Article Cirtique Homeland Security about NIMS. See Attached Artice and Study Guide

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Unit III Article Critique

Weight: 4% of course grade

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Due: Tuesday, 10/23/2018 11:59 PM (CST)


Read the assigned article by Fazzini (2009), and create an article critique.

After reading the article and briefly summarizing the purpose for the writing, answer the following questions:

What is the author’s main point?

Who is the author’s intended audience?

Do the author’s arguments support the main point?

What evidence supports the main point?

What is your opinion of the article? Do you agree with the author’s findings?

What evidence, either from the textbook or additional sources, supports your opinion?

Your response must be at least 725 words in length. All sources used, including the article, must be referenced. Paraphrased and/or quoted materials must have accompanying in-text citations and references in APA format.


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The Importance of NIMS to Campus Emergency Response By Mark Fazzini, M.S. T oo often, evil acts seem to occur anywhere in society. Recently, some of the most shocking incidents have taken place on the grounds of highly esteemed colleges and universities, institutions that exist to better society. These occurrences have helped highlight the need for authorities to have effective countermeasures in place to address threats to campus safety. Understanding the importance of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) to colleges and universities 14 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin © Rich Malec requires a recognition of what it means to emergency response capabilities. NIMS was developed in March 2004 by the Department of Homeland Security to provide a systematic, proactive approach for government agencies at all levels, nongovernment organizations, and the private sector to work seamlessly to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents—regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity—to reduce the loss of life, destruction of property, and harm to the environment. It gives campuses a much-needed method of protection. UNDERSTANDING NIMS What It Offers A recent report funded through the Illinois Criminal Justice Authority examined the relationship between local law enforcement and postsecondary institutions in Illinois and across the nation.1 One of its key findings revealed that many campuses have experienced critical incidents of some sort within the past 5 years. Considering this fact, along with the importance of NIMS to the effective and efficient planning for or response to an emergency incident, every college and university should become compliant. Institutions also can reap important financial benefits. Responding to and recovering from an emergency can cost a considerable amount of money. Only organizations that have implemented NIMS can recoup any portion of such expenses from the federal government. Additionally, NIMS offers a predefined, yet flexible, organizational structure that can be altered, as necessary, to ensure maximum effectiveness during small operations or complex responses and extended in scope if an incident grows in size. NIMS can adapt according to geographical boundaries, operational function, or a combination of both. How It Works NIMS allocates responsibilities among four main areas— planning, operations, logistics and administration, and finance. Each has its own assigned primary and secondary functions that then can break down further into branches, divisions, groups, task forces, or strike teams. An incident commander is necessary in any operation, but the positions in each of the four realms of responsibility are staffed only if the event dictates the need. The establishment of uniform titles, with accompanying responsibilities, allows for an easy-to-understand command structure. This practice helps emergency responders from diverse communities work together effectively and efficiently under a single banner of operations. For instance, two officers from fire departments at opposite ends of a state could understand the responsibilities of a planning section chief. NIMS-compliant agencies working together all gain an understanding of and share common terminology and acronyms to effectively communicate and accomplish objectives. Also standardized, the typing, or sufficiently defining, of resources ensures that emergency managers request the right equipment, supplies, and other provisions for a particular purpose. For example, a section chief may need a tanker. Some personnel instinctively may think of an airplane tanker and others a fire truck tanker. Standardized typing of equipment eliminates any potential confusion. NIMS also employs standard forms to document different aspects of a response. Each department shares these same familiar forms. Documentation of all activities records important information, such as resources deployed, safety precautions taken, media messages written, and equipment ordered, pertaining to the response to an incident, as well as the necessary justification “ …NIMS offers a predefined, yet flexible, organizational structure that can be altered, as necessary, to ensure maximum effectiveness…. ” Chief Fazzini heads the College of DuPage Police Department in Glen Ellyn, Illinois. September 2009 / 15 © Rich Malec EOC in operation during May 2008 