Pharmacological Treatment for Substance Use Disorder

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Final Research Paper during this week, you will create the final paper. Your research paper should be 1,500-2,000-words and reflect critical thinking and analysis.

You must have a minimum of six references to support your research. The references should be taken from the annotated bibliography completed earlier in the course.

Your research paper should include information about the following:

  1. Brief history of the drug
  2. Psychopharmacology of the drug
  3. Current trends or issues
  4. Societal concerns or issues related to the drug
  5. Significance or relevance of topic to the counseling profession
  6. Any future implications


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At this point in the course, you should have an approved topic, an annotated bibliography, and an outline for your Final Research Paper. During this week, you will create the final paper. Your research paper should be 1,500-2,000-words and reflect critical thinking and analysis. Refer to the Academic Writing Guidelines Resource located in the Course Materials section for assistance with this. You must have a minimum of six references to support your research. The references should be taken from the annotated bibliography completed earlier in the course. Your research paper should include information about the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Brief history of the drug Psychopharmacology of the drug Current trends or issues Societal concerns or issues related to the drug Significance or relevance of topic to the counseling profession Any future implications Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Running head: RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR Research Paper: Pharmacological Treatment for Substance Use Disorders Rosa L. Wilson PCN-527 October 10, 2018 Dr. Tricia Chandler 1 RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR 2 Outline Pharmacological treatment for substance use disorder – alcohol I. Introduction This is one of the best and most effective medical treatments for alcohol use disorder. Surprisingly, the medication is also very effective in blocking the effects of opioids as well as the reduction of craving for victims of alcohol use disorder. Naltrexone is often sold under the brand name ReVia or Vivitrol. This is an important medication because it treats more than one disorder; that is, alcohol use disorder and opioids dependence. a. Describe alcohol use disorder. b. Naltrexone treatment approach. c. Thesis: This research paper will discuss the history of naltrexone, psychopharmacology of the drug, current trends, society concerns related to alcohol, the importance to the counseling profession, and future implications. II. History of the drug a. Naltrexone was first synthesized by metosian in 1963 in a small pharmaceutical company in the city of New York (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). b. It was characterized by Blumberg, Dayton, and wolf in the year 1965 and it is through this that it was found to be orally active, potent to opioid antagonist, and long acting (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR 3 c. Naltrexone was first patented under the code EN-1639A in the year 1967 by the Endo laboratories (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). d. In 1973, clinical trials began in an effort to test the opioid dependence (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). e. In 1984, the drug was approved by the FDA for oral treatment under the brand name; Trexan (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). f. 11 years later, the drug was approved for oral treatment of alcohol dependence and the brand name changed to ReVia (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). III. Psychopharmacology of the drug a. Effects on thinking, mood and behavior (Van den Brink, 2012). b. Naltrexone and its active metabolite 6b- naltrexol are competitive antagonists (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). c. Mechanism of action. The blockade of the opioid receptors forms the basis for the drug action mechanism in managing opioid dependence (Van den Brink, 2012). d. Pharmacokinetics. The drug is metabolized in the liver by the enzymes in about 413 hours (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). e. Pharmacogenetics. Alcoholics have a variant of the opioid receptor gene known as Asp40 (O'Brien & McKay, 2007). IV. Current trends or issues a. It only works once opioids are washed out of a person’s system. b. Depersonalization. c. Low dose. RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR 4 d. Self-injury. e. Behavioral disorders. f. Interferon alpha. V. Societal concerns or issues related to the topic a. Generic names. According to Lee et al. (2015), they include; INN, USAN, BANM, USP, DCIT, DCF, and BAN. b. Brand names. According to Lee et al. (2015), they include; Adepend, Antaxone, Celupan, Depade, Nalorex, Narcoral, Nemexin, Revia, Trexan, and Vivitrol. d. Controversies, in 2011, an article reported that this single trial of naltrexone was carried out by comparing placebo instead of methodone (Sharma & Kar, 2015). VI. Significance or relevance of topic to the counseling profession a. This is a very relevant research topic as far as the counseling profession is concerned. b. It aids the counselor in understanding the importance as well as effects of longterm use of the medication. c. Equip the counselors with relevant information concerning available medications for alcohol use disorders. VII. Any future implications RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR a. 5 With the current depth of research, another medication may soon be innovated rendering naltrexone ineffective. b. More research needs to be done of how to reduce the side effects associated with the medication. VIII. Conclusion a. Describe alcohol use disorder. b. Brief history of the drug. c. Impact of the treatment approach. d. Current trends. e. Impact on society. f. Relevance of the topic to the counseling profession. g. Any future implications. RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR 6 References Douaihy, A. B., Kelly, T. M., & Sullivan, C. (2013). Medications for substance use disorders. Social work in public health, 28(3-4), 264-278. Lee, J., Kresina, T. F., Campopiano, M., Lubran, R., & Clark, H. W. (2015). Use of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in primary care. BioMed research international, 2015. Nora, D., & Volkow, M. D. (2004). Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. PNAS, 101, 8174-8179. O'Brien, C. P., & McKay, J. (2007). Psychopharmacological treatments of substance use disorders. A guide to treatments that work, 145-177. Sharma, D., & Kar, S. K. (2015). Recent advances in pharmacological management of substance use disorders. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases, 5(4), 118. Van den Brink, W. (2012). Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of substance use disorders and pathological gambling. Current drug abuse reviews, 5(1), 3-31. ...
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Running Head: RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT

Research Paper: Pharmacological Treatment for Substance Use Disorders
Rosa L. Wilson
PCN-527
Date
Dr. Tricia Chandler

1

RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT

2

Introduction
Naltrexone is one of the best and most effective medical treatments for alcohol use
disorder. Surprisingly, the medication is also very effective in blocking the effects of opioids as
well as the reduction of craving for victims of alcohol use disorder. Naltrexone is often sold
under the brand name ReVia or Vivitrol. This is an important medication because it treats more
than one disorder; that is, alcohol use disorder and opioids dependence. It is used to help narcotic
dependent individuals who have stopped using narcotics to stay drug-free and to help alcoholic
individuals to stay alcohol-free (O'Brien & McKay, 2007).
Although the drug is not a cure for addiction, it is often used as part of overall programs
that may include counseling, support group meetings and other forms of treatments as
recommended by the doctor. This drug works by blocking the feeling of highness that may make
one want to indulge in the use of alcohol. However, its use does not prevent one from becoming
impaired while under the use of alcohol. When drinking problem becomes severe, it is often
given the medical diagnosis of alcohol use disorder or AUD.
AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease which is characterized by loss of control on the
use of alcohol intake, compulsive alcohol use, getting preoccupied with alcohol and negative
emotional effects when one stops using or decreases its use. However, one must meet certain
criteria as outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to be
diagnosed with AUD. Alcohol use disorder may range from mild to severe and any person who
meets two of the 11 criteria listed under the current version of DSM – 5 during the same 12
month period received a medical diagnosis of AUD.

RESEARCH PAPER: PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT

3

Treatment for this disorder involves social, psychological and medical interventions to
decrease or eliminate the harmful effects of alcohol on the user, his family and associates and
other beneficiaries in the society. Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist that is often used to
reduce alcohol use by weakening rewarding and reinforcing the effects of alcohol. It blocks
stimulation of opioid rece...

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Anonymous
Thanks, good work

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