reading journal about some social issues

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Just strictly follow the requirement of the guideline and answering each question is enough!!!!!

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NEW RELEASE FOR 2016 U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights *UPDATE (as of 10/28/16): The state of Florida, on behalf of its school districts, corrected data it previously submitted to the 20132014 Civil Rights Data Collection. Those data are now incorporated in this revised document. See page 13 for details. 2013-2014 CIVIL RIGHTS DATA COLLECTION A FIRST LOOK KEY DATA HIGHLIGHTS ON EQUITY AND OPPORTUNITY GAPS IN OUR NATION’S PUBLIC SCHOOLS The 2013-14 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) is a survey of all public schools and school districts in the United States. The CRDC measures student access to courses, programs, instructional and other staff, and resources — as well as school climate factors, such as student discipline and bullying and harassment — that impact education equity and opportunity for students. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) will release additional data highlights later in 2016 on key topics such as student discipline, early learning access, teacher and staffing equity, access to courses and programs that foster college and career readiness, and chronic student absenteeism. The full CRDC data file may be downloaded now; please visit crdc.ed.gov for more information. In Fall 2016, the public will be able to look up 2013-14 CRDC data for individual schools, school districts, and states by visiting the CRDC website at ocrdata.ed.gov. Who’s in the 2013-14 CRDC? Number of school districts: 16,758 (99.2% of all school districts) Number of schools: 95,507 (99.5% of all public schools) Total number of students: 50,035,744 Nationwide Student Demographics: Asian 4.8% Black or African American 15.5% American Indian or Alaska Native 1.1% Two or More Races 3.1% School Discipline..........................................3 Early Learning...............................................5 College and Career Readiness................. 6 Chronic Student Absenteeism................. 7 Education in Justice Facilities..................8 Teacher and Staffing Equity......................9 White 50.3% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.4% Boys: 51.4% Girls: 48.6% English Learners: 9.9% Students with Disabilities: 14.0% About the CRDC............................................... 2 Restraint and Seclusion............................. 5 Hispanic or Latino of any race 24.7% Race/Ethnicity: WHAT’S INSIDE CRDC Endnotes and Definitions...................10 Newly Published Data In this document, data highlights marked as NEW indicate that the CRDC collected new information on the topic for the first time in the 2013-14 CRDC. (includes students receiving services under IDEA and/or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act) U.S. Department of Education | Office for Civil Rights | Issued: June 7, 2016 | Revised: October 28, 2016 1 NEW RELEASE FOR 2016 About the CRDC What’s Coming Next In The CRDC? The purpose of the CRDC is to obtain data related to the obligation of public school districts and of elementary and secondary schools to provide equal educational opportunity. Since 1968, the CRDC has collected a variety of information, including student enrollment and educational programs and services data that are disaggregated by race/ethnicity, sex, English learner status, and disability, from public schools across the nation. The CRDC is a longstanding and important aspect of the Office for Civil Rights' overall strategy for administering and enforcing the civil rights statutes for which it is responsible. Other ED offices, as well as policymakers and researchers outside of ED, also use CRDC information. Additionally, the CRDC database, with hundreds of data elements, is fully accessible to the public. School districts self-report and certify all data presented. The CRDC is a mandatory data collection, authorized under the statutes and regulations implementing Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and under the Department of Education Organization Act (20 U.S.C. § 3413). The regulations implementing these provisions can be found at 34 CFR 100.6(b); 34 CFR 106.71; and 34 CFR 104.61. For more information about the CRDC, please visit crdc.ed.gov. What’s in the 2013-14 Civil Rights Data Collection? n The 2013-14 CRDC provides equity and opportunity data on a wide array of topics, including: Topics collected for the first time in the 2013–14 CRDC as optional data items, and that will be collected from every school in the 2015–16 CRDC, include: • Allegations of bullying or harassment on the bases of sexual orientation and religion • Discipline-related transfers to alternative schools • Number of students participating in education programs in justice (detention, correctional or residential) facilities, by number of days of participation • Preschool corporal punishment • Number of instances of and school days missed due to outof-school suspensions • Number of criminal acts committed at school that would lead to discipline • Number of preschool children enrolled in district who are served in non-district facilities • Number of students enrolled in distance education, dual enrollment/dual credit, and credit recovery programs • Access to instructional aides, support services staff, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and school administrators • Number of security guards and sworn law enforcement/ school resource officers • Teacher churn/turnover n NEW Data topics now available in the 2013–14 CRDC include: • Bullying and harassment • Chronic student absenteeism • Early learning • Availability of free or partial-payment preschool in school districts • Pathways to college and career readiness (including access to math/science and AP courses) • Restraint and seclusion • Educational access in justice (detention, correctional or residential) facilities • Civil rights coordinators in school districts • School finance • Prevalence of and student participation in interscholastic athletics • Student discipline • Sworn law enforcement/school resource officers in schools • Access to distance education courses, credit recovery, and dual enrollment/dual credit programs • Teachers and other school personnel 2 2013-2014 Civil Rights Data Collection | A FIRST LOOK NEW RELEASE FOR 2016 2013-14 CRDC DATA HIGHLIGHTS: A FIRST LOOK † School Discipline n Black public preschool children are suspended from school at high rates: Black preschool children are 3.6 times as likely to receive