Principles Of Psychology

Question Description


1.According to the Society for Neuroscience (2011), the field of neuroscience has grown from 500 members in 1969 to over 40,000 members (Cacioppo and Freberg, 2013, p. 131).

1. How could the field of psychology and neuroscience work congruently to benefit society?

2. Is neuroscience the “New Frontier” of the mind?

2. Cacioppo and Freberg (2013) stated, “Although we can identify structures that participate in certain behaviors, the biology of mind involves intricate and overlapping patterns of activity involving many richly connected structures” (p. 145).

1. Did this happen without the existence of God?

2. Does this alter your beliefs?

3. The case of Phineas Gage was discussed by Cacioppo and Freberg (2013, pgs. 158-159). How does learning about this case help you understand brain trauma?

Does this help you understand how behavior can change as the result of it? Why or why not?

4.Read Cacioppo and Freberg (2013, pgs. 160-161) “Psychology as a Hub Science: Law, Responsibility and the Brain”.

1. Does neuroscience have a place in the criminal justice system?

2. Before being paroled, would brain imaging help protect society? Why or why not?


5. Society sends a powerful message on body image. In this chapter, you learned about eating disorders. Please watch one of the following videos and discuss your thoughts regarding the video. For example, how could this impact the development of self-perception in adolescence? Do you believe society sends a message on beauty? How does this impact a behavioral response?

Option One: Beauty Pressure

Option Two: Dove Campaign for Real Beauty (male version)

