answer each question for a small essay

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There are four questions and I also put on the keyword about these question please read the ppt and finish each question with a small essay

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3. We now have an increasingly clear idea of the factors that influence how well teams can contribute ROI to companies who use them. What are these factors, and how do they add value? key word Return on investment How they help team add value Diagram description HR esources (hire/ training) /job design /Manager stay behind team in significant changes—> Feel support or use team skill 4. Companies usually take one of four paths to expand their bus inesses internationally. Discuss what these four paths are, and indicate the advantages and risks of each of them. keyword Importing. Less risky Licensing Less risky and original. Org often begin with Joint venture Investment determining your gobal position 5. Consider a company for which you have worked, or one with wh ich you are familiar. Would you characterize the company as ‘Th eory X’ or as ‘Theory Y’? Do the same for how it would rate as ‘mechanistic’ or ‘organic’ in outlook. keyword Dimensions 6. In class, we developed and discussed the major outcomes of the Quaker Oats team redesign process. What were these major out comes, and how did the team redesign influence them? Key word What team decide job ,reven ,absent talk the team structure or plan , be familiar with the case Productivity, safety, job satisfaction, absenteeism How team benefit The frame before, how the problem solved major outcome In 1996, efforts to improve the relationship between management and the RWDSU succeeded. T into a partnership to im prove productivity and enable the plant ro respond to changing demands in the breakfast f he Quaker oats cedar Rapids management and RWDSU Local 110 entered oods market while increasing wages and improving job security. With the help of a consul tant, the union and the company rapidly developed their willingness and ability to cooperat e. · how redesign influence them Productivity Absenteeism and turnover Independence/ autonomy Accident rates Overall productivity and efficiency 7. We now know that successful teams require more than functio nal competencies in order to thrive. Instead, teams have to have or acquire a number of team-related competencies which help grou ps to flourish.Describe what these competencies are and indicate how you get them. Six Things You’ve Got to Have for Optimal Team Functioning 1. A clear charter. 2. Defined roles for members. 3. Effective communication channels. 4. Time efficiency. 5. Goals that mean something. 6. Accountability for results Introduction How Do Senior Managers Spend Their Time? • Four weekday nights working • From 237 to 1073 ‘incidents’ per day • Three dozen pieces of mail, five extended phone conversations, eight scheduled meetings per day • Fifty to ninety percent of their time is spent interacting & communicating • They spend less than 30 minutes per week on job related periodicals & publications The History of ‘Management’: An Overview Classical Management Theory F. W. Taylor & ‘scientific management’ Henri Fayol & ‘systematic management’ 1930s: Behavioral management & the discovery of ‘motivation’ WWII and beyond: New directions in operations & logistics Prediction, training, global scale, & computational technology History, continued Postwar years: Organization development & action research The human relations movement & diagnosing organizational ‘types’: Theory X & Theory Y organizations ‘Mechanistic’ and ‘Organic’ organizations Theory X vs. Theory Y Theory X Assumptions Theory Y Assumptions People dislike & will avoid work Work is a natural part of life Managers have to coerce & direct employees for their own good People are motivated to succeed & are committed to organizational goals Works are averse to responsibility People will assume responsibility and be creative Workers want to be closely directed & supervised We’re underusing our human capital Theory X companies are killing us Mechanistic vs Organic Organizations Goals: Rules & Regs: How defined tasks are: How wide is managers’ span of control: Orientation to workers: Nature of authority: MECHANISTIC FEATURES: ORGANIC FEATURES: Very predictable Highly flexible Many & rigid Relatively few Highly specialized Broader & shared Narrow Wide Individual Team/group Formal & prescribed Highly informal History, continued Globalization & the grown of MNCs & TNCs Technology The pursuit of the ‘happy & productive worker’ Resilience Workplace wellness & work-life balance Issues confronting pluralistic workplaces Some Interesting Trends 33% of Americans are ‘passionate’ about their jobs 80% of us are disengaged from our jobs 1 in 7 American employees report that they are willing to go the extra mile at work 4 in 10 Mexican employees in the U.S. report that they are willing to go the extra mile Traditional Corporate Structures How Companies Determine their Global Positions What Characterizes Companies that Successfully Go Global 1. High standards for ethical behavior 2. Balanced approaches to where & how they invest 3. Very strong organizational cultures 4. Stakeholders have very high priority 5. They invest heavily in internal development and succession planning 6. They take a continuous-quality approach to operations 7. They try to articulate stakeholders’ concerns 8. They try to be responsive at the local level of operations 9. They are pro environmental sustainability 10. They reward people who help to achieve these things. Functional Structures Matrix Structures International Division Global Product Structure International Business Development & High Innovation Business: Can MNCs Resolve Poverty? Some Facts about Life at the Bottom of the Pyramid • Income less than $3K per year • Total household income in BoP is about $1.3 trillion in PPP terms • About $9 trillion in hidden (often non-liquid) assets • Population will increase 2 to 3 billion in the next couple of decades worldwide; most of these will be in BoP How Traditional Business Has Viewed the BoP: Some Common (False) Assumptions The poor can’t afford our products. They’re not interested in them anyway They’re not inclined towards technology and couldn’t afford it if they were Our managers won’t work there with them The best thing we can do is mobilize support for donations in health care, education,job development & job skills training (job start from people local – What the Data Say about the BoP The poor buy things They try to buy the same premium brands we do, usually in different price/packaging combinations They’re charged premium rates for things we take for granted: Capital: local moneylenders get 600% to 1000% interest p.a. Water & utilities can cost 400% of our rates in the developing world BoP markets typically respond very rapidly to technology (regardless of initial literacy level) What the Data Say, continued