DR. HURSHEL BURTON
ART IS DEAD!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
NO ………ART EMERGES IN THE 21ST CENTURY………
“The underlying philosophy of this project is that contemporary American art
can be of real interest to a national audience. By making contemporary art
more accessible, the series affords viewers and students the opportunity to
discover their own innate abilities to understand contemporary art and to
explore possibilities for creative thinking and self-expression”- Art: 21
Discuss, critique and interpret your 21st Century artist’s work in your own words by
providing the following:
❖ Provide background information on the artist by writing an up- to -date
biography and info on current works on exhibit.
❖ Identify the medium, style and theme and inspiration of their work as you
make discoveries through your research. Discuss how the artist appeals to the
ethos, pathos and logos.
❖ Provide quotes or discussions from the artist in their explanation of their work
and provide reviews and criticisms in your text from other writers – be sure to
cite these. You may agree or refute these writer’s statements by offering your
own. Use your ethos, pathos and logos to do so.
❖ Consider connections of the artist to other areas of popular culture including
the Religious, Social, Environmental, Political context of the artist’s work.
❖ Research, analyze and interpret a piece of poetry/lyrics you feel connects with
one or more of the artist’s work or with the theme of their work. Cite stanzas
from the poem and why in your interpretation the literature connects. Use
ethos pathos and logos to state your position.
Hint: www.pbs.org/art21 Artist Pages, Teaching/Learning Lesson Plans, Artist Links
helpful in your exploration and discovery, planning and writing of your essay. Be sure
and cite your research.
Coverpage/Works Cited page
4-6 pages typed
12 point type size
Inserted pictures of artist’s work on coverpage and within text
5-8 sources documented including poetry
MLA formal documentation and Works Cited page
Audience: People who need to get out to museums and read poetry more today than
CAUTION: Beware…do not “lift” from your sources…this is plagiarism and you will be
CRITICAL THINKING AND QUESTIONING
FOR THE ASTUTE ART CRITIC
To think critically means to think while you listen, read, view and
even speak. The objective is not how many facts you can
remember but how well you can understand. Critical thinking
❖ Analyzing-noticing appeals and arguments,strategies of
❖ Questioning-wondering why,how what if so what?
❖ Inferring-drawing conclusions from what is suggested or
❖ Interpreting-explaining your own understanding
❖ Evaluating judge the value or worth of a piece be it a poem,
story, essay, film or artifact.
Critical Thinking also helps you in searching for persuasive
LOGOS- What does this mean? What questions does it raise?
PATHOS- How does it make you/me feel? Are your feelings
ETHOS- What is the character of the speaker/author/artist? Is this
Glossary of Terms
Search the Art:21 Glossary for art-related words used by series artists in the clips
and transcripts. Link to artist biographies by clicking on the names of the artists. The
glossary also prints as a nine-page document and is ideal for building vocabulary in
abstraction & abstract art
At its purist, abstraction uses shapes, colors and lines as elements in and for
themselves. Abstraction can also be conceptual, such as when a sentence or subject
matter is cut up so as to make its meaning nonsensical or unreal. A characteristic
trait of 20th century and Modern Art, many artists working today combine
representational and abstract elements (Barney, Bourgeois, Hancock, Hawkinson,
Marshall, Murray, and Sikander) while others make works without recognizable
people, places, or things (Lin, Puryear, Serra, and Turrell).
Used to describe something as visually-based, beautiful, or pleasing in appearance
and to the senses. Aesthetics is a term developed by philosophers during the 18th
and 19th centuries and is also the academic or scientific study of beauty and taste in
A small, narrow opening through which light is focused. Found in cameras,
microscopes, and other devices, apertures are often adjustable so as to increase or
decrease the amount of light. Instead of using a lens cap, Sally Mann covers the
aperture of her camera with her hand to block out light. In the case of the pinhole
photographs by Ann Hamilton, the artist's mouth is transformed into the aperture.
