Journal Reflection

timer Asked: Oct 20th, 2018
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Question Description

Write your journal in a Word document and upload to the assignment link here by Friday of this week. The journal should be at least 400 words, cite Healey at least three times, and follow the prompt listed here: Go to and select the “Sorting People” activity by clicking on the Begin Sorting button. You will be given a set of headshot photos of various people, and your task will be to drag and drop them into the racial categories to which you think they belong. Clicking on the thumbnail photo will show you a bigger picture of the person if it’s hard to see the smaller ones. When viewing your results, you can click on each of the faces to get more information on how each of the people actually identify. Record your score to use in your journal. Now write your journal by answering these questions in your Word document. Be sure to include your name and "Week 1 Journal" at the top of the page. What was your score on the activity? (Simply count how many pictures are correctly identified.) Why do you think this was so hard (or easy) for you to sort the people based on their physical appearance? What does this tell you about racial categories and race as a biological or social construct? How might being labeled into a certain racial category be a problem, especially one that is not how a person identifies themselves? How does this pertain to any real life circumstances that you or someone you know has encountered? Use what you have learned from Healey chapter 1 as support for your answers. Attached are the powerpoint for the chapter, rubric and the name of the book. References in APA format and 3 times cite the book. Do not bid if you cannot complete the assignment in 5 hours