Option Three: Dove: Beauty on Your Own Terms #MyBeautyMySay

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Perceived social isolation or connectedness can produce changes in the cells of our immune system. V I C K E R S , T E A R D R A 1 1 9 1 T S 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. The Biological Mind V I C K Learning Objectives E 1 Debate the strengths and limitations of biological psychology as a major psychological R perspective, considering the roles of monism, reductionism, and reciprocity between betwe biology S experience. and expe peri rien ence. 2 Anal Analyze lyzze the implications impliccations of o,f ad adva advances v ncces in n methods methods used d to to study studyy the th brain for o our ur The Physical Basis of Behavior unde ers rstanding of b iolo io logicaal psychology. psyycho holo ogyy. understanding biological 3 Explai Explain ain n what what it me mean means anss for a neuron on tto o “fi “fire” fire re”” an aaction ctio on pote potential, ent ntial, d describing escr es crib ibin ing ho how w th the neuron’s T structure makes this possible. 4 Expla Explain ain n the process by which commu mun nicate with each other, allowing the nervous E neurons communicate © Argosy Publishing, blishing, g, Inc. system m to integrate inte tegr grat ate co comp mple l x in info form rmat atio ion. complex information. A Re. and psychological psyc ps ycho holo ogi gica call experience. exxpe peri rien ence Differentiate the major branches xpllain xp iniing the core biolo biological D of the nervous system, eexplaining function of each branch. R Associate key structures in, and regions of, the brain with important aspects of physical and psychological functioning. A 5 Differ Differentiate rentiatee tthe he rroles oles ol es p played layyed la db byy ma major ajor n neurotransmitters euro otranssmittteers iin n su sup supporting pporting physical ffunctioning 6 7 8 Explain the process by which hormones influence psychological experience and behavior, differentiating this process from neurotransmission. 1 1 Throughout history, human survival has 9 been threatened by the various bacteria and viruses that try1to make us their home. The bacteria-driven Black Death T decimated Europe between 1346 and 1400, killing an estimated 30 to 60% of the population (Austin S Alchon, 2003). Smallpox, measles, and influenza car- ried by Europeans to the Western Hemisphere killed as many as 90% of the native populations (PBS, 2005). The “Spanish flu” of 1918, which is related to contemporary bird flu strains, killed between 50 and 100 million people worldwide in a period of about one year (Patterson & Pyle, 1991). © A. Inden/Corbis 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 125 Courtesy of Dr. Skirmantas Janusonis/University of California, Santa Barbara. Photo © Roger Freberg Human brains like this one, carefully held byy one of your authors,, weigh about con onta t in three poundss and contain approximatelyy 10 100 billion 00 bi b llio on t’s about th he same neurons. That’s the number as thee stars st s in our galaxy, y, y y. the Milky Way. 126 We have not been passive bystanders to this devastation. Even though pandemics like the Black Death have caused remarkable destruction, none has killed the entire human population. The survivors often possess some natural, protective resistance to infection, which might then be passed along to their descendants. In some cases, resistance to one type of organism offers protection from completely new organisms. Researchers studying the HIV virus, which causes AIDS, discovered that some people seemed unusually resistant to the virus due to a particular genetic mutation. The mutation is common among northern Europeans, relatively rare in southern Europeans, and completely absent among Asians, Africans, and Native V Americans. Some researchers believed surI viving the bacterial infection of the Black C Death was related to the frequency of the mutation, while others point to surviving K smallpox instead (Galvani & Slatkin, 2003). The discussion so farE might sound more like biology or medicine than psychology, but behaviorRand mental processes have a considerable amount of influence on our abilities to fight bacteria and viruses (Cacioppo & BerB Szzooming 2011). Once human social environment ntson, 2 011) 01 1). On nce aagain, gain n, zo om min ing ou outt to tthe h hum he uman soc cia iall en envi v ro onm nmen en again much scale complete and zooming zo ooming back baackk iin n aga a,in n to a m uch uc h smaller sc cal ale gi ggives vees us a com mpllet etee and interesting intere est stin i g picture. pictu uree. Human beings, who impressive teeth claws, formed Hu uma man n be b in ngs gs,, wh w o la mpresssiv ivee te teet eth h or cla law ws, fo form rmed ed ggroups roup ro up Tlack imp to enhance the odds of their survival. Anyone who was socially excluded exclud E these groups experienced hostile environment. from the hese group ps expe p rienced a moree h ostile environme ent. Social excluex separated sion not ot onlyy se sepa paraate ted d aAperson pers pe rson on from fro rom m the th help heelp of of others othe ot hers rs in in life-threatening life-threate situations, but worse, situatio ons, perhaps perh pe rhap ps in fending fen ndin off a predator, prredaator or, bu ut wo wors rsee, could lead to R ng off ciroutright ht conflict con onfli flict ct with wit ith h others, othe ot herrs, including in nclud din ingg combat. com mbat at. Under Unde Un derr such hostile ci D people faced a greater cumstances, socially excluded bactecumstances great ater e risk ris isk from bacte rial infections than fromRviruses. Bacteria enter the body through cuts and scratches, whereas viruses are transmitted through body fluids (e.g., A sneezing), so you are most likely to be exposed to them when you are in close contact with other people. With that background 1 in mind, take a look at the group of people in the image on the preceding page. 1 Do you think the woman on the left is feeling included or excluded? Surprisingly, whether we typically feel socially 9 can have serious implications for our health isolated or socially connected (Cole, Hawkley, Arevalo,1& Cacioppo, 2011). If this woman normally feels isolated and often left toT fend for herself, she will, like her excluded ancestors, face a greater threat from bacteria than from viruses. In that case, S her brain will generate hormonal signals that will tell her immune system (shown in the larger image) to gear up to protect her against bacteria. In contrast, if she usually feels socially connected to others, her brain will initiate a cascade of hormonal signals that tell her immune cells to prepare to protect her against viruses. This is just one example of how the mind’s perceptions of the social environment—whether it is friendly or not, for instance—can impact biological processes that are important to health and survival. Chapter 4 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. In the previous chapter on nature and nurture, we learned how the challenges of surviving and reproducing in particular physical and social environments could shape a species’ biology and behavior. In turn, the resulting biological structures and processes of the mind exert profound influences on our physical and social environments. In this chapter, we will provide a foundation for understanding the biological bases of behavior and mental processes by exploring the structures of the nervous system and the ways that they function. E What Is Biological Psychology? © Dimi Dimitri D imitri tri Iundt/TempSport/Corbis Iundt Iu Many of us find the concept that our “minds” are someV how a result of the activity of nerve cells a bit unsetI tling. How could our feelings, thoughts, and memories be caused by a bunch of cells? Shouldn’t there be more C to who I am than something so physical? Such ideas led K thinkers like René Descartes to propose a philosophy of dualism, which suggests that “mind” is somehowEdifferent and separate from our physical being. If you Rare moree comfortab comfortable with ble w ith thinking about mind this way, Sfield go right recognize that ght ahead, as long lon ong as you rec ecog ogni nize tha hatt thee fie of biological ologi gical psychology, psyccholo ogy, and the th he neurosciences neurosciien nce ces in n,gengen eneral, embraces the competing philosophy monism. h com ompe peting p hilosophyy off mon nism. m. According monistic rdiingg to the m rd onisticc approach, approa oach ch,, th the mi mind nd is what what T the brain raiin does. E y field of study Biological interdisciplinary Biolog gicaal psychology psych chol ologyy is a rich, ri interdiscipl p inary stu st udyy that combines methods theories psychology those off bi biology, bines thee m etho et h ds and theo oriies of p sych sy chol olog ogyyAwi with th tho hose se o biol log ogy,, physiology, the neurosciences, related iology, biochemistry, bi neu uro oscien ences, and and other other er relat ated fields. fieldss. While fi W ilee Wh R investigating behavior, tigating a particular behavio or, the the biological bio iolo logi gica call psychologist psyc ps ycholo logist st focuses foc ocusses on on D biochemical factors, links between observed behavior and genetic factors, factors factors and the activity level and structural characteristicsRof the nervous system. These links do not travel in one direction only, from biological factors to A behavior, but are more accurately viewed as reciprocal. For example, we know that if you administer extra testosterone to human males, raising their