Creating a Shared Economy with an Entertainment Platform Dedicated to Jeddah's Youth

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I need to write a literature review about my topic. I have 3 articles that I need to summarize and relate to my topic including claim warrant and evidence. I have attached an example of a previous student that we can follow the structor, a breif and the articles.

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Using Videogames to Improve Young Adults’ Cognitive Skills and Managing Anger 1310222 GRDS 4402 Capstone 1: Literature Review Dar Al-Hekma University Dr. Samar Altarteer November 22, 2017 VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 2 Literature Review Introduction The purpose of the literature review is to investigate the positive impacts of video games on cognition and active learning, the video games that had an effect in nourishing players with knowledge and the previous studies on the affect of action video games on aggressive behavior. This research investigates the positive impacts of playing video games on young adult gamers’ cognitive skills and generates awareness in utilizing video games as a learning tool to inform players on anger management. In “Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study” article, a study by Oei and Patterson (2013), was conducted among undergraduates from Nanyang Technological University who were not hardcore gamers nor regular gamers to study the impact of action video games and non-action video games on the cognitive skills. The researchers used video games on mobile devices such as iPhone and iPad Touch and asked the participants to play for an hour during weekdays only to study the impact of video games on cognition. The study found out that video games improve attentional blink, which is the gap that happens in the attention when the focus of the brain shift from one task to another. That helps in determining and detecting objects when shown among multiple objects at the same time. Also, it found that video games improve visual search which is the process of finding an object among other objects in a crowded environment, and spatial working memory which is responsible to save information about the surrounding in the long and short-term memory. Moreover, the study found out that video games improve selective attention, which makes a stimulus choose which neural processing should be received and which should be filtered out. They also improve multiple objects tracking, complex span which measures the short-term memory capacity, and executive process which helps in decision making, planning, goal setting, and also help in organizing and focusing. Also, there VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 3 are more studies reviewed by Eichenbaum, Green and Bavelier (2014) in “Video Games: Play that Can Do Serious Good, which support the positive effects of video games on cognition”. In their article, the authors reviewed how playing video games improves the perceptual and cognitive processing which include vision, visual attention, sustained attention, impulsiveness, vigilance, cognitive flexibility, executive functioning, memory, and training. Their review concluded that playing video games increases the cogitation in children, young adults and elderly. Oei and Patterson (2013) and Eichenbaum, Green and Bavelier (2014) suggest that playing video games affect gamer’s cognitive skills, and helps in evolving the mental cognition in people who play video games more often as well as who play video games less often. Video games help in improving cognitive skills, which helps in learning and receiving information in a better way. This can help in receiving information from video games since the ability to focus, perceive, and process is better in people with better cognition and the ability to focus, plan, working memory in people with better executive functioning (Eichenbaum, Green, and Bavelier, 2014). In “Beyond Nintendo: design and assessment of educational video games for first and second grade students” article, a study had been conducted Rosas et al. (2003) among 1274 school students in both first and second elementary grade, and 30 teachers and directors of six different schools to determine the affect of video games on learning. In their study, they designed a Nintendo video game in which the goal is to indirectly teach students the essential reading, spelling, and mathematics skills. The results of their study show that video games can be used as an educational tool that teaches and motivates learners. In addition, In McFarlane, Sparrowhawk and Heald (2002) stated in “Report on the educational use of games” that learning using video games can be through the outcomes of tasks simulated by the content of the game, the knowledge evolved through the game’s content, and the skills developed from playing the game. In their report, they studied the effect of video games that VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 4 are not originally designed for classrooms on student’s learning outcomes. The research was conducted among seven primary schools on 1,998 students, and four secondary schools on 4,003 students. The researchers provided the students with video games that have some similarities in the curriculum provided by the school and provided the teachers who were trained by TEEM department for education and the students’ parents with questionnaires to document their observation. They concluded that playing video games increased teamwork skills, decision-making and spelling and reading skills. The second study conducted by McFarlane, Sparrowhawk and Heald (2002) differs from the study conducted by Rosas et al. (2003) because Rosas et al. designed a video games to follow the learning requirements and outcomes needed, however, the study conducted by McFarlane, Sparrowhawk, and Heald used already existent video games that have some similarities to the classroom’s learning outcomes. Another study used a designed video game to determine the effectiveness of teaching through video games by Papastergiou (2007) in “Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation”. The study included 88 students from both genders to study the effectiveness of learning through computer games, and whether there are any significant differences in the learning outcomes from both genders. In the study, the researcher used a gaming application and a nongaming application to teach computer memory. The results show that computer games are effective, and showed a significant improvement in the pretest results for the favor of the group who used a gaming application over the group who used a nongaming application. Thus, video games are effective in indirectly providing gamers with information. Although, video games can be designed according to a curriculum and made for academic purposes, infusing information with fiction might develop the student’s learning outcomes in academic learning. VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 5 Designing video games to inform players about a certain subject infused with some fiction can be exciting and nourishing. A review of people’s reactions and researches in “Lessons from Assassins Creed for Constructing Educational Games” was conducted by Meyers (2011) to learn about the people’s interest in knowing the history depicted and told in Assassin’s