An image or story that refers to a related or overarching concept such as good or
evil. Artists Kiki Smith and Trenton Doyle Hancock often reference allegories in their
work, such as the Biblical stories Noah and the Arc and Jonah and the Whale. While
for work by other artists, such as Kara Walker, a narrative like "Gone with the Wind"
is subverted so that the traditional meaning of the story is intentionally confused and
A fictional self, different from one’s own, in an idealized or transformed version.
Alter-egos include the synthesized male Voice of Authority of Anderson, the aging
ballerina Eleanor Antinova of Antin, the satyr-like Loughton Candidate of Barney, the
pathetic hero Torpedo Boy of Hancock, the cartoon Gumby as drawn by Pettibon, the
religiously-blended goddess figure of Sikander, and the culpable Negress of Walker.
The art of designing and constructing buildings, architecture can also refer to the
building or space that an artist is making a work in relation to, such as with
installation art. Architecture has close ties to the visual arts, and many artists' works
are very sensitive to the ways in which their art interacts with buildings and
exhibition spaces. A few artists take architecture as art to extremes, such as Andrea
Zittel's floating island and home turned artwork, and Do-Ho Suh's recreations of
buildings out of fabric. Some artists, such as Maya Lin, were trained as architects
before they became artists. Artists who often work with architects and architecture
include Barney, Hamilton, Hawkinson, Kruger, Nauman, Osorio, Pfeiffer, Puryear,
Serra, Sikander, Suh, Turrell, and Walker.
A group of American youth, writers and artists in the 1950s who experimented with
communal living, a nomadic lifestyle, and Eastern philosophy. Often associated with
jazz music, the improvisational works by authors such as Jack Kerouac, William
Burroughs, and Allen Ginsberg challenged traditional forms of literature.
A religious style of art developed in the eastern part of the late Roman Empire.
Colorful and ornate, Byzantine art is characterized by its use of mosaic and by its
flat, graphic style. Before the aesthetic and scientific advances of the Italian
Renaissance, Byzantine paintings have shallow perspective and rely heavily on
symbols and iconography to convey a story or meaning.
A representation of a person or thing that exaggerates their most striking or
characteristic features. Famous people and political figures are often drawn as
caricatures by cartoonists to humorous ends. Raymond Pettibon uses caricaturization
to visualize the ridiculous aspects of his subjects, from Patty Hearst to Richard Nixon.
Caricatures, when thought of as an accurate likeness, are transformed into
A sculptural process, done by pouring a liquid material into a mold and allowing it to
cool or harden. Casting is used to make a replica of an object or to make groups of
identical objects. Many mass-produced commercial objects, such as toys and
dinnerware, are casts. Artists who use casting in their work include Antoni, Barney,
Bourgeois, Hamilton, Lin, Nauman, Smith, Suh, and Serra.
The art of photographing and lighting films. Cinematography can also refer to the
style or genre of a movie or motion picture, such as black-and-white cinematography
or documentary cinematography. Many artists using film and video, such as Matthew
Barney and Bruce Nauman, will work with cinematographers to achieve a desired
look for their art, while other artists, such as Charles Atlas, have inveted their own
distinctive style of filmmaking.
A working arrangement between an artist and another person, group, or institution.
Present throughout art history, collaborations are considered unusual today when
artists tend to be valued for their individual voice and contribution to society. Some
artists even form long-term working partnerships with other artists—these are seen
as distinct from collaborations which are often temporary. Artists who work
collaboratively include Antin, Antoni, Atlas, Barney, Chin, Osorio, Pfeiffer, Puryear,
Schorr, Smith, Suh, and Zittel.
The process or product of affixing paper or objects to a two-dimensional surface.
Feodorov, Hancock, Hawkinson, Kilgallen, Marshall, McGee, Murray, Osorio, Pettibon,
The practice of ruling over another country for the purpose of developing trade, or
enforcing one's own culture and values on people from a different culture.
Antin, Feodorov, Ford, Korot, Pettibon, Sikander
To remember or mark a particular event or person from the past through ceremony
Bourgeois, Ford, Kilgallen, Lin, Marshall, Osorio, Pettibon, Puryear, Serra, Smith, Suh
The arrangement of an artwork's formal elements.
