Signs of Positive Change - Sugar and Kids

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Sugar and Kids-

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Sydney Kvitek Issue ◦ Emmanuel (Emma), from Uganda, weighed 9 lbs at the age of 2 ½. ◦ He was malnourished. Could not walk or smile, had no hair was literally just bones. ◦ 9 million people die of hunger and hunger-related diseases every year. ◦ Emma would have been one of those people had it not been for FMSC. ◦ 300 million children go hungry every day. The Project’s Foundation ◦ Mission: Feeding God’s starving children hungry in body and spirit. ◦ Vision: Feed My Starving Children strives to eliminate starvation in children throughout the world by helping to instill compassion in people so that they may help those in need. ◦ Goals: During the 2 hours allotted per session, volunteers pack bags of food and seal boxes of these meals. ◦ In such a short amount of time, as much as 38,232 meals can be packaged; feeding 107 kids for a whole year! Resolution ◦ Woman found the children abandoned by their drunken father and helped them get in contact with FMSC. ◦ 11 year old Brian cooks the MannaPack for his brothers. ◦ More than 70 countries through missionary partnerships at orphanages, schools, clinics, refugee camps and malnourishment centers. ◦ Barbados, Guatemala, Philippines, Thailand, Uganda Why FMSC? ◦ Volunteers hand-pack meals for malnourished children, and then the meals are sent to partners in various countries to help break the cycle of poverty. • One year later, Emma now weighs 22 lbs. • He can walk, smile, and talk. • With FMSC, you can directly see the impact you make. • More on his story: QoEH0& More Facts ◦ 92% of total annual donations spent directly on feeding. (This includes volunteer labor.) ◦ 99.6% of meals safely reaching intended locations. ◦ FMSC food has reached more than 70 countries. ◦ 22 cents is the current meal price. (4th straight year with no increase.) ◦ 48% average year over year growth since 2003. Contact Information Website: Address: Mesa Fiesta Building 1345 South Alma School Road Mesa, AZ 85210 Phone: (480)626-1970 Facebook: Feed My Starving Children – Mesa Instagram: FMSC_ORG Twitter: fmsc_org YouTube: Feed My Starving Children Other Source: Thank you! LGM-30 MINUTEMAN Abdullah Alyasin, LeJon Bellamy, Tessa Bennett, Charles Homan, Gilberto Valenzuela, Zhaoan Wang Mission Statement To design and fabricate a solid-propellant rocket to accurately land on a target located between two predetermined points. Requirements - Constraints A removable payload must account for at least 20% of the rocket’s total weight The launch rail must be set within 30 degrees from vertical The solid-propellant motor impulse must not exceed 20 N-s The rocket must be launched 10-15 times, in order to find the average distance from target. - A model of the computer simulation and its subsequent analysis of the dynamics of the rocket flight must be created, documented, and reviewed prior to a team proceeding with field tests. The sum total of the cost of the operation of this project, design, and fabrication should be less than $250. The rocket fabrication must not contain metal parts. The rocket must be fabricated by the team, and not store bought The team has three weeks after the preliminary design to complete the model Research/ Preliminary Assessment Fin Design Profile/ number of fins Length of the fins Body Design Nose cone Shape with minimal aerodynamic resistance Body Length (Center of mass/ pressure) Material Interior Accommodations Motor size Payload location/ security Filler material Florida International University Trapezoidal fins (4) Parabolic nose cone Length of 73.2 cm (28.8in) Weight of 8988 g (19.8 lbs) Concept Generation Model 1 a. Durability b. Weight reduction Model 2 a. Parabolic Nose Cone b. Rhombus Fin Shape Analysis Assumptions - Model Verification Testing rocket found it went 100ft at 3.2 ounces, 32 inch launch rail, and an A8 Motor. Empirical Parameters The Friction on the launch rail can be assumed negligible. - - Neglect wind gusts The ground of the test site is flat Gravitational acceleration is constant Effect of earth rotation can be ignored Thrust is pointed in the same direction as the rocket’s velocity. Air resistance is not negligible Rocket mass is constant Constant thrust is not negligible Rocket is aerodynamically stable Transonic and supersonic effects can be considered negligible Particle model for the rocket is appropriate and correct Constant drag coefficient Induced drag due to fins can be considered negligible Evaluation and Optimization The prototype was fabricated and tested more than 3 times for each series of trials. - Trial series 1: A8 motor with 20% payload - Trial series 2: B6 motor with payload of 40% (in effort