Tri-City Team’s full-scale exercise for requesting reimbursement of expenses from the federal government. And, if necessary, it helps in the defense of any lawsuits that potentially can result from a response effort. BECOMING COMPLIANT Institutions interested in implementing NIMS must follow the five steps that constitute the “continuum for compliance.” To this end, a college or university must have its governing board initiate the institution’s work within the NIMS structure, train personnel toward the effort, establish an all-hazard emergency operations plan, test the campus’ efforts, and implement a continual review of the system. Accepting the System The governing board or authority has to adopt NIMS for all departments and agencies. It 16 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin can accomplish this by passing a resolution and incorporating NIMS compliance into school policies and procedures. The institution’s contract specifications also may include compliance language where appropriate. Additionally, the authority should encourage the school’s nongovernment associates to pursue compliance. Training All Personnel Next, staff members must undergo NIMS training, which consists of various incident command system (ICS) classes, the level of which depends on the nature of the involvement they will have during a crisis response. Currently, six basic ICS classes exist that various members of the campus need to take. Personnel can complete several courses, ICS-100: Introduction to the Incident Command System; ICS-200: ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents; IS-700: National Incident Management System (NIMS), an Introduction; and IS-800: National Response Plan (NRF), an Introduction, independently through the Internet. They must take ICS-300: Intermediate ICS and ICS-400: Advanced ICS in a classroom setting. These two classes provide the fundamentals of using the standard forms, and students work through several scenarios to familiarize themselves on how the entire NIMS system works. Individuals who will make major decisions during an emergency and who may act, perhaps, as an incident commander or section chief need to complete all six basic classes. Personnel who will serve as support for the highest level of decision making should take at least the 100, 200, 700, and 800 courses. All administrators and supervisors should gain a familiarity with the NIMS system by completing classes 100 and 700. Some members of the incident management team also may want to take other specialized courses; for instance, the public information officer may want to complete IS-702: NIMS Public Information. As a way to reduce costs, institutions may wish to have designated staff members attend train-the-trainer classes. This will give the agency its own in-house instructors to teach additional personnel while having less impact on the budget. Further, staff then could receive training on-site, rather than taking time off to attend courses away from the campus. Not only would training time be reduced but institutions could eliminate transportation costs to other locations. Developing a Plan The campus must implement an all-hazard emergency operations plan that works hand in hand with the NIMS system. To develop the plan, the institution should form a committee with membership from all constituents, including police and fire personnel. For additional assistance, authorities can refer to the Internet, where many colleges have their plans available, for examples and consult with county or state emergency management officials. After finalizing the plan, the committee must distribute it to all campus administrators, area police and fire departments, and the local emergency management office. Testing the Plan Also important, the institution—along with such community partners as local police, fire, and other agencies—tests the plan. Including the other constituents helps ensure their knowledge of the plan and, thus, the effectiveness of a critical incident response should a real situation occur. Involved campus entities should consist of members of the incident management team (IMT) and, perhaps, IMT alternates, public relations staff, counselors, and other campus leaders. Different methods of testing exist. Tabletop exercises often are the most preferred. In these, participants, including the IMT, formulate a response to given scenarios. The sessions last from a few hours to all day, depending on the amount of time allocated for training. A functional exercise can test a particular component of the emergency operations plan. For instance, phones and radios could be used to test the communication system established for an emergency command center (EOC). Personnel can set up these systems beforehand to eliminate the time needed to do so during the test. These exercises typically take longer than a tabletop event and may involve the deployment of human and other resources. Another way to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency plans is to conduct a full-scale exercise. This would involve the NIMS Continuum of Compliance Governing Board Acceptance Testing Plan Continual Review Develop Plan Training September 2009 / 17 mobilization of more staff and resources than the other methods. For these events, personnel should set up staging areas and have staff help evaluate response times. Such exercises, or mock drills, take more time to run through than other tests; they also cost more because they involve the