multiple choices in supply chain management

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please answer the questions on the word file. You can find the answers on the powerpoint file, thank you

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Chapter 10 Supply Chain Management Strategy and Design Russell and Taylor Operations and Supply Chain Management, 9th Edition Lecture Outline • • • • • • • Supply Chains The Management of Supply Chains Green Supply Chains Information Technology: A Supply Chain Enabler Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Management (SCM) Software Measuring Supply Chain Performance 10-2 Learning Objectives • Describe the key characteristics and management strategies of the modern supply chain • Discuss sustainable supply chain practices and the impact of the environment on supply chain decisions • Describe the role of information technology in supply chains, and the need for supply chain integration • Present the SCOR model and calculate key performance indicators for monitoring supply chain performance 10-3 Supply Chains • The facilities, functions, and activities involved in producing and delivering a product or service from suppliers to customers • An integrated group of processes to “source,” “make,” and “deliver” products 10-4 The Supply Chain 10-5 Supply Chain for Denim Jeans 10-6 Supply Chain for Denim Jeans 10-7 Supply Chain Processes 10-8 Stop & Think What does the “Supply Chain” look like at your organization? What are analogs to sourcing, production, distribution? How important is real-time information exchange with partners? 10-9 Supply Chain Management (SCM) • Managing flow of information through supply chain in order to attain the level of synchronization that will make it more responsive to customer needs while lowering costs • Keys to effective SCM • • • • information communication cooperation trust 10-10 Supply Chain Uncertainty and Inventory • A major objective of SCM: • respond to uncertainty in customer demand without creating costly excess inventory • Negative effects of uncertainty • lateness • incomplete orders • Inventory • insurance against supply chain uncertainty 10-11 Supply Chain Uncertainty and Inventory • Factors that contribute to uncertainty • • • • • • • • inaccurate demand forecasting long variable lead times late deliveries incomplete shipments product changes batch ordering price fluctuations and discounts inflated orders 10-12 Bullwhip Effect • Occurs when slight demand variability is magnified as information moves back upstream 10-13 Risk Management • Formal process for coping with supply chain uncertainty • Evaluate and anticipate likelihood of supply chain disruptions • Plan for possible disruptions 10-14 Risk Pooling • Risks are aggregated to reduce the impact of individual risks • Combine inventories from multiple locations into one • Reduce parts and product variability, thereby reducing the number of product components • Create flexible capacity 10-15 Supply Chain Sustainability • “Going green” • Meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs • Sustaining human and social resources • It can be cost effective and profitable • Can provide impetus for product and process innovations • Impetus comes from downstream in the supply chain and moves upstream to suppliers 10-16 Sustainability and Quality Management • Reducing waste through quality programs helps achieve sustainability goals • Improving fuel efficiency of vehicles • Telecommuting • Eco-friendly packing materials • Energy-efficient facilities • Changing thermostat settings 10-17 Information Technology: A Supply Chain Enabler • Information links all aspects of supply chain • E-business • replacement of physical business processes with electronic ones • Electronic data interchange (EDI) • a computer-to-computer exchange of business documents • Bar code and point-of-sale • data creates an instantaneous computer record of a sale 10-18 IT: Supply Chain Enabler • Radio frequency identification (RFID) • technology can send product data from an item to a reader via radio waves • Internet • allows companies to communicate with suppliers, customers, shippers and other businesses around the world instantaneously • Build-to-order (BTO) • direct-sell-to-customers model via the Internet; extensive communication with suppliers and customer 10-19 E-Business & Supply Chain Management • • • • • • • Savings due to lower transaction costs Reduction of intermediary roles Shorter supply chain response times Wider presence and increased visibility Greater choices & more info for customers Improved service Collection & analysis of huge amounts of customer data & preferences • Access to global markets, suppliers & distribution channels 10-20 Electronic Data Interchange • Computer-to-computer exchange of documents in a standard format • Purchasing, shipping and receiving • Improve customer service • Reduce