Creed, and the success and benefits of learning through video games. Knowing that the previous series for Assassin’s Creed has not been designed for any educational purposes and was not entirely accurate in the history that is being delivered, it has been fascinating how people on the gaming blogs and forums are actively engaged in the history of each series. The players of the game have been comparing and testing the accuracy of the game with history and posting out what is accurate and what is no. Also, the game itself has the best accuracy Ubisoft can achieve when it comes to the archaeology, environments, lands costumes and more. Ubisoft is an entertainment company that develops and designs video games, and it is the company that developed Assassin’s Creed. The author stated that the game allows the players to explore the medieval environment of a specific place while being engaged in the gameplay, and the players are able to learn about tribes and groups such as the Knights Templar and the historical changes such as the Crusades in an active way. Also, the author found that the history telling method implemented in Assassin’s Creed made the players more engaged with the historical content and more active in checking the inaccuracies and arguing the historical parts in the game. As a result, infusing educational elements with the fiction of the gameplay might have made the players more curious about the historical subject and much more motivated to know almost everything about the historical background and information that are represented in the game. In addition, according to an interview in “How Ubisoft Montreal used historians to make Ancient Egypt authentic in Assassin’s Creed Origins “ made by Sapieha (2017) with the Ubisoft team and historian, Assassin’s Creed Origin will be the most accurate when it comes to history, and it VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 6 will have a tour educational mode in the game, where player can explore the history and environment of the ancient Egypt without having to engage with the challenges, levels, and stages in the game. The interviewer stated that Ubisoft had many historians working on the game including Quebec based Evelyne Ferrson, Greco Roman Egypt specialist, who works and teaches the ancient history of Egypt at the University of Sherbrooke and general history at the Collège Mérici. The historians taught the Ubisoft team about the ancient Egypt’s environment, climate, weather, animals, plants, trees, mountains, political situations, population, culture, historical figures, food, games, clothing, cities and countrysides, architectures, colors, buildings, and arts. One of the historians stated that she believes Assassin’s Creed origin will be an educational tool for the history of ancient Egypt and the political and strategic relationship between Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. Also, according to the journalist McCall (2017) in “Assassin's Creed Origins' Hieroglyphs Accurate According To Scholar”, Claire Manning who is a scholar who studied the Ptolemaic era of Egypt’s history stated that the hieroglyphs used in the game are accurate and translatable. Ubisoft has put much effort to make their new game Assassin’s Creed Origin an active educational tool to teach gamers about the ancient Egypt. Utilizing video games to teach players about history can give an opportunity for other subjects to be actively taught using the story, content, and gameplay in the game. However, teaching all people through video games might not be as successful because of the lack of their interest for video games and their scenarios. In accordance to Jozuka (2015) in “This Game Shows What It's Like to Suffer From Psychosis”, Hellblade a game developed by Ninja Theory and the psychiatrist Paul Fletcher, which aims to make people live, and know how people with mental illness and psychosis suffer, and how it devastates their brain. The game is designed to be interactive which means it gives the player the opportunity not just to live the character's life, but also to live with the character and make decisions with character. The aim behind the gameplay is to make the VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 7 players comprehend how people with such conditions live and educated people on mental illness and how it feels. The team made sure to portray everything accurately since it is a sensitive subject. "True understanding of mental health is not simply about books, lectures, or verbal descriptions but from deeper engagement on all levels” (Fletcher, 2015). In “Hellblade takes on mental health and psychosis” O’brien (2015) stated that Hellblade is a tool to learn and explore the mental health psychosis, unlike other educational video games, and as discussed previously, the game has been developed with Paul Fletcher, who is a psychiatrist and professor of health and neuroscience at Cambridge University. Fletcher stated that working with Ninja Theory (An indie game development company) gave him the understanding of how much potential video games have when it comes to making students and players learn about the psychosis experience beyond any other academic description. Furthermore, according to Tyrer (2017) in “How Ninja Theory’s Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice is creating a realistic portrayal of psychosis” an interview conducted by Official PlayStation Magazine with the psychiatrist was made to know more about the experience in Hellblade and the scientific research behind the game. The psychiatrist stated that Hellblade video game had given him content that can be presented as an educational tool in their own lectures, and it also can be used to help people. In developing this game, the team had a discussion and journey in the brain and the world, and how people with such conditions build up the surrounding world, and this has given them the opportunity to become closer to psychosis and design a game that is engaging more than any documentaries. That has become possible through video games because in video games, the world that people with mental illness experience are portrayed in the game’s environment, and not from somebody else’s perspectives. Hence, the idea of using video games as an informative and interactive tool to educate gamers about mental illness and psychosis is possible. As a result from what Fletcher said during the interview, video games can be a much more efficient tool to make people VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 8 engage, experience and understand the subject or the condition in a better way more than any written script or book. This concludes that using video games as an active learning and informative tool to educate people about anger and how to manage or deal with it can be possible through understanding and portraying the feel of anger and the steps of managing it. The argument of the impact of video games on aggression has been going on in many researches. The idea of utilizing video games to inform players on anger management might contradicts with the theories that state video games improve aggressive behavior. However, There is a vast difference between anger and aggression that should be broken down and understood before making any assumptions or debates. According to The American Psychological Association (n.d.) in “How to recognize and