testosterone to above normal levels, they are1 likely to behave more aggressively (Pope, Kouri, & Hudson, 2000). In this 1 case, biology (raising testosterone levels) is influencing behavior (aggression). However, we also 9 know that watching his favorite sports team lose lowers a man’s testosterone levels (Bernhardt, Dabbs, Fielden, & Lutter, 1 1998). Here we see the influence of behavior (supporting a particular teamTand watching the team lose) on biology (testosterone levels). Not only does biology infl influence (thinking about behavior, but behavior (th winning winn wi nnin ing g aand n losing in this case) affects nd biology. biol bi olog ogy. Players and even the fans of a winning winn wi nnin i g team experience a temporary increase while the incre in easse in testosterone, w players and l d ffans off the h llosing team experience a temporary decrease in testosterone. S Advances in the methods we use to observe the structure and function of the nervous system have driven the history of biological psychology. The discovery of contemporary methods, such as the recording and imaging of brain activity, opened whole new areas of inquiry to biological psychologists. Before these methods were available, however, most of our knowledge of the nervous system Early Attempts to Understand Biological Psychology biological psychology The interdisciplinary field of study that combines the methods and theories of psychology with those of biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neurosciences, and other related fields. WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY? 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 127 resulted from clinical observations of injured or mentally ill individuals or autopsy, the examination of bodies after death. When used together with contemporary methods, clinical observation and autopsy are quite accurate, but early thinkers lacking contemporary methods often struggled in their attempts to understand the physical basis of mind. They understood many things correctly while making some notable errors. Aristotle, who was accurate on many issues, mistakenly believed that the heart, not the brain, was the source of mental activity. An interesting historical mistake was phrenology. Toward the end of the 18th century, phrenologists proposed that the pattern of bumps on an individual’s skull correlated with his or her personality traits and abilities V I C K E R S , Autopsy has been used since 3000 BCE, and it remains a useful source of information, especially in forensics. Dr. Bill Bass, a forensic anthropologist, studies donated bodies as they decompose at the “Body Farm” at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The knowledge gained from these investigations makes it possible to determine time of death at crime scenes. Photo © Jon Jefferson; courtesy of Thinking Scientifically T When Doe Does es Re Reductionism eductionism m Wo Work? ork? E A When Does Doe es It It Fail? Fail? R is participating in neural eductionism ductionism in science is D signaling, flavoring our food, contributing to defined as the explanation Rmaking us high blood pressure, or of complex things as sums float more easily whenAwe swim in of simpler things. Taking a rather R extreme reductionist approach, science fiction often features scenes in which an android reminds a human that they’re really not so different after all—the brain is just a computer made up of chemicals, nothing more, nothing less. In some ways, all modern science is reductionist. Scientists assume that whether you are studying particle physics or human behavior, a single set of fundamental laws explains much of what we observe. We do not need new sets of rules for the features of table salt (sodium chloride) in each context in which it appears. Regardless of whether the chemical 128 Chapter 4 | the ocean, the fundamental principle is the same: salt is salt. The scientific search 1 for fundamental principles has been fruitful, 1 to say the least, but it does have limitations. Although 9 we can learn a lot by breaking apart complex things 1 to study simple things, we saw some T in the of the risks to this approach debates between the structuralists S and Gestalt psychologists. Fish swim in schools, geese and ducks fly in a V-formation, ants and bees swarm, cattle form herds, and human beings form societies. We could never understand these more complex phenomena by studying the behav- ior of an in indi d vi di v dual member of th individual the group. Nobel laureate physicist P. W. Anderson reminded scientists that large collections of simple things do not always behave the same way that simple things behave in isolation. He wrote that “at each stage (of complexity) entirely new laws, concepts, and generalizations are necessary, requiring inspiration and creativity to just as great a degree as in the previous one. Psychology is not applied biology, nor is biology applied chemistry” (Anderson, 1972, p. 393). This chapter on the biological foundations of behavior and mental processes relies extensively on reductionist thinking. As you work through the chapter, however, it is important to keep Anderson’s cautions in mind. We will begin by analyzing the mind THE BIOLOGICAL MIND: THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Phrenologists believed that “reading” the bumps on a person’s head, using a bust like this as a reference, could tell them about a person’s character. rsto utte ©F abi oF ersa /Sh at the cellular level by examining nerve cells and their activity. Then our view zooms out from cells to the larger structures of the brain and spinal cord to circuits to systems to beyond the body itself with social interactions among other systems (i.e., other people). As we embark on this journey, it’s important for you to remember that some aspects of behavior will continue to be governed by rules that explain the actions of simple things, while others will require the introduction of new rules better suited to more complex combinations and interactions of simple things. E ck T E A R D R A © Terry Why/Phototake (Simpson, 2005). The brain supposedly worked like a muscle, getting larger through use, leading frequently used areas of the brain to grow so much that the skull above these areas would bulge. Phrenologists “read” a person’s character by locating the bumps on a person’s head and identifying the personality traits below each bump according to a map. None of these ideas, of course, was close to being accurate. V Phrenology was especially popular in the United States during I the latter half of the 19th century, with employers asking prospective C seeking exams employees to undergo phrenological exams, young lovers to ensure compatibility, and even presidential candidates submitting to K exams (Stern, 1971). Although the phrenologists were wrong about the E significance of bumps on the skull and the effects of activity on the strucR ture of the brain, they did reach one correct conclusion. Their notion that somee behaviorall func functions localized off the br brain ctions are locali lize zed to o ccertain erta er tain S aareas r as o re rai ain n is onee we share haree ttoday. oday od a. , Viewing a complex conce Viewing View concept as a sum of its ts ssimpler impler parts is not always the its full h best b way to understand d meaning. 1 1 9 1 T S © nito/Shutterstock WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY? 9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 129 More modern perspectives of the nervous system emerged from the work of scientists like 19th-century neurologist John Hughlings Jackson (1835–1911). Based on observations of his patients with seizure disorders, Jackson proposed that the nervous system is organized as a hierarchy, with progressively more complicated behaviors being managed by more recently evolved and complex structures (Jackson, 1884). We can see Jackson’s hierarchy at work when we observe people drinking alcohol. Alcohol specifically decreases the activity of parts of the brain involved with judgment and decision making. When a person has had too much to drink, the more complex social controls (such as knowing how close you should stand to a stranger) normally provided by higher level V areas of the brain are diminished. Without the influence of these controls, people start doing thingsI that they would not typically do while sober. This change in behavior reflects C the now unrestrained influence of the more primitive parts of the brain involved with behaviors such as aggression K and sexuality. You might, for example, pick a fight with someone when you normally think fighting E is wrong. The aggression and sexuality were there all along, but the normal R activity of the higher levels of the nervous syscircumstances tem usually restricted their expression to more appropriate circumsta S 2008). (Siever, r, 2 008) 00 8). Contemporary Approaches in Biological Psychology , TABLE 4.1 Research Rese sear se arch Methods iin ar n Biolo Biological ogical Psy Psychology sych sy chol ch olog ol ogy og Research method d Skin conductance ctance respo response ponse e (S (SCR; formerly known galvanic own ass ga galv lvanic skin response) Electroencephalogram phalogram (EEG) Evoked potential Single cell recording Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Positron emission tomography (PET) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 130 T Description E Measurement Measurem ment of electricity elect ectri rici c ty passed pas asse eA d between ...
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Final Answer