Works of art in which the idea is equally if not more important than the finished
product. Conceptual art can take many forms, from photographs to texts to videos,
while sometimes there is no object at all. Emphasizing the ways things are made
more than how they look, conceptual art often raises questions about what a work of
art can be. Conceptual art is also often difficult to collect or preserve as it can be the
artist's own experience that is the work of art. Artists whose work is often conceptual
include Anderson, Antin, Antoni, Chin, Kruger, Nauman, Osorio, Schorr, Wegman,
A society in which mass-produced goods are made attractive and are advertised
through mass-communication and media. People who participate in a consumer
society by purchasing goods are known as consumers.
The intake of objects, images, and popular ideas into one's home, body, or daily life.
Be it in the form of food, furniture, art objects, or mass media advertising,
consumption is rooted in the sale and purchase of goods in a modern, consumer
society like the United States. Involving stuff in the world, from products to slogans,
artists whose work deals with consumption are often concerned with what a thing is,
how it looks, and how it came into existence.
Art made after 1970 or works of art made by living artists. A loose term that at times
overlaps with Modern Art, many museums specialize in showing art by living artists
in isolation while other institutions show contemporary art along with works dating
back thousands of years. Unlike Modern Art, contemporary art is not defined by a
succession of periods, schools, or styles.
The subject matter, concepts, or ideas associated with a work of art. A work's
content is shaped by the artist's intentions, the context of its presentation, and by
the experiences, thoughts, and reactions of the viewer.
The location, information, or time-frame that informs how a work of art is viewed
and what it means. Works of art often respond to a particular space or cultural
climate. If the context for a work of art is changed or recontextualized, the way in
which the work is understood may change as well.
The rarely questioned system of beliefs, values and practices that form one's life.
Cultures are often identified by national borders, ethnicity, and religion—while some
cultures cross borders, ethnicities and organized faiths. A culture which involves a
select portion of a population and which is organized around a particular interest
(such as cars, graffiti, or music) is known as a subculture.
Relating to popular forms of art including architecture, books, the internet, furniture,
and mass media. Today, things that are designed are often mechanically produced or
made with the help of a computer. Artists whose work is influenced by design include
Charles, Chin, Kilgallen, Kruger, Lin, Murray, Nauman, Osorio, Pfeiffer, Smith,
Walker, Wegman, and Zittel.
The act or feeling of being removed or alienated from a place or people.
The relationship between organisms and their environment, ecology is also
concerned with the relationship between people and nature. Artists whose works are
concerned with ecology include Anderson, Antoni, Chin, Feodorov, Ford, Hamilton,
Lin, Mann, Marshall, Orozco, Pfeiffer, Puryear, Schorr, Smith, Turrell, and Zittel.
A system of morals or judgments which govern one's behavior, ethics often intersect
with a work of art or the process of its making. Artists often feel that they have an
ethical responsibility to voice political concerns or make changes to society.
Anderson, Antin, Charles, Chin, Ford, Korot, Kruger, Lin, Marshall, Nauman, Orozco,
Osorio, Pfeiffer, Schorr, and Walker have all made works that are either political in
content or which have altered the social landscape.
An artificial or deceptive appearance or the front or public facing side of a building.
Implying flow or change, the term fluxus was adopted by a group of artists,
musicians, and poets in the 1960's to describe a radical attitude and philosophy for
producing and exhibiting art. Often presented in non-traditional settings, Fluxus
forms included impromptu performances, mail art, and street spectacles.
The shape and structure of a work of art, formal elements include color, shape,
pattern, and duration. Many artists strive for a relationship between form and
content, so that the way something is made fits with what the artist intends the work
to be about or how it will be seen.
A means of categorizing works of art based on style, form, and subject matter.
History painting and landscape are genres of painting; horror and romantic comedy
are genres of film; detective and science fiction are genres of literature.
Art made on a public surface, such as a building or a street sign, that is not owned
by the artist. Dating back to ancient Egypt, graffiti today is often made with spray
paint and marker. Seen by some as vandalism, others view graffiti as an important
expression of opinions. Contemporary artists influenced by graffiti include Barry
McGee and Margaret Kilgallen.
A description applied to flat, two-dimensional images or primarily graphic media such
as fonts, comic books, and cartoons.