BoP consumers are intensely brand conscious BoP business practices are high-innovation, may involve public-private collaborations, and often have social goals as outcomes These practices may be tech-intensive Traditional Planning Dimensions Deliberate: Alternatives explicitly chosen in advance Reactivity Corporate Level: Alternatives across industries and markets Business Level: Level of Planning & control Alternatives specific to an industry or market Emergent: Defined over time as operations unfold; tend to be implicit Traditional Planning Dimensions: Market Scope & Product Uniqueness Compete on your product’s Compete on your product’s price uniqueness Go for a broad market Strategies emphasize cost Strategies emphasize leadership (ex.: generic soft general brand identity (ex.: drinks) Coca-Cola) Go for a narrow market Strategies emphasize Strategies emphasize highly affordability for a particular focused identity (ex.: Dr. market (ex.: Ikea) Pepper) What if Your Pet Rock Was the Key to the Future of Global Commerce? ‘Uncertainty’ as the only sure thing in planning and organizational change (How strongly you want to emphasize accurate predictions about the future) Emphasize rational planning: Your goal: To reduce uncertainty without wasting money trying to control the uncontrollable. Put resources into systematic analyses, rational decision making models (as in Bazerman), trend analysis, macroeconomic modeling; do all of these better than the competition can. Invest in people and systems who can do this. (How strongly you want to emphasize your ability to shape the future environment) Emphasize adaptation/reaction: Your goal: To respond effectively to discontinuities as they enter your product frontier Put resources into highly efficient decision making in high pressure conditions; increase self-managing teams; develop capacities for structural change to meet emergent conditions. Emphasize visionary planning: Your goal: Build the business future you want. Put resources into creating demand; condition consumer preferences; articulate possible futures and fund the steps necessary to bring them into existence. Emphasize transformation: Your goal: Prepare your organization to provide goods and services for needs and markets which do not yet exist. Put resources into national/international alliances, r&d, cooperative ventures, and alternative horizon planning; emphasize human capital (employee base, consumer, and population environment). Managing for Collaboration: Teams Team Autonomy: A Conceptual Model Competencies that Teams Need to be Effective 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Conflict resolution skills Skills in collaborative problem solving Ability to plan ahead and to coordinate tasks among people Self-management and goal-setting skills Skills at communicating non-evaluatively & supportively Steps to Take to Set Useful Team Goals 1. Use both process goals and outcome goals. 2. For each goal, distinguish two possible goal levels: What would be a very highly ambitious goal for this team? What would be a reasonably attainable goal for this team? 3. Identify an operational goal that’s half-way between these two. 4. Express each operational goal in appropriate terms. What Is, and Isn’t, a SMART Goal Specific (exactly things) Measurable (the better they tolerance) Aggressive (?) Related to the unit’s/organization’s needs (get them understanding and give them feedback) Time limites (deadline is good thing ,although not necessary ,be a big soft of respection . Steps to Take in Setting Goals, cont’d 5. Decide on a measure of each outcome (or process) within each goal. 6. Provide team members with regular feedback on how they’re doing in making progress towards the goal. 7. Be prepared to encourage teams to function independently, which means be prepared to function yourself as a resource person. 8. Regularly measure goal progress. 9. Reward significant progress to or attainment of a goal. How to Help Ensure that Your Teams Add Value The Case for Corporate Ethics: Who’s Right? and... Whose Right? General Electric: On Staying Ahead of the Problem 1. Personal actions (and statements) count a lot. 2. Make people accountable (and rewarded) for actions. 3. Go the extra mile in transparency, compliance, & the environment. 4. Build standards for quality, safety, and compliance throughout production, and hold subsidiaries & suppliers to the same ones. 5. Build a system of checks & balances among finance, legal, and HR. 6. Never punish the messenger. 7. Employee voice is critical: develop reporting mechanisms. 8. The top 4,000 execs are measured on integrity standards. Four Approaches to Procedural Ethics Does it all ‘Depend’? Acknowledgement: adapted from discussions in Schermerhorn and in Donaldson, HBR Nash’s Guidelines on Ethical Decisions 1. Have we defined the problem here correctly? 2. How would we define it from the other side? 3. Step by step: How did this situation occur? 4. How would my family and personal friends see this? 5. Whom could our decision conceivably harm? 6. Have we talked this over with those people? 7. Would we be comfortable reading about this in the NY Times? 8. Let’s think about this from the perspective of someone who’s going to misinterpret everything we do, no matter what: What is s/he going to say? 9. Are there any occasions in which we’d tolerate exceptions to what we’ve decided? Do corporations have ‘social responsibilities’? Summarized from Friedman; Schermerhorn Schermerhorn’s Categories for Corporate Social Strategy Areas of Potential Exposure for Multinationals on Ethical and Social Concerns Customer Related Issue Some Sample Problems Product Safety Should we eliminate some safety features required at home but expensive to produce? Pricing We’re the only ones in the market over there--we can function as a monopoly if we want to. Disclosures Do we have to translate all the documentation? Stockholders Issue Some Sample Problems Loss control If a product is banned in one country, should we sell it here to increase profits? Wages Market wages over there are poverty level. What should we do? Safety OSHA would never stand for the operations facilities over there. What should we do? Workers Issue Child labor Some Sample Problems If it’s legal over there, should we use it? Employment Women are supposed to be kept separate from discrimination men. What should we do? Local economic impact We could use transfer pricing, if we wanted to. We’d save a bundle on the local taxes in that country. OSHA would never stand for the operations The Host Country Issue Some Sample Problems Local statute Some of their requirements would be illegal if we used them in the U.S. What should we do? Religious or social practices The country’s religious holidays are way different, but we need our employees on call 24/7. Environmenta Their environmental laws are a lot looser than ours. l Impact Should we comply with US standards, or with theirs? ...
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