to increase % payload) Results (Streamlined operation) : - Using the A8 motor with 20% payload presented the most accurate flight. - 60 degrees for the launch angle also results in the least amount of error - Drag coefficient of 0.0015 Technical Challenges: - Our rocket empennages loosened due to lack of curing. - Our payload separated from the rocket due to insecurity of nose cone and the increase in pressure. Solutions: - We let the epoxy cure for more than 24 hours before launching. - We added tape around the nose cone to ensure it is tight enough to remain secure. Implementation Criteria - Average distance between actual landing spot of 10 launches and the target point of 120 ft. - Percentage of flights that fall within our 10 meter impact radius - The mass of the payload as a percentage of the rocket - The robustness of the rocket (percentage of flights in which all components survive the landing Final design: parabolic nose cone, swept fins Rocket Length: 15.24 cm (6in) Payload: 19.85 grams Total Rocket Mass: 99.22 grams Impact radius: 10 m Conclusion and overall quality ● Rocket design ○ ○ ● Find the best shape for the rocket parts (round or sharp)(fin, noise cone) Simulate the best length and weight (15cm, 3.5oz, 0.7oz) Learned from prototype testing ○ ○ Average distance from target: from 19.6 feet to 8.7 feet Littlest things were the most important: fins ● Successful project ○ ○ ○ Average distance from target: 8.7 feet (5 mile/h wind) Best distance from target: 1.8 feet Rocket still intact after all 10 launches Thank you Questions The Great Debate: Supplements Prof Lisa Schmidt, MS, CN Arizona State University Fall 2018 The Problem • • The vast majority of Americans do not meet minimum RDA standards of vitamins and minerals • • • 93% of vitamins D and E miss recommendations from diet 61% not enough magnesium 50% not enough Vitamin A and Calcium Many subpopulations have lower than recommended intake • • • • older adults (over 65+) African Americans Obese individuals Those who are ill or injured Deficiency Issues • • • • • Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) provide: • maintenance of normal cell and tissue function, metabolism, growth and development True Deficiency Diseases are Rare in the United States • more problems from over nutrition, not malnutrition Supplements offer an unregulated promise of health in a bottle It is BIG BUSINESS, with BIG PROFITS Can a healthful diet provide adequate protection? Or, are supplements the answer? Your Assignment • Choose a supplement • Choose a side, for (PRO) or against (CON) • Research, using evidence based, peer reviewed journal sources, or scientific websites provided by the instructor • Build your argument for or against supplementation based on scientific evidence, not your or someone else’s opinion Supplement Choices • • • • • • • • • • Vitamin D Melatonin Collagen Peptide Powder Turmeric Probiotics Magnesium Biotin Fish Oil Creatine Whey Protein Powder Requirements 1. For what condition is it recommended?  2. For what people is it recommended?  3. What is the recommended dose?  4. Any research on safety or efficacy?  5. Any third party certification available?  • • 750-1500 words Five (or more) evidence based peer reviewed sources; or websites provided by Instructor Vitamin D • • • • Regulates the levels of Calcium and Phosphorus in the body, by affecting their absorption (skeletal effects) Vitamin D is a hormone responsible for bone health and development It also has some effects on other body systems, such as immune, endocrine, and cardiovascular system It is made in the body from a conversion that happens in the presence of adequate sunlight • daytime sun exposure at certain latitudes, certain times of the year Vitamin D: Conditions Recommended • Rickets • Hyperparathyroidism • Osteoporosis • Post menopausal bone loss • Type II Diabetes • Preventive: colorectal and breast cancers (observational studies) Vitamin D: Groups Affected; recommendations • • • • • • • Pregnant women Breast fed infants Older adults with “marked Vitamin D deficiency” • may improve balance and muscle strength, but not gail Girls age 9-18 People taking statins (high cholesterol medications) Cardiovascular disease Inflammation (CRP) Cautions • • • • Taking daily high doses (over 800 iu) without physician guidance Adverse effects are shown with higher doses of Vitamin D May actually weaken muscles Benefits appear to happen only for those with markedly lower levels at testing • • lower dose (800 mg-1500 mg seems optimal) Harm (or no benefit) may happen at higher doses Conclusion • • • • • • Consult physician for optimal dose level Blood testing to determine deficiency Not advisable to take in the absence of deficient signs (which means testing levels below 20 ng/mL More is NOT better Most research is quite mixed, and does not account for confounding or other factors which distort research It is not the magic pill Dietary sources of Vitamin D Food is always best! Table 2. Some Food Sources of Vitamin D Food Serving Vitamin D (IU) Vitamin D (μg) Pink salmon, canned 3 ounces 465 11.6 Mackerel, canned 3 ounces 211 5.3 Sardines, canned 3 ounces 164 4.1 Quaker Nutrition for Women Instant Oatmeal 1 packet 154 3.9 Milk, low-fat, fortified with vitamin D 8 ounces 98 2.5 Orange juice, fortified with vitamin D 8 ounces 100 2.5 1 serving (usually 1 cup) 40-50 1. 