UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
5. Apply the knowledge, typologies, and concepts of terrorism and terrorist threats to form prevention
and response tactics.
5.1. Examine key information sharing initiatives from 2001 to the present.
5.2. Discern the difference between failure of imagination and failure of initiative.
5.3. Analyze the importance of information sharing with the private sector.
Chapter 9: Intelligence and Information Sharing for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism
Chapter 10: Developing Information Sharing Protocols and Planning Policy to Support Homeland Security
Sharing intelligence information has always been a delicate subject. Dissemination of information is the last of
the steps in the intelligence cycle. There are five main steps in the intelligence cycle (Greenberg, 2009;
Oliver, Marion, & Hill, 2015). Some organizations, such as the FBI, use a six-step process (FBI.gov). The
chart below includes a brief description of all six steps. Some organizations do not break out the establishing
requirements portion into a separate step, but rather integrate it as part of the planning and direction step.
(The FBI includes this step)
Planning and direction
Analysis and production
HLS 4320, Homeland Security Capstone
The Intelligence Cycle
This step includes defining the priorities or
intelligence questions that need to be answered.
The process of planning and deciding what
personnel will do, and how, in order to find the
information they are looking for.
This is the process of gathering information from
various sources. These include openly available
sources, such as newspapers, magazines, and
other media, as well as using covert measures
like listening devices.
Processing the information can include a wide
variety of things, like translating information from
a foreign language, decoding files, or describing
Analysis involves assessing the reliability and
validity of the data collected, determining how
the information fits together, and producing the
report that will be disseminated.
The final step is to provide the information to
those who need it in such a way as to not
compromise the integrity of the intelligence
cycle. For example, it is not necessary to
provide all details on how the information was
collected or the sources from which
was gathered, but rather just theTitle
outcome of that
intelligence gathering work.
Information has traditionally been shared on a need to know basis. Intelligence agencies are wary of sharing
too much information, especially if they don’t think others really have a need to know the details.
Unfortunately, this has led to agencies not sharing information with each other that they really did need to
know. The events of 9/11 demonstrate how different agencies had pieces of the puzzle that, when put
together, may have thwarted the plot that day. Since 9/11, agencies have made some changes to ensure this
does not happen again.
Multiple pieces of legislation, executive orders, and other policies have been implemented in order to ensure
intelligence agencies share needed information with one another, such as the:
USA Patriot Act (2001)
Homeland Security Act (2002)
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (2004)
Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act (2007)
These laws broke down barriers and made it easier for agencies to share information with one another,
brought agencies together under the Department of Homeland Security, made it easier for them to gather
information (such as through wiretaps), and updated intelligence and information sharing authorities
Enhancements have been made to the terrorist watchlisting system to address weaknesses in the system that
was in place before 9/11. The improvements include a consolidated system that allows information to be used
for screening by TSA, CBP, and the Department of State. Despite the progress that has been made in
information sharing over the past decade, there are still some challenges to overcome.
One challenge involves the safeguarding of information. Keeping information secure on classified networks in
order to prevent leaks (such as the October 2010 Wikileaks release of the Iraq War logs and the November,
2010 release of US State Department cables) is a high priority. Creating role-specific access is one step to
limiting the possibility of a leak, but it also has the potential to make the system more cumbersome. If
information is too difficult to access and share, we could see instances where those who really need the data
are unable to access it. Another challenge comes in analyzing all of the data collected. Terabytes and
sometimes petabytes of information are collected on a daily basis (Kamien, 2013). This huge amount of data
can be difficult to fully analyze in a timely manner. The need to protect the privacy and civil liberties of US
citizens comes with creating an information sharing program.
Since 9/11 we have seen a shift in thinking from the traditional “need to know” to realizing there is a
responsibility to provide intelligence information to other agencies that need it. To this end, the National
Strategy for Information Sharing (2007) and the 2010 National Security Strategy sought to improve the
sharing of law enforcement, terrorism, and other homeland security information among all levels of
government, as well as with the private sector.
Greenberg, H. (2009). Is the Department of Homeland Security an intelligence agency? Intelligence &
National Security 24(2), 216-235.
Kamien, D. (Ed). (2013). The McGraw-Hill homeland security handbook: Strategic guidance for a coordinated
approach to effective security and emergency management (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Maniscalco, P.M., & Christen, H.T. (2011). Homeland security principles and practice of terrorism response.
Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Oliver, W., Marion, N., & Hill, J. (2015). Introduction to homeland security policy, organization, and
administration. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
HLS 4320, Homeland Security Capstone
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
For this activity, you are asked to prepare a reflection paper. Reflect on the concepts you have learned during
your readings in Units I-III. What do you understand completely? What did not quite make sense? The
purpose of this assignment is to provide you with the opportunity to reflect on the material you have read and
to expand on it. If you are unclear about a concept, either review it in the text or ask your professor. Can you
apply what you have learned to your career? How?
This is not a summary. A reflection paper is an opportunity for you to express your thoughts about the
material you are studying by writing about it. Reflection writing is a great way to study because it gives you a
chance to process what you have learned and increases your ability to remember it.
Use these guidelines as you reflect on the course material:
What are your thoughts about the main topics?
Why are these topics or concepts important?
How do they apply to your career or future career?
Can you apply them to your personal life? How?
Write at least two pages, using APA style. This is a non-graded activity, so you do not have to submit it. If you
have any difficulties with the unit content, contact your instructor for additional explanation and discussion.
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
HLS 4320, Homeland Security Capstone
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