Essay on Information Sharing in Homeland Security

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Unit III Essay

  • Weight: 5% of course grade
  • Grading Rubric
  • Due: Tuesday, 10/23/2018 11:59 PM (CST)

Describe at least two mechanisms for improved information sharing. How do the mechanisms you selected either help or create challenges for sharing information with the private sector? How can the failure of imagination or the failure of initiative play a role in information sharing?

Your essay response must be a minimum of 350 words in length, not counting references listed at the end or repeating of the question, and cited per APA guidelines. You are required to use scholarly resources to support your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

Sites such as Wikipedia,,,, and other similar sources are not scholarly in nature and may not be used for this assignment.

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UNIT III STUDY GUIDE Information Sharing Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 5. Apply the knowledge, typologies, and concepts of terrorism and terrorist threats to form prevention and response tactics. 5.1. Examine key information sharing initiatives from 2001 to the present. 5.2. Discern the difference between failure of imagination and failure of initiative. 5.3. Analyze the importance of information sharing with the private sector. Reading Assignment Chapter 9: Intelligence and Information Sharing for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Chapter 10: Developing Information Sharing Protocols and Planning Policy to Support Homeland Security Missions Unit Lesson Information Sharing Sharing intelligence information has always been a delicate subject. Dissemination of information is the last of the steps in the intelligence cycle. There are five main steps in the intelligence cycle (Greenberg, 2009; Oliver, Marion, & Hill, 2015). Some organizations, such as the FBI, use a six-step process ( The chart below includes a brief description of all six steps. Some organizations do not break out the establishing requirements portion into a separate step, but rather integrate it as part of the planning and direction step. Establishing requirements (The FBI includes this step) Planning and direction Collection Processing Analysis and production Dissemination HLS 4320, Homeland Security Capstone The Intelligence Cycle This step includes defining the priorities or intelligence questions that need to be answered. The process of planning and deciding what personnel will do, and how, in order to find the information they are looking for. This is the process of gathering information from various sources. These include openly available sources, such as newspapers, magazines, and other media, as well as using covert measures like listening devices. Processing the information can include a wide variety of things, like translating information from a foreign language, decoding files, or describing photos. Analysis involves assessing the reliability and validity of the data collected, determining how the information fits together, and producing the report that will be disseminated. The final step is to provide the information to those who need it in such a way as to not compromise the integrity of the intelligence cycle. For example, it is not necessary to provide all details on how the information was 1 UNITthe x STUDY GUIDE collected or the sources from which data was gathered, but rather just theTitle outcome of that intelligence gathering work. Information has traditionally been shared on a need to know basis. Intelligence agencies are wary of sharing too much information, especially if they don’t think others really have a need to know the details. Unfortunately, this has led to agencies not sharing information with each other that they really did need to know. The events of 9/11 demonstrate how different agencies had pieces of the puzzle that, when put together, may have thwarted the plot that day. Since 9/11, agencies have made some changes to ensure this does not happen again. Multiple pieces of legislation, executive orders, and other policies have been implemented in order to ensure intelligence agencies share needed information with one another, such as the:     USA Patriot Act (2001) Homeland Security Act (2002) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (2004) Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act (2007) These laws broke down barriers and made it easier for agencies to share information with one another, brought agencies together under the Department of Homeland Security, made it easier for them to gather information (such as through wiretaps), and updated intelligence and information sharing authorities (Kamien, 2013). Enhancements have been made to the terrorist watchlisting system to address weaknesses in the system that was in place before 9/11. The improvements include a consolidated system that allows information to be used for screening by TSA, CBP, and the Department of State. Despite the progress that has been made in information sharing over the past decade, there are still some challenges to overcome. One challenge involves the safeguarding of information. Keeping information secure on classified networks in order to prevent leaks (such as the October 2010 Wikileaks release of the Iraq War logs and the November, 2010 release of US State Department cables) is a high priority. Creating role-specific access is one step to limiting the possibility of a leak, but it also has the potential to make the system more cumbersome. If information is too difficult to access and share, we could see instances where those who really need the data are unable to access it. Another challenge comes in analyzing all of the data collected. Terabytes and sometimes petabytes of information are collected on a daily basis (Kamien, 2013). This huge amount of data can be difficult to fully analyze in a timely manner. The need to protect the privacy and civil liberties of US citizens comes with creating an information sharing program. Since 9/11 we have seen a shift in thinking from the traditional “need to know” to realizing there is a responsibility to provide intelligence information to other agencies that need it. To this end, the National Strategy for Information Sharing (2007) and the 2010 National Security Strategy sought to improve the sharing of law enforcement, terrorism, and other homeland security information among all levels of government, as well as with the private sector. References Greenberg, H. (2009). Is the Department of Homeland Security an intelligence agency? Intelligence & National Security 24(2), 216-235. Kamien, D. (Ed). (2013). The McGraw-Hill homeland security handbook: Strategic guidance for a coordinated approach to effective security and emergency management (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Maniscalco, P.M., & Christen, H.T. (2011). Homeland security principles and practice of terrorism response. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. Oliver, W., Marion, N., & Hill, J. (2015). Introduction to homeland security policy, organization, and administration. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett. HLS 4320, Homeland Security Capstone 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Learning Activities (Nongraded) Title Reflection Paper For this activity, you are asked to prepare a reflection paper. Reflect on the concepts you have learned during your readings in Units I-III. What do you understand completely? What did not quite make sense? The purpose of this assignment is to provide you with the opportunity to reflect on the material you have read and to expand on it. If you are unclear about a concept, either review it in the text or ask your professor. Can you apply what you have learned to your career? How? This is not a summary. A reflection paper is an opportunity for you to express your thoughts about the material you are studying by writing about it. Reflection writing is a great way to study because it gives you a chance to process what you have learned and increases your ability to remember it. Use these guidelines as you reflect on the course material:  What are your thoughts about the main topics?  Why are these topics or concepts important?  How do they apply to your career or future career?  Can you apply them to your personal life? How? Write at least two pages, using APA style. This is a non-graded activity, so you do not have to submit it. If you have any difficulties with the unit content, contact your instructor for additional explanation and discussion. Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. HLS 4320, Homeland Security Capstone 3 ...
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School: University of Maryland



Information Sharing in Homeland Security
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The increase in terrorist attack and threats on the United States has seen more the
Homeland security pool efforts to mitigate, prevent and control security risks. Most
importantly, the agency has increased efforts to improve and increase the effectiveness of
security information among the government entities. Homeland targets information within the
scope of un-investigated raw data, reliable and validated knowledge and intelligence
information on security issues (Relyea & Seifert, 2005) to inspire security strategies. This
paper will di...

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