Principles of Psychology.

Question 1 (part 1 and 2)
➢ (Part 1)Neuroscience and Psychology working congruently to Benefit Society
➢ (Part 2) Neuroscience as the ‘New Frontier’ of the Mind


Question 2 (part 1 and 2)


Question 3


Question 4 (part 1 and 2)


Question 5


Principles of Psychology



Question 1 (part 1 and 2)
Neuroscience and Psychology working congruently to Benefit Society
Continued advancements in technology have drastically seen the growth of neuroscience
field. To a great extent, psychology and neuroscience are intertwined. Psychologists through the
field of neuroscience have gained a deeper understanding of the human brain and behavioral
components. Psychologists can better understand and explain why people act and behave in a
certain way and this is because of neuroscience. Psychology and neuroscience work congruently
to benefit society because it is now easy to gain insight into the human brain and its relation to
individual behavior. Modern technology has opened up so many research opportunities and as a
result, the field of neuroscience new and commonly practiced as compared to psychology.
Scientists can study and understand brain activity because of technology. The use of imaging
technology, for instance, MRI has made it possible to observe brain activity (Cacioppo &
Freberg, 2013, p. 131).
Additionally, both neuroscience and psychology can be used to initiate organizational
change. It can be said therefore that both psychologists and neuroscientist agree that when people
change their attitudes about their jobs, then organizational change is possible.
(Part 2) Neuroscience as the ‘New Frontier’ of the Mind
Neuroscience is not the ‘new fro...

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