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SOC 270 Journal Guidelines & Grading Rubric Each week, you are required to write a journal that connects to the course materials in the Healey textbook by completing a mini-assignment such as taking an online quiz, interviewing others in your life, or doing online research. The assignments are structured to connect your personal experiences to a deeper understanding of racial and ethnic relations concepts. Some of the assignments may present alternate perspectives and ideas about your own understanding of race and ethnicity in society, and you will be encouraged to analyze ideas from multiple perspectives to gain a broader framework of the concepts and how they relate to real world situations. Note that during two of the weeks, you will be required to interview people who are in similar and different racial categories than you. You may want to look ahead at the upcoming journal assignment prompts in the week folders so you can begin finding people to contact for the short interviews. These topics touch on sensitive issues, so please keep that in mind while you prepare for your journal assignments. This is required during each assigned journal: During each week, a journal prompt is listed near the bottom of the week page with specific instructions on how to complete the assignment. Read the prompt, do the assignment tasks, answer the questions posed in a Word document, and upload the document to the journal assignment link by the deadline. Each journal assignment should be at least 400 words and must paraphrase and cite the textbook materials at least three times throughout. Citing sources in your journals: Cite materials from the relevant textbook chapter(s) using APA format for in-text citations. Distinguished journals do not use direct quotes (you will not earn full points if you use straight quotes from the text or other course materials!), as these take away from the focus on your ability to synthesize and show that you understand the course materials. Rather, paraphrase and cite the source in parentheses in the sentence where you use the information. For instance: Healey and Stepnick explain that race is an ascribed status, which means it is involuntary, assigned at birth, and membership in the ascribed category is difficult to change (2017, p. 13). According to “The Social Construction of Race” lecture, the social meaning we place on skin color is more important than biological differences, and the social importance can change which means race is a socially constructed concept (Harrison, n.d.). While APA formatting does not require the use of page numbers when paraphrasing, it is helpful if you include them. Author and year are always required for in-text citations; page numbers are not required unless you use a direct quote. See the information in the Project Guidelines section for more helpful guidelines on APA formatting, and use this helpful resource: Purdue OWL website - You do not need to include a reference list at the end of your journal if you are simply citing the course materials. We know where it came from so there is no need to give the full reference as long as you cite it within the sentences where you use it in assignment. If you use outside sources in your journal, be sure to include the full reference at the end of your paper. See the course FAQ for more information on citing sources. Each weekly journal will be assessed using the grading rubric: SOC 270 Jennifer L. Harrison, PhD 1 Journal Grading Rubric (20 points possible) Distinguished Proficient Emerging Unsatisfactory 20 points 15 points 10 points 5 points Journal is mostly thorough in its fulfillment of the assignment prompt. Completion of the activity and its connection to the course concepts is satisfactory. Cites course materials at least 2 times in the journal and is substantive. Meets the 400 word length. While the assignment is completed, it may not be thorough. Journal may be missing a piece of the assignment such as evidence of completing the activity portion or weakly/not connecting personal ideas to the course concepts. Journal may not provide enough detail and may have fewer than 400 words in length. Shows evidence of lack of engagement with assignment by not following directions or not writing substantive sentences. Journal is thoughtful and thorough in its fulfillment of the assignment prompt. Completion of the activity and its connection to the course concepts is strong. Paraphrases and cites the textbook at least 3 times with meaningful connection using APA format. Meets or exceeds the 400 word length requirement and is substantive. SOC 270 Jennifer L. Harrison, PhD 0 points = Content is rude, inappropriate, or not uploaded by the deadline. 2 Part 1: Diversity in the United States: Questions and Concepts Chapter 1 © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Racial and Ethnic Groups 1980-2060 © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. A Land of Immigrants • Since the 1960s, the number of immigrants arriving in the United States each year has tripled and includes groups, literally, from all over the globe © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. What is a minority group? • • The members of the group experience a pattern of disadvantage or inequality. The members of the group share a visible trait or characteristic that differentiates them from other groups, however caution should be taken when naming groups as their names are social conventions whose meanings change from time to time and place to place* • The minority group is made up of people who share some commonalities but are at the same time different. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Inequality • Most important defining characteristic of minority groups • Variable patterns of inequality-exploitation, slavery, genocide • Minority, or subordinate groups, have less of what society values • Pattern is a result of actions by the core or dominant group © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Inequality • Stratification, or the unequal distribution of valued goods and services, is a basic feature of society. • Societies are divided into horizontal layers (or strata), often called social classes, which differ from one another by the amount of resources they command. • Minority group status affects access to property, prestige, and power © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. White and Black Americans on Equal Opportunity 1963-2011 © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Theoretical Perspectives Theories of Inequality Karl Marx Class Conflict inevitable Max Weber Gerhard Lenski Patricia Hill Collins Relationship to the means of production Economic Position Level of development of society Matrix of domination Borgeoisie or the ruling class Prestige Subsistence technology Intersecting and mutually reinforcing inequalities The proletariat or the working class Power Oppressor and oppressed changes based on changes in social context Can oppress and be oppressed simultaneously s © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Minority Group Status and Stratification • Minority groups experience a multiplicity of inequalities • Minority group status affects access to wealth and income, prestige, and power. • Although social classes and minority groups are correlated, they are separate social realities. • Struggles over property, wealth, prestige, and power lie at the heart of every dominant-minority relationship. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Visible Distinguishing Traits • Visible traits or characteristics that set members of the group apart and that the dominant group holds in low esteem. • Racial minority groups differentiated by physical characteristics. • Ethnic minority groups differentiated by cultural characteristics. • Categories can overlap. • Creations of historical and social processes not biological © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Race • Even though race is not regarded as an important biological characteristic, it is still an important social concept. It continues to be seen as a significant way of differentiating among people. • It is important to cultivate accurate understandings accurate understandings about race to decrease misunderstandings and human tragedies. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Distribution of Skin Color © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Race and Western Traditions • The U.S. concept of race has its origins in Western Europe. – Developed after European exploration led to contact with Africans, Asians, and Native Americans. • Europeans conquered, colonized, and sometimes destroyed those people they came into contact with. • This was facilitated and contributed to their linking of differences between what would come to be seen as races with notions of inferiority and superiority. • These notions continue to have significance today. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Race and Biology • Attempts were made to develop systems of scientifically-based racial classifications. – These were limited because dividing lines between the so-called racial groups are arbitrary and blurred. • Recent scientific developments show that genetic variation within the “traditional” racial groups is greater than the variation between those groups. – These developments show that the traditional American perception of race based primarily on skin color, has no scientific validity. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Social Construction of Race • To sociologists, race is a social construction and its meaning has been created and sustained not by science but by historical, social, economic, and political processes. • The importance of race was socially constructed as the result of particular historical conflicts and it remains important not because of objective realities but because of the widespread, shared social perception that it is important. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Gender • Like race, women and men in minority groups can be internally divided by social class and other factors • Rather than discussing women as a separate group, we need to focus on the divergent experiences of men and women within each minority group. • This approach permits us to analyze the ways in which race, ethnicity, gender, and class combine, overlap, and crosscut each other to form a “matrix of domination” © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Social Construction of Gender • Traits commonly seen as “typical” of men or women are not disconnected, separate categories • As with various forms of racism that sought to justify and continue racial inequality, women have been subjected to sexism, or belief systems that “explained” inequality based on gender. • What is thought to be “appropriate” gender behavior varies from time to time and society to society. • The essentially social nature of gender roles is further illustrated by the relationship between subsistence technology and gender inequality. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Gender Development © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Prejudice • The tendency to think (cognitive) about other groups in a particular manner and to attach usually negative emotions (affective) to other groups. • Stereotypes are generalizations that are thought to apply to all members of the group. • Generally the two dimensions of prejudice are highly correlated but distinct and separate and can vary independently. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Dominant-Minority Relations © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Causes of Prejudice • Theories that focus on personality needs as a cause of prejudice • Theories that view prejudice as primarily a result of being raised in a racist society and interacting in many social situations in which discrimination is approved • Theories that view prejudice as arising out of intergroup conflict © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Competition Between Groups and the Origins of Prejudice • The one common factor that seems to account for the origin of all prejudices is competition between groups • Typically, prejudice is more a result of the competition than a cause • Muzafer Sherif’s experiment at Robber’s Cave © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Limitations • Individuals who have no material stake in minority group subordination can still be extremely prejudiced. • The sources of prejudice can be found in culture, socialization, family structure, and personality development, as well as in politics and economics. • Prejudice can have important psychological and social functions independent of group power relationships. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Culture, Socialization, and the Persistence of Prejudice • Prejudice originates in group competition of some sort but often outlives the conditions of its creation • Gunnar Myrdal proposed the idea that prejudice is perpetuated through time by a self-fulfilling prophecy or a vicious cycle © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Vicious Cycle © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Vicious Cycle • The idea that prejudice is learned during socialization is reinforced by studies of the development of prejudice in children. • Children acquire prejudice even when parents and other caregivers do not teach it overtly. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Vicious Cycle • Research using social distance scales demonstrates that prejudice exists apart from individuals and that it is passed from generation to generation. • The importance of the social situation in which attitudes are expressed and behavior occurs is also important as what people think and what they do is not always the same. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Limitations • No two people have the same socialization experiences or develop exactly the same prejudices. • Socialization is not a passive process; we are not neutral recipients of a culture that is simply forced down our throats. • We also learn egalitarian norms and values as we are socialized. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Modern Racism • The harsh, blatant forms of prejudice present for most of U.S. history have become muted recently – This led some to conclude that individual prejudice is no longer a significant problem in American life. • However, sociological research clearly demonstrates that prejudice has not disappeared. Rather, it has assumed a more subtle and indirect form. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. The Sociology of Individual Prejudice • Prejudice has its origins in intergroup competition and is more the result of competition rather than the cause. • Prejudice is used to justify and rationalize societal inequality that becomes part of a cultural heritage. • New forms of prejudice include more subtle forms, but it has not declined. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Discrimination • Refers to behavior and may be defined as the unequal treatment of a person or persons based on group membership • Discrimination and prejudice do not necessarily occur together © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Ideological Racism • A belief system or a set of ideas that assert that a particular group is inferior and used to legitimize or rationalize the inferior status of the group. • Incorporated into the culture of society and can be passed on from generation to generation. • Do not necessarily need prejudice to have ideological racism--socialization processes. • The term ideological sexism, analogous to ideological racism but focused on sexual differences, will be used when we analyze patterns of inequality between males and females. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Institutionalized Discrimination • Patterns of unequal treatment based on group membership and built into the institutions and daily operations of society. • Can be obvious and overt, but usually operate in more hidden and unintended ways. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. Institutionalized Discrimination • Individual level prejudice and discrimination, and group level racism and institutional discrimination reinforce each other. • These relationships are socially negotiated and sustain the respective positions of dominant and minority groups in the stratification system. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. A Global Perspective • It is important to expand our perspective beyond the experiences of just a single nation and recognize that the dynamics of inter-group relations in the United States are not unique. • Group relations in the U.S. are shaped by global economic, social, and political forces. • There are complex interconnections between the domestic and the international. © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc. ...
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Journal Reflection: Sorting People

Journal Reflection: Sorting People
What was your score on the activity? (Simply count how many pictures are correctly
My score from the “Sorting People” exercise is; for the American Indian category
I managed to correctly identify 2 out of 4, Asian category I correctly identified 3 people
out of the 4, the Black category only 3 images out of 4 were correctly identified, for
Hispanic/Latino I identified 2 out of 4 images correctly, and last for the white category 2
out of the 4 were rightly identified.
Why do you think this was so hard (or easy) for you to sort the people ...

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