one or more out-of-school suspensions as white preschool children. • Black children represent 19% of preschool enrollment, but 47% of preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions; in comparison, white children represent 41% of preschool enrollment, but 28% of preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. • Black boys represent 19% of male preschool enrollment, but 45% of male preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. • Black girls represent 20% of female preschool enrollment, but 54% of female preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. n Most public preschool children suspended are boys: While boys represent 54% of preschool enrollment, they represent 78% of preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. ED Initiative Spotlight Reforming School Discipline Policy and Practice The Department has made school discipline reform a top priority. In the 2016 Investing in Innovation (i3) Program, the Department seeks to support innovative alternatives to suspension. This priority builds on the #RethinkDiscipline campaign to increase awareness about the detrimental impacts of exclusionary discipline, our investment in School Climate Transformation Grants to help states and districts strengthen behavioral supports for students, and a School Discipline Guidance Package to clarify schools' obligation not to discriminate on the basis of race in discipline. For more information on the programs and initiatives appearing in this document, please visit www.ed.gov. n Children with disabilities and English learners are not disproportionately suspended in public preschool: • Children with disabilities served by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) represent 20% of preschool enrollment, but 15% of preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. • English learners represent 12% of preschool enrollment, but 7% of preschool children receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. n Nationwide, 2.8 million K-12 students received one-or-more out of school suspensions: • These include approximately 1.1 million black students; 610,000 Latino students; 700,000 students served by IDEA; and 210,000 English learners. n Racial disparities in suspensions are also apparent in K-12 schools: While 6% of all K-12 students received one or more out-of-school suspensions, the percentage is 18% for black boys; 10% for black girls; 5% for white boys; and 2% for white girls. • Black K-12 students are 3.8 times as likely to receive one or more out-of-school suspensions as white students. • Black girls are 8% of enrolled students, but 13% of students receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. Girls of other races did not disproportionately receive one or more out-of-school suspensions. • American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and multiracial boys are also disproportionately suspended from school, representing 15% of K-12 students but 19% of K-12 students receiving one or more out-of-school suspensions. † Note: Except where the percentage is below 1%, the percentages listed in these data highlights are rounded to the nearest whole number. Numbers in phrases such as “__ times more likely” are rounded to nearest tenth (one decimal place). Black refers to persons who are black or African American; Latino refers to persons who are Hispanic or Latino of any race; and multiracial refers to persons of two or more races. The numbers in these data highlights reflect a privacy protection protocol and other methodologies for collecting and preparing the data.1 For additional information on the methodology for collecting and preparing the data cited in this document, please visit ocrdata.ed.gov. U.S. Department of Education | Office for Civil Rights | ocrdata.ed.gov 3 NEW RELEASE FOR 2016 • 11% of American Indian or Alaska Native boys received one or more out-of-school suspensions, as did 10% of multiracial boys, 8% of Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander boys, and 7% of Latino boys. • Asian and white students did not disproportionately receive one or more out-of-school suspensions. n Students with disabilities in grades K-12 are disproportionately suspended from school: • Students with disabilities served by IDEA (12%) are more than twice as likely to receive one or more out-of-school suspensions as students without disabilities (5%). • More than one out of five American Indian or Alaska Native (23%), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (23%), black (25%), and multiracial (27%) boys with disabilities served by IDEA received one or more out-of-school suspensions, compared to one out of ten white (10%) boys with disabilities served by IDEA. • More than one in five multiracial girls with disabilities served by IDEA (21%) received one or more out-of-school suspensions, compared to one in twenty white girls with disabilities served by IDEA (5%). n English learners are not disproportionately suspended from school: • English learners make up 10% of all students, but they are 7% of those who received one or more out-of-school suspensions. n Black students are expelled from school at disproportionately high rates: • Black students are 1.9 times as likely to be expelled from school without educational services as white students. ED Initiative Spotlight Increasing Equity for Students of Color in Special Education Students of color are more likely to be identified as having a disability and face harsher discipline than their white classmates. To address these inequities, in February 2016, the Department proposed a new rule to improve equity in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA requires states to identify districts with "significant disproportionality" in special education—that is, when districts identify, place outside the regular classroom, or discipline children from any racial or ethnic group at markedly higher rates than their peers. The proposed Equity in IDEA rule would, for the first time, require states to implement a standard approach to compare racial and ethnic groups, with reasonable thresholds for determining when disparities have become significant, and would also provide identified districts with new flexibility to support student needs. • Black boys represent 8% of all students, but 19% of students expelled without educational services. • Black girls are 8% of all students, but 9% of students expelled without educational services. n American Indian or Alaska Native, white, and multiracial boys are also disproportionately expelled from school without educational services: • White boys represent 26% of all students, but 35% of students expelled without