/ air flow rates to make sure the accurate proportion to flare stream
Reduction of gas from cleanse and pilots, without cooperation protection, through dealings
together with setting up of flush out gas reduction devices, flare gas revival units,
motionless purge gas, supple seat valve technology where suitable, and fitting of protection
Diminishing the risk of funnel blow-out by make sure enough exit speed and provided that
Use of a consistent pilot explosion system;
Setting up of high reliability tool force defense systems, where proper, to decrease over
pressure events and keep away from or decrease flaring situations;
Fitting of sensation drums to stop condensate discharge
Reduction of liquid carry-over and entrainment in the gas flare stream with a appropriate
liquid severance system;
The Engineering sector manages to reduce worker disclosure by either dropping or elimination
the danger at the cause or separating the worker from the vulnerability. It most of the time took
controls to comprise eliminating toxic chemicals and replace with nontoxic chemicals, surround
work development or confine work functions, and the setting up of all-purpose and local exposure
to air systems to clean it. It is important to tackle the problem through ventilating because polluted
air can cause various diseases.
The environment is constantly changing so they have the major effects on ecological system
on the earth because of the continues pollution problems that are being created by the emission of
gasses from the purification process. At this age, we are suffering with the major environmental
challenge that has ever seen. According to the research, over the past 150 years, humans are
transforming their necessities to get a better live and for this purpose they burnt massive amounts
of fossil fuels which includes coal, oil, and gas, bred huge amounts of methane- producing
livestock and cut down vast swathes of forests, which logically soak up carbon dioxide from the
air. If we talk about the foresting related to the remedy for environmental change perspective, they
are significantly imperative as they soak up carbon dioxide, the major greenhouse gas accountable
for global warming, and help to control the world’s climate. Influences are diversified according
to the type of forests. Sub-Arctic boreal forests are probably to be specifically defectively
unnatural, with tree lines slowly thinning as temperatures go up. In tropical forests such as the
Amazon, they have rich biodiversity; even unpretentious levels of climate change can source high
levels of destruction. Greenpeace is a great initiate that urgently modify from the polluting,
hazardous energy systems. They are working to increase the dive to a intense new future assemble
on 100 percent safe, clean energy from the sun, water, wind and earth. They are contributing to
prevent the flow of money to these dirty and critical fossil fuel industries. Instead they are keen to
develop a finance industry to lift for positive change. It is considered that the healthy oceans can
improved many influences of climate change, Greenpeace is occupying for a system of ocean
sanctuaries in the North Pole and around the globe which is a good step ahead.
Scientist revealed that the air is the mixture if many gases but most importantly carbon dioxide
that are trapped and slow down the heat that is expected to escape in the space. For this purpose,
greenhouse effect was opted in which the warmness of the sun is trapped in the lower temperature
because of the great transparency of the climate for the radiation from the sun. Now the question
is how humans are responsible for the increase in the carbon dioxide. It is clearly answered that
the usage of radioactivity to make a distinction in industrial emanation from the natural production
exposed that the excessive gas is released from the human activity. The level of carbon dioxide is
increased from the past decades and we are pumping the gas much faster than nature. Matter of
the problem is does the natural factors also influence the warming. The article stated that the
natural factors can be responsible because if the sun starts providing more radiation than the
temperature will automatically increase.
An article concluded the current refinery problems and issues while refining petroleum which
was imported by the developing countries. As it is stated above that hazardous gases are emission
prom the purification process which pollutes the environment in an intensive way. This article
concludes the refinery capacity and repair facing refinery operators. The cryosphere means the
frozen water on Earth is melting because of the warmth changes. A heated environment causes
snowpack, th ...
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