most staff. To reduce expenses, institutions can hold the exercise during regular work hours, rather than paying employees overtime. Campuses wisely will use multiple methods to ensure their plans are current and functional. Testing of emergency response plans must occur to know whether or not they will work. Over time, procedures and resources will change. Only by conducting exercises and mock drills can institutions make sure their plans stay current. College Of DuPage’s Exercises Deciding to collaborate with other community partners to improve its response capabilities, the College of DuPage joined with three neighboring villages—Glen Ellyn, Wheaton, and Winfield—to form the Tri-City Crisis Response Group, initially developed to operate a medical distribution site at the campus in the event of a terrorist incident. Now, the group exists to respond to incidents that threaten to overwhelm the resources of any one of the participating communities. To further this effort, the college outfitted a computer laboratory with 30 © Rich Malec College of DuPage local Emergency Operations Center in the college board room 18 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin phone lines, Internet access, and cable television to function as an EOC for the group. In the event of an activation, personnel move a storage box loaded with phones, signs, manuals, and maps into the EOC. The group regularly meets and trains together. It dramatically has increased the response capability of any one of the individual partners. During 2008, the College of DuPage planned or participated in four exercises testing emergency plans in place. In February, it took part in a functional exercise with the DuPage County Homeland Security Office. In May, the college, along with the Tri-City Crisis Response Group, conducted a full-scale exercise to test the command structure of the group. In July, because of its status as one of the county’s medical distribution sites in the event of a terrorist act, the College of DuPage participated in a mock drill using over 200 individuals to test medical distribution capabilities on-site. In August, it worked with a local high school to test the college’s ability to evacuate all of the high school students and staff to one of its buildings. Monitoring the Process Constant monitoring and review represents the final and ongoing component of the NIMS compliance continuum. Training, plan development, and testing comprise a continual process. At a minimum, institutions should review and test the plan annually. The emergency operations plan is a living document needing regular attention. Many details, including phone numbers, building layouts, and personnel changes, need updating at least annually. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, unthinkable events can happen anywhere, even on the campuses of institutions of higher learning. Considering this threat, along with the benefits NIMS offers, every A Comprehensive Source of Information About NIMS responses, large or small. It can help campus authorities plan for a concert, athletic competition, high-profile visitor, or other event. Most important, it helps keep students, faculty, and facilities safe. college and university should become compliant. And, campus authorities have ready sources of help, including not only online resources but departments responsible for emergency management—these offer a wealth of assistance and are located in every state and most counties. The National Incident Management System is instrumental to effective emergency Endnotes 1 ResearchReports/Critical%20Incident%20 Preparedness%20and%20Response%20 on%20Campus%20Dec%2012%202008. pdf. Subscribe Now Order Processing Easy Secure Internet: Toll Free: Code: DC Area: 3491 Fax: 866 512–1800 202 512–1800 202 512–2104 Mail: US Government Printing Office P.O. Box 979050 St. Louis, MO 63197–9000 p YES, please send ______ subscriptions to the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (FBIEB) at $53.00 each ($74.20 foreign) per year. Price includes regular shipping and handling and is subject to change. The total cost of my order is $___________. Check method of payment: Personal name Company name (Please type or print) ❑ Check payable to Superintendent of Documents ❑ SOD Deposit Account ❑ ViSA ❑ MasterCard ❑ Discover/NOVUS ❑ American Express Street address (expiration date) Thank you for your order! City, State, Zip code Daytime phone including area code AUTHORIZING SIGNATURE 03/07 September 2009 / 19 UNIT III STUDY GUIDE National Incident Management System (NIMS) Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 6. Describe the National Incident Management System (NIMS). Reading Assignment Chapter 27: Emergency Response: An Overview, pp. 653-666 The article below may be located in the International Security and Counter Terrorism Reference Center database in the CSU Online Library. Fazzini, M. (2009). The importance of NIMS to campus emergency response. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 78(9), 14-19. Unit Lesson The National Incident Management System (NIMS), Incident Command System (ICS), and emergency operations center (EOC) are common names to anyone in the emergency services or military (Kamien, 2012). Prior to the attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States along with state and local governments faced the threat of terrorist attacks, but did not have a plan for working together to mitigate a large scale attack. A system called the Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) was the forerunner to NIMS, but there were drawbacks. There are thousands of emergency services agencies around the United States, but only one hundred and twenty-five agencies were willing to sign on to the system. These agencies were spread across the nation, so there was no practical means to support one another if needed. On February 26, 1993, the first attack on the World Trade Center occurred when a truck bomb in the parking structure detonated, killing six people and injuring over one-thousand. Al-Qaeda terrorists on American soil were rounded up and convicted of the attack and murders. Al-Qaeda announced that they failed to bring down the World Trade Center and promised they would eventually destroy it; they did on September 11, 2001, in a manner that horrified the nation. On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols detonated a bomb outside of the Murrah Federal Building in response and protest to the federal government, FBI, and ATF taskforce’s 1993 attempt to arrest the leader of the Branch Davidians, David Koresh, in Waco, Texas, and his subsequent death on April 19, 1993. The Branch Davidians’ situation sparked an interest in McVeigh and reinforced his distrust for the federal government, which led him to become the most notorious domestic terrorist in American history. The Waco, Texas, operation suffered from poor communications and multi-jurisdiction training issues. Further, local authorities were not notified of the operation, and no medical evacuation plan for mass casualties was created. Much debate regarding multi-jurisdiction cooperation and communication procedures over the sharing of intelligence was generated. When the Murrah Federal Building attack occurred, 169 men women and children were killed, and another 680 persons were injured from the blast. The communications equipment consisting of a patchwork of outdated radios and land lines failed. This made a coordinated local response to the unfolding event difficult. Again, the debate over event coordination was reignited as communications for emergency services’ ability to connect, share intelligence, and work with one another was hindered. Because of these two attacks, individual jurisdictions were forced to create better ways to secure scenes and open the lines of communications between local agencies and medical services (Burke, 2007). FIR 4313, Terrorism Incident Management and Emergency Procedures 1 Eric Robert Rudolph was another domestic terrorist. He is known as the 1996 UNIT Olympic Park Bomber. x STUDY GUIDE After the bombing, the FBI accused security guard Richard Jewell in connection with the attack, who, while working, Title found a backpack full of explosives. He warned people in the vicinity to get back before it detonated. His actions saved many lives. Unfortunately, Richard Jewell died at the age of 44. Some speculate that the stress of his being vilified in the media may have contributed to an early death. Eric Rudolph was able to continue his terrorist bombing campaign in 1997 and 1998, killing two and injuring several others. Because of the attacks by Rudolph, law enforcement changed how it responds to terrorist scenes. The Columbine High School attack on April 20, 1999, by two students against their fellow classmates and faculty, killed several and injured dozens in the most deadly school shooting in American history. Law enforcement and medical officials waited outside until it was safe to enter the building. This practice was established because of the attacks perpetrated by Eric Rudolph. This delay caused the deaths of several victims who perished from loss of blood while waiting to be rescued. This incident brought about procedures for dealing with an active shooter. The role of law enforcement is now to follow a more militaristic approach. However, the training procedures for responding to an active shooter situation were left up to the discretion of local jurisdictions. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) provides a framework for responders to plan for terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Prior to the 9.0 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant meltdown on March 11, 2011, in Tohoku, Japan, it would have been difficult to find a training manual for mitigating such events. However, societies tend to develop emergency procedures after deva ...
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School: Carnegie Mellon University





Article Critique
Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:


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The article was authored by Mark Fazzini who was then a college principle at the Dupage
police Department located in Glen Ellyn in Illinois. It was later published in September the year
2009 by the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Illinois. The main aim of the article was to enlighten
the targeted audience on the importance of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) to
universities and colleges plus any other learning institutions within the United States of America.
In the year 2004 following the lapses witnessed during the incidence of the 9/11 and hurricane
Katarina the Department of Homeland Security decided to create another body under FEMA
known as NIMS. It is a critique paper on the article written by Mark Fazzini “The Importance of
NIMS to Campus ...

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