paperwork • Increase productivity • Improve billing and cost efficiency • Reduce bullwhip effect through information sharing 10-21 Bar Codes • • • • Automated data collection system Bar code contains identifying information Provide instantaneous tracking information Checkout scanners create point-of-sale data • Update inventory records • Identify trends • Order material • Schedule orders • Plan deliveries 10-22 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • Use radio waves to transfer data from chip to a reader • Provides complete visibility of product location • Continuous inventory monitoring • Reduce labor to manage inventory • Reduce inventory costs • RFID is not standardized yet • Difficult to track between systems 10-23 RFID Capabilities 10-24 RFID Capabilities 10-25 Stop & Think What do you know about RFID and similar track-and-trace technologies? What do you think about the controversies regarding privacy? 10-26 Supply Chain Integration • Share information among supply chain members • • • • Reduced bullwhip effect Early problem detection Faster response Builds trust and confidence • Collaborative planning, forecasting, replenishment, and design • • • • Reduced bullwhip effect Lower costs (material, logistics, operating, etc.) Higher capacity utilization Improved customer service levels 10-27 Supply Chain Integration • Coordinated workflow, production and operations, procurement • • • • Production efficiencies Fast response Improved service Quicker to market • Adopt new business models and technologies • • • • Penetration of new markets Creation of new products Improved efficiency Mass customization 10-28 Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) • Two or more companies in a supply chain to synchronize their demand forecasts into a single plan to meet customer demand • Parties electronically exchange • • • • • past sales trends point-of-sale data on-hand inventory scheduled promotions forecasts 10-29 SCM Software • Enterprise resource planning (ERP) • software that integrates the components of a company by sharing and organizing information and data 10-30 Measuring Supply Chain Performance • Key performance indicators – Metrics used to measure supply chain performance •Inventory turnover Inventory turns Cost of goods sold = Average aggregate value of inventory •Total value (at cost) of inventory Average aggregate value of inventory =  (average inventory for item i )  (unit valu e item i ) 10-31 Measuring Supply Chain Performance •Days of supply Days of supply Average aggregate value of inventory = (Cost of goodssold)/(365 days) •Fill rate: fraction of orders filled by a distribution center within a specific time period 10-32 Computing Key Performance Indicators 10-33 Process Control and SCOR • Process Control • not only for manufacturing operations • can be used in any processes of supply chain • Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) • a cross industry supply chain diagnostic tool maintained by the Supply Chain Council 10-34 SCOR Model Processes 10-35 SCOR Performance Metrics 10-36 SCOR Performance Metrics 10-37 SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 10-38 SCM Issues • Multi-layered decisions • Strategic • Long-term: locations, capacity, overall network configuration • Tactical • Medium-term: suppliers/vendors, inventory, transportation • Operational • Day-to-day: scheduling, routing, job prioritizing Five Key Decision Areas • Production – What products? How much and when? • Capacity, workload balancing, quality, etc. • Inventory – How much inventory? Where? In what form? • Buffer against uncertainty Five Key Areas, cont. • Location – Where should production and inventory facilities be? • Create possible paths for product to flow to customer • Transportation – How should inventory be moved from one place to another? • Fast & reliable = expensive Five Key Areas, cont. • Information – What data should be collected and how much information should be shared? • Timely and accurate information key to better coordination and better decision making • Sum of these decisions, individual & collective, will define capabilities and effectiveness of a supply chain Fundamental Tradeoff: Responsiveness vs. Efficiency • Production • Excess capacity in factories and warehouses allows flexibility • Idle capacity doesn’t generate revenues • Inventory • Large amounts of inventory helps with fluctuations in customer demand • Handling and storage is expensive • Holding inventory in finished goods increases customer service, decreases options Responsiveness vs. Efficiency • Location • Centralizing activities in fewer locations brings economies of scale • Decentralizing activities close to customers and suppliers increases customer service • Strategic nature of location decisions hard to change often Responsiveness vs. Efficiency • Transportation • Fast vs. slow = expensive vs. cost effective • Transport costs can be as much as 1/3 of the operating cost of a supply chain • In general, the higher value of a product (e.g., electronics, pharmaceuticals) the more its transport network should emphasize responsiveness; for lower valued products (e.g., bulk commodities such as grain or lumber) the emphasis is on efficiency Information Tradeoffs • Drives decisions in other four areas; connects activities and operations internally & externally • Two major purposes • Coordinating daily activities • Forecasting and planning • Internal tradeoff: weighing benefits that good information can provide against cost of acquiring that information • Accurate, timely, complete data vs. cost of systems • External tradeoff: how much information to share (openness) vs. revealing too much and risking competitiveness & profitability Aligning SC & Business Strategy • Two companies: 7-Eleven & Sam’s Club • Customer needs, preferences different • 7-Eleven customer wants convenience, not lowest price; in a hurry, prefers store close by, wants variety of products in small quantities • Sam’s Club customer wants lowest price; not in a hurry, willing to drive some distance and buy large quantities of limited items • Supply chain focus? • Responsiveness vs. Efficiency Steps to Alignment • Understand markets your company serves • Primary task • Order qualifiers, order winners • Define strengths/core competencies and role your company can/could play in serving markets • Develop needed SC capabilities to support roles/priorities chosen by your company • Cost, Quality, Flexibility, Speed • Answers will point to need for responsiveness or efficiency Business Strategy Choices Responsiveness Efficiency Production Excess capacity Flexible manufacturing Many smaller factories Little Inventory High inventory levels Wide range of items Low Location Many locations close to customer Few Transportation Frequent shipments Fast and flexible mode Shipments Information Collect Less & share timely, accurate data excess capacity Narrow focus Few central plants inventory levels Fewer items central locations serve wide areas few, large Slow, cheaper modes information about fewer activities Supply chain management focuses on integrating and managing the flow of manufactured goods services information All of these answers are correct Question 21 pts Upstream supply chain members are commonly referred to as retailers manufacturers customers suppliers Question 31 pts Downstream supply chain members are commonly referred to as retailers manufacturers customers suppliers Question 41 pts The integrated group of business processes that form a supply chain are marketing, manufacturing and finance procurement, production and distribution manufacturing and service demand, value, and quality Question 51 pts The thing that ties business processes together and integrates them into a supply chain is quality value procurement information Question 61 pts The bullwhip effect can increase inventories increase demand increase customer service levels increase capacity Question 71 pts Information sharing in support of supply chain integration includes all the following types except demand data inventory stocks cost and profit data production and shipping schedules Question 81 pts Which of the following is not a key performance indicator typically used in supply chain management? Fill rate Days of supply Cost of goods Inventory turns Question 91 pts All of the following are true about sustainability initiatives in supply chain management except The impetus for sustainability comes from downstream members of the supply chain and moves upstream to include suppliers. The same quality management program on reducing waste can also be used to meet sustainability goals. Going green has become one of the most visible recent trends in operations and supply chain management. Sustainability is defined by the United Nations as sacrificing the present needs to ensure the needs of future generations are more than satisfied. Question 101 pts All of the following are reasons that explain why the Internet has the biggest impact of all technologies on supply chain management, except __________. It has eliminated geographic barriers. It adds speed and accessibility to the supply chain. It has shifted the advantage in the transaction process from the buyer to the seller. It allows companies to reduce uncertainty and inventory. ...
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School: Cornell University

Hello buddy, kindly find your answers attached below. Let me know what you think. Thank you

Supply chain management focuses on integrating and managing the flow of
manufactured goods
All of these answers are correct

Question 21 pts
Upstream supply chain members are commonly referred to as

Question 31 pts
Downstream supply chain members are commonly referred to as

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