0-1. 3 1 large 37 0.9 Cereal, fortified Egg yolk Be Careful of Dosage Table 3. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for Vitamin D Age Group μg/day IU/day Infants 0-6 months 25 1,000 Infants 6-12 months 37.5 1,500 Children 1-3 years 62.5 2,500 Children 4-8 years 75 3,000 Children 9-13 years 100 4,000 Adolescents 14-18 years 100 4,000 Adults 19 years and older 100 4,000 Melatonin • What it is • What it does/regulates sleep wake cycles • Produced from the Amino Acid tryptophan • Possibly beneficial in supplement form; not proven • Melatonin in depth The Bottom Line • Many studies have been conducted on Melatonin’s use as a sleep aid • Research is mixed • Short term safety is established • No studies on long term safety Cautions • Side effects include drowsiness next day; possible behavioral disturbances; drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea • Do not use for long term; safety not established • Practice sleep hygiene • If you have a sleep problem, see your physician. Sleep problems can be symptom of underlying health problem Collagen Peptide Powder • Derived from Cow bone or Pig skin • What is Collagen? The Evidence • Is mixed. There is no scientific evidence that collagen works any better than placebo for the myriad of conditions that it is purported to treat. • All collagen supplements are animal derived. There is no organic form of collagen on the market • Collagen can cause digestive distress; weight gain; susceptible to heavy metal toxicity, contamination. Bottom Line • Expensive • Non research based • Collagen production declines with aging (like all things), and a supplement or pill can’t make that go away. • Save your money $$$ eat healthy and exercise throughout life; wear sunscreen to protect your skin Turmeric • A plant that is used in Ayurvedic medicine and cooking • Dried, powdered roots (rhizomes) used medicinally • Bioactive compound: curcuminoids/the compound curcumin • distinctive yellow color • Thought to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties Does it work? • Scientific studies (with mice) show promise; but no studies in humans show any benefit for the treatment or prevention of cancer • Phase I and Phase II clinical trials on humans are currently underway • Shows some benefit due to anti inflammatory properties • May interfere with other medications • It is not really known if it works for what it is purported to treat • Dosages in turmeric form (the herb, not the bioactive compound) are not of high enough concentration of curcumin to have any benefit Probiotics • Probiotics are a booming business with many promises made • Live organisms, when administered in volume, benefit the host • Probiotic foods (kefir, yogurt) and supplements • Must be taken indefinitely since no permanent alterations of the gut flora after consumption is possible • For people with gut issues (IBS, immunosuppressed, travelers diarrhea, after antibiotic treatment, even mental health issues, possibly weight) Probiotics Acute D, IBS, atopic Colonize SI, crowd out harmful dermatitis, allergies, organisms, restore balance to intestinal Crohn’s disease, H. pylori flora. Produce substances (ammonia) infection, eczema inhibit growth of harmful organisms. Tx diarrhea, prevent UTI’s, treat IBS, to shorten intestinal infections, prevent and treat pouchitis, to prevent/manage atopic Anti-inflammatory and immunedermatitis (eczema) in modulating effects by increasing various children (19). interleukins. Varies from 1 billion to 10 billion Probiotic bacteria are part of digestive Refrigeration CFU’s system considered safe in amounts necessary. normally found in food Most common strands are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Caution w/ pts prone to infections, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, compromised immune systems, such as Bifidobacterium, those with HIV/AIDS, premature saccharomyces boulardii. neonates. Use of probiotics may érisk of infection. Human colonizers most effective delivery method. Available OTC. (GREEN)Within scope With the limited adverse Cost varies from to recommend. effects and safety for $10-$50 children, probiotics are a safe recommendation Mechanisms of Action • Influence immunity • maintain the antimicrobial mucosal barrier in the gut • Reduce the growth of pathogens • Compete with “bad” bacteria • Support gut health, which supports human health Problems • Many strains, many theories • No consensus on dosage, frequency, strain type • They are very expensive – and may not work • Much research has been done in mice models • Some research has assumed stool samples same as gut bacteria; not so Promising research • IBS, other gastrointestinal disorders • Obesity and the role of leptin and ghrelin Magnesium • Essential mineral and co factor for hundreds of enzymes • Involved in many physiologic pathways, including energy production, nucleic acid and protein synthesis, ion transport, cell signaling • Severe magnesium deficiency can impede Vitamin D synthesis and calcium regulation Deficiencies • Associated with increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders including type 2 DM and hypertension • Current magnesium intakes in the US population are below recommended AI per day men: 400-420 mg, women: 310-320 mg/day • Dietary sources include green leafy vegetables, unrefined grains, legumes and nuts Table 2. Some Food Sources of Magnesium Food Serving Magnesium (mg) Cereal, all bran ½ cup 112 Cereal, oat bran ½ cup dry 96 1 cup 86 3 ounces 82 ½ cup 78 1 ounce (23 almonds) 77 Swiss chard, chopped, cooked ½ cup 75 Lima beans, large, immature seeds, cooked ½ cup 63 2 biscuits 61 1 ounce 48 1 tablespoon 48 1 ounce (21 hazelnuts) 46 ½ cup 37 8 fluid ounces 34 1 medium 32 Brown rice, medium-grain, cooked Fish, mackerel, cooked Spinach, frozen, chopped, cooked Almonds Cereal, shredded wheat Peanuts Molasses, blackstrap Hazelnuts Okra, frozen, cooked Milk, 1% fat Banana If Supplementing • Tolerable upper intake level is 350 mg/day • Excessive intake in supplement form can result in serious side effects Biotin • • • • What is it? • • an essential co-factor to enzymes in intermediate metabolism and key gene expression conversion of fatty acids to glucose; forming glucose from other substances other than carbohydrates; metabolizing branched chain amino acids; gene promotion and expression • all energy metabolism processes Inborn disorders of biotin deficiency are rare Symptoms include alopecia, skin rash, neurologic problems including seizures Caused by birth defect, infant formula without biotin, eating raw egg whites Other risk factors for biotin deficiency • Smoking • Pregnancy • Chronic liver disease • Anti convulsant medications • Recommended dose 30 ug per day/no toxicity known at higher doses • Food sources are best; supplement in a multi vitamin for insurance Table 2. Some Food Sources of Biotin (47, 48) Food Serving Biotin (μg) Yeast 1 packet (7 grams) 1.4-14 Bread, whole-wheat 1 slice 0.02-6 Egg, cooked 1 large 13-25 Cheese, cheddar 1 ounce 0.4-2 Liver, cooked 3 ounces* 27-35 Pork, cooked 3 ounces* 2-4 Salmon, cooked 3 ounces* 4-5 1 whole 2-6 Raspberries 1 cup 0.2-2 Cauliflower, raw 1 cup 0.2-4 Avocado *A three-ounce serving of meat is about the size of a deck of cards. Other possible applications • Alopecia (hair loss) and skin problems • Diabetes (Type II) • Multiple Sclerosis • Brittle fingernails Fish Oil • Common names: Cod liver oil, marine oil, krill oil, omega-3 fatty acids • Contains Omega 3-FAs: EPA & DHA • Typical usage: Reduce risk of CVD: Lower TG, HTN • Krill Oil: Oil from shrimplike crustacean: no advantage, $ • Cod Liver Oil: Contains EPA, DHA, Vit A & D Typical Dosage • • • • Hypertriglyceridemia: 1-4 g/day Hypertension: 4 g/day <3 g/day GRAS FNB AI for Omega-3s – – – • 1.1-1.6 g/day 2 g dose of Fish Oil approx 1.25 g total EPA & DHA (varies) 1 g fish oil = 3 oz fatty fish Cost – – – 2 g dose $.25/day Molecular dist: (Gold Standard) $.40/day Krill oil $2.00+/day Mechanism of Action Omega-3 Fatty acids EPA & DHA • • Lower TG by inhibiting enzyme activity & TG transport Anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, vasodilator • • • • Anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic: Compete with arachidonic acid in cyclooxygenase & lipoxygenase pathways decreasing thromboxane A2— reduced platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction Regulate Ca movement: antiarrythmic Create more buoyant LDL—less atherogenic Preserve endothelial fx Current thinking on Fish Oil • Is Fish Oil just Snake Oil? Efficacy & Safety • • • • • • • • Effective: Hypertriglyceridemia—Supplement or dietary can lower TG levels by 20-50% – Study, 2004: British Indo-Asians--higher mortality from CAD, significantly higher TG concentrations compared to Europeans; Able to reverse lipid abnormalities with 4 g/day EPA, DHA in 12 weeks 2 servings fish/wk = 2x1000 mg doses fish oil = 1.25 g Omega-3s reduced risk of CVD Some resea ...
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