educational services. • American Indian or Alaska Native boys represent 0.6% of all students, but 2% of students expelled without educational services. • Multiracial boys represent 2% of all students, but 4% of students expelled without educational services. n Latino and Asian boys and girls, as well as Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander and white girls, are not disproportionately expelled without educational services from schools. • Latino students represent 25% of all students, but 15% of students expelled without educational services. • Asian students represent 5% of all students, but 1% of students expelled without educational services. • Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander girls represent 0.2% of all students, but 0.1% of students expelled without educational services. • White girls represent 24% of all students, but 12% of students expelled without educational services. n Black students are more likely to be disciplined through law enforcement: Black students are 2.2 times as likely to receive a referral to law enforcement or be subject to a school-related arrest as white students. 4 2013-2014 Civil Rights Data Collection | A FIRST LOOK NEW RELEASE FOR 2016 n NEW A significant number of schools have sworn law enforcement officers (SLEOs), including school resource officers (SROs): • 24% of elementary schools (grades K-6, excluding justice facilities) have SLEOs; 42% of high schools (grades 9-12, excluding justice facilities) have SLEOs. • 51% of high schools with high black and Latino student enrollment* have SLEOs. Restraint and Seclusion n More than 100,000 students were placed in seclusion or involuntary confinement or were physically restrained at school to immobilize them or reduce their ability to move freely — including almost 69,000 students with disabilities served by IDEA: • Students with disabilities served by IDEA represent 12% of all students, but 67% of students subject to restraint or seclusion. ED Initiative Spotlight • American Indian or Alaska Native and multiracial boys represent 2% of all students, but 5% of students subject to restraint or seclusion. • Black boys and white boys represent 8% and 26% of all students, respectively, but 18% and 43% of students subject to restraint or seclusion. • Asian, Latino, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander boys are not disproportionately subject to restraint or seclusion; neither are girls of any race or ethnicity. Early Learning n More than half of school districts provide public preschool programs beyond providing those services required by federal law for children with disabilities — but many children are still left without access to early learning: Supporting Early Learning Educators In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services issued a Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension Practices in Early Childhood Settings to assist states and public and private early childhood programs in preventing and severely limiting expulsions and suspensions in early learning settings. In 2016, through the Departments’ Preschool Development Grants Program national activities funds, model sites will be developed to implement strategies that improve social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes in preschoolers and support preschool teachers, administrators and families in addressing and reducing disproportionate discipline practices in early learning settings. • By law, all school districts must provide special education and related services for preschool children with disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In addition, 54% of all school districts report providing preschool programs to children not served by IDEA. n Among school districts that report offering preschool programs for children not served by IDEA, nearly half provide full-day preschool: • 48% of these school districts offer full-day preschool programs. • 70% of these school districts offer part-day preschool programs. (Percentages above do not sum to 100% because districts can offer both full-day and part-day programs.) n Of the school districts that offer preschool programs for children not served by IDEA, 73% extend preschool eligibility to all children in the district (but do not necessarily provide preschool programs universally to every child): • The remaining 27% of school districts extend preschool eligibility to children from low-income families or children in Title I schools, but not to all children. n NEW Most, but not all, public preschools are free: Of the school districts that provide preschool programs for children not served by IDEA, 86% offer part-day or full-day preschool at no cost; the remaining 14% require parents or guardians to pay for part or all of the cost to enroll children in preschool. U.S. Department of Education | Office for Civil Rights | ocrdata.ed.gov 5 NEW RELEASE FOR 2016 College and Career Readiness n High-rigor course access is not a reality across all of our nation's schools: Nationwide, 48% of high schools offer calculus; 60% offer physics; 72% offer chemistry; and 78% offer Algebra II. n Black and Latino students have less access to high-level math and science courses: • 33% of high schools with high black and Latino student enrollment* offer calculus, compared to 56% of high schools with low black and Latino student enrollment. • 48% of high schools with high black and Latino student enrollment* offer physics, compared to 67% of high schools with low black and Latino student enrollment. • 65% of high schools with high black and Latino student enrollment* offer chemistry, compared to 78% of high schools with low black and Latino student enrollment. • 71% of high schools with high black and Latino student enrollment* offer Algebra II, compared to 84% of high schools with low black and Latino student enrollment. n Course enrollment rates differ by race/ethnicity, and by disability and English learner status: ED Initiative Spotlight Boosting STEM and Computer Science Education The President has proposed a $4.1 billion Computer Science for All program that would support states’ and school district’s efforts to expand access for all students to computer science instruction and programs. And in April 2016, the Department issued a Dear Colleague letter to states, school districts, schools and education partners on how to maximize federal funds to support and enhance innovative science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education for all st ...
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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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