deal with anger”, anger is a symptom of aggression, but aggression is not just anger. aggression is a behavior that leads someone to feel angry, and it leads to harm others by having the desire of abusing them whether by control, physical, emotional or verbal abuse, however, Anger is a state of feeling associated with dealing with undesirable and unpleasing actions such as disrespect from others. The American Psychological Association stated that according to their research, an approximate amount of 90 percent of aggressive behavior is followed by anger; however, 10 percent of anger is followed by aggression. As a result, this might suggest learning how to manage and control anger might lessen the possibility of escalating it to aggression. Two empirical studies were conducted by Ferguson et al. (2008) in “Violent Video Games and Aggression” to know the impact of action video games on aggression, and to know the impact of violent video games with prior family violence experience on aggressive behavior. In the first study, the participants were one hundred and one undergraduate students from both genders from two different universities; one in Texas and the other in Wisconsin. The researcher used a TCRTT to have a reliable method to measure aggression and studied the short-term exposure to action video games and prior lifetime exposure to violent video VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 9 games. The study examined the impact of violent video games on aggression and in the study, they found out that the exposure to violent video games did not cause aggressive behavior. The second study was conducted among 428 undergraduates from Florida from both genders and different ethnicities. The study examined the impact of action video games with family violence exposure on aggression. The study concluded that people who were already exposed to violent background could predict violent behavior. As a result, action video games do not have a direct impact or link on developing aggressive behavior, which means being exposed to action video games does not necessarily consider a risk, however, having both an aggressive personality and a violent video game can cause aggressive behavior or violent acts. It also concluded that people with already aggressive personality are more likely to play violent video games. However, in “Mediators and Moderators of Longterm Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior”, Gentile, Li, Khoo, Prot, and Anderson (2014) conducted a study for three years among 3034 children and adults in Singapore to study the impact of action video games on aggressive behavior. The study concluded that action video games increase aggressive behavior in both genders from all ages even if the players are initially aggressive or not aggressive at all. One of their methods that were used to measure the level of aggression in the participants was list of questions such as “Suppose a boy says something bad to another boy, John. Do you think it’s wrong for John to hit him?” and statements such as “When I see a student who is upset, it bothers me”. From the point of view, asking such questions that are not linked to video games and stating such statements to people to measure their aggression level does not necessarily state that video games has an effect on aggressive behavior. Despite what the researchers mentioned in their research that prior aggression in participants did not affect the results, there is still room to check the participant's empathy when it comes to such statements and questions like the ones mentioned above. For example, people who have been exposed to violence whether verbally, VIDEOGAMES ON COGNITION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT 10 emotionally or physically might have a bit struggle in sympathizing with others no matter what their age is. Relying on the prior level of aggression might not be enough to measure the level of aggression in the participants. Moreover, having the participants to play action video games and measure their aggression level in a longtime research requires having a background on the participants’ daily life too. For example, the participant might have difficulties that caused the results to show higher aggression level such as bullying or verbal, neglect, and emotional abuse. The study may not be that convincing because of the gaps, but it might have a point when it comes to the increased aggressive behavior coming from playing action video games to kids from younger ages. Video games have age restriction and warnings, which mean some video games might not include blood and inappropriate behaviors or words, but it is still not suitable for children who are still building their initial and essential base in their logics, behaviors, and mindset just like any other media whether it is animated cartoons, movies or books. However, the previously study conducted by Ferguson et al. (2008) that examined the effect of violent video games on people who had been exposed to violence in their lives, and also studied whether video games have different impact level on genders and the impact of video games on people who did not have any prior violence in their lives. The results of his study is that video games do not have a direct link to aggressive behavior improvement, however, people who play aggressive video games with prior aggressive behavior problems might get affected and have more violent acts. In a point of view, the study took ...
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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

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Creating a Shared Economy with an Entertainment Platform Dedicated to Jeddah's Youth
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LITERATURE REVIEW

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Early 2018 a research were conducted giving a more insight on Uber enterprise trying
to bring on board various issues that hinder the efficiency and effectiveness as well as the
implications of the shared economy to the society. The study shows that a better proportion of
society members understand the existence of shared prosperity and about 19% of the US
society has used the services (Zach, 2018). However, people are yet to embrace the shared
economy fully despite the benefits tied to it. It presents an excellent opportunity to safeguard
small and medium size business in this era where technology has revolutionized the business
environment. Client security has remained to be a significant barrier hindering the growth of
this industry.
As per the past studies conducted relating to sharing the economy since inception,
researchers have identified to broad categories of the concepts that open up more
opportunities for continuing research; organizational level and individual levels of sharing
economy. Corporate level outlines various models of sharing economy and describes their
usefulness in a diverse business environment and provides a guide for both small and medium
businesses that wish to engage in a shared economy. Still, on the organizational level, other
scholars focused on the motivation and critical challenges tied with the adoption of sharing
economy and the ultimate effect on the traditional business environment. On the other hand, a
study on the individu...

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