Large-scale painting which represents either historical events or scenes from legend
and literature. Considered the highest form of art in the 19th century, history
paintings are generally grand in execution. Much of Modern Art has been a reaction
against history painting, while some contemporary artists such as Eleanor Antin,
Walton Ford, Kerry James Marshall, and Kara Walker have found ways to incorporate
the genre into their work.
Symbols and images that have a particular meaning, either learned or universal.
How one views oneself, how others perceive you, and how a society as a whole
defines groups of people. Important to one's identity are ethnicity, gender, age,
sexual orientation, and class, as well as education, childhood, and life experience.
For many, being an artist is not just an occupation but also an ethical responsibility.
Much art today deals with what it means to be an artist in today's rapidly changing
An organized system of values and opinions which form the basis of a social,
political, or economic agenda. Informed by a culture, ideologies often take the form
of rules, codes, or guiding principles.
A visually misleading or perceptually altered space or object.
A work of art created for a specific architectural situation, installations often engage
multiple senses such as sight, smell and hearing. The placement of individual works
of art in a gallery is also commonly referred to as an installation. Installations are
generally temporary and stationary (Chin, Hamilton, McGee, Kilgallen, Pettibon,
Puryear, Sikander), but some installations travel to different locations and exist over
longer periods of time (Bourgeois, Hawkinson, Marshall, Osorio, Suh, Turrell,
The state or position of being placed close together or side by side, so as to permit
comparison or contrast.
Having mechanical or moving parts that can be set in motion; art that moves. Ann
Hamilton, Tim Hawkinson, Bruce Nauman, Pepón Osorio, and Andrea Zittel have all
made works with kinetic aspects.
Used to describe items that are overly decorative or sentimental, kitsch may also
have negative connotations—meaning tastelessness or bad taste in art. Things
generally considered to be kitschy in popular American culture include ceramic
figurines, black velvet paintings, rhinestones, and glitter. However, what is kitsch in
one cultural context may not be in another. Artists who explore ornamentation and
kitsch in their work include Antin, Bourgeois, Charles, Feodorov, Hancock, Osorio,
Marshall, Murray, Pettibon, Pfeiffer, Smith, and Wegman.
Also known as earth art or earthworks, land art uses the raw materials of the natural
world to make large-scale, outdoor sculpture. Often taking many years to complete,
some earthworks made in the 1970s exist to this day while others are still under
construction. Artists who make or are influenced by land art include Mel Chin, Maya
Lin, and James Turrell.
A poetic comparison, visual or verbal, that uses one thing to represent another.
Artists use metaphor to bridge differences between seemingly dissimilar images and
A type of abstract art, primarily three-dimensional, which often uses industrial
materials in geometric or repetitive ways. Reduced to basic shapes (cubes, spheres)
or bare materials (steel, neon tubing, bricks), minimalist objects of the 1960s
expressed more the artist's process than his or her emotions. Artists whose works
are minimal or are influenced by Minimalism include Lin, Nauman, Orozco, Serra,
Suh, Turrell, Wegman, and Zittel.
An historical period and attitude from the early to mid-20th century, characterized by
experimentation, abstraction, a desire to provoke, and a belief in progress. Modern
artists strove to go beyond that which had come before. Works of modern art may
be visually different and yet share the same commitment to questioning artistic
conventions. Modern Art is oriented towards developing new visual languages (rather
than preserving and continuing those of the past) and takes the form of a series of
periods, schools, and styles.
A public work of art, usually large in scale, which commemorates a group of people,
historical event, or ideal. Monuments, such as those by Maya Lin and Do-Ho Suh, are
most often made at the invitation of a civic group or government. A type of
monument, memorials come in a variety of scales, materials, and audiences. Less a
tribute than an invitation to remember, memorials (such as those by Louise
Bourgeois, Sally Mann, Kerry James Marshall, and Pepón Osorio) can be subtle,
inconclusive, or abstract.
A recurrent or dominant theme in a work of visual or literary art.
Influenced by a diversity of ethnic, religious, cultural or national perspectives. Beryl
Korot, John Feodorov ...
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