Comparison between Precast and Cast in place for Box Culvert

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Question Description

I’ve wrote Chapter 1 about comparison between precast and cast in place for box culvert, inside attachment named “My work” so you can know the idea, objectives and aims of the project:

Note: The whole work must be answered/write related to the Aims & Objectives.

Work required from you:

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

- Read it to understand the idea of the project.

  • Chapter 2: Literature Review (5500 words)

- For the chapter 2, you’ll find it inside “My work” attachment. Rewrite all again in very fine details with neat and clean information, add more technical details. Plus, make it ending with appropriate way.

  • Chapter 3: Methodology (1500 words)

Hypothesis: to design it:

- We should identify if sth happens, what will result?

- We test sth from my experience and except what will happen?

For chapter 3 Must be submitted on “Wednesday” or before.

  • Chapter 4: Calculations and Result (1400 words)
  • Chapter 5: Conclusion (600 words)
  • Chapter 6: Recommendations and future work (500 words)
  • Appendix: Questionnaire Sample


*** Words count = 9500 words.

*** In-Text Citations and References using APA format.

*** I’ve upload two Projects samples named “Effects of the Recent Financial Crises on Construction Projects in Public Sector-converted” and “Measuring Value Engineering Best Practice in Oman-converted” so you can refer to them to keep you clearer about the work.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Table of Contents ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURE ....................................................................................................................v LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................vi 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1 1.1 Background of the Project ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.2 Importance of the Project ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.3 Aim & Objectives of the Project .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................5 2.1 Scope ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3. METHODOLOGY .....................................................................................................14 4. CALCULATIONS & RESULTS (for calculation based project) ..........................15 ANALYSIS OF DATA, RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS .......................................................15 5. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS .........................................................16 6. REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................17 7. APPENDICES ............................................................................................................18 7.1 Appendix A: Risk assessment form.......................................................................... 19 i ABSTRACT Keywords: (four keywords) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES Table 1 (Title) .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF FIGURE Figure 1 (Title) ............................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS BCA- Building and Construction Authority. 1. INTRODUCTION Concrete is the most used construction material that is consumed all over the world. The annual production of concrete is more than 32 billion tons (Seddik Meddah, 2016). The production of huge quantities of concrete is reasonable since most of the construction structures are based on concrete in one way or another. Nowadays, concrete is modified to enhance the performance of the concrete by adding different additives and chemicals to make the properties of concrete as per the requirements of the intended application of that concrete. Concrete applications are versatile which means concrete in different structures with different applications and properties. Concrete can be used for commercial buildings, channels, concrete dams, bridges and so many other kind of structures. One of the major structure that is made of concrete is the culvert. A culvert is a structure that has the function of allowing the water to pass through them mainly in roads and railways where water should be allowed to pass and run without interrupting the function of the main structure such as the roads or the railways. Culverts can mainly be used as cross drains for ditch relief, and to pass the water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. A culvert can also be a bridge to allow vehicle’s passing through them. Culverts can be formed as many shapes and sizes based on a number of factors involving performance, limitations on upstream water surface elevation, and roadway embankment height. Culverts are constructed with concrete which can be constructed and assembled either in site or in a factory and then the parts are transported to the site for assembling. The process for making and casting the parts of culverts in the factory is called precast. This process simply means that the elements of the culverts are made in the factory of precast concrete and then the elements are transported through large vehicles to the site to be assembled as a culvert. In this report a study will be done to compare between the construction of precast box culverts and cast in site box culverts in term of quality, cost and time to construct the culvert. The study will consider only one type of culverts which is the box culvert as it is the most used culvert. Box culverts have a concrete floor which ensure smooth 1 flow of water media through it. There are some box culverts which can be built in a way that it will withstand high flow of water and can maintain the change in direction of the water flow. Box culverts can also be installed in such way that the top of the culvert is also the roadway surface which make it the perfect type to be used in highways and roads. The importance of those types of culverts in highways and roads is that they are more critical as it is expected to act as a media for allowing water passage as well as a surface for roads (Juan Rodriguez, 2018). In addition to that the study will look into the facts of using precast elements and compare them with the normal way of casting in site. The comparison will allow the reader to decide whether the technology of precast is more useful than the normal cast in site method. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods of casting will be discussed. Cost analysis will be detailed for both methods of casting concrete to come up with the most appropriate method for constructing the concrete structures mainly in box culverts. Time needed for completing a box culverts using the two methods will be calculated to look up for the more efficient and quickest method for making a box culvert. 1.1 Aims & Objectives The core aim of this report is to compare between the precast concrete and in site concrete for making a box culvert. Following are the objectives set for this report: To compare the quality of concrete between precast concrete of box culvert and cast in-site-culverts. The quality will be based on the finishing for the box culvert. To compare the time needed for construction of box culverts using precast concrete method and cast in-site- method. The time will include the production of the elements of the box culvert and assembling the box culvert. To compare the cost of constructing precast concrete of box culvert and cast in-siteculverts. The cost will be based on construction of the box culvert and the transport of materials required for the construction. 1.2 Scope & Limitations The project mainly discusses the major differences between the box culvert construction using concrete in site and precast concrete. The study will mainly discuss three major aspects. The first aspect is the cost that each method attributes to the construction of the box culvert. The second aspect is regarding the quality of the box culvert when made in site and when the box culvert elements are casted in the plant. The quality will be measured with the finishing of the box culvert as well as workability of the concrete in both methods. The third aspect is related to the time needed for the construction of box culverts using in site concrete casting and precast concrete elements of the box culvert. The time will be attributed to the time of transporting as for the precast elements of the box culvert and the time required to accomplish the box culvert. The limitations regarding the intended study are mainly related to the availability of resources especially with the precast concrete in Oman. That’s to say, the information regarding the topic will be depending on the cooperation of the related organizations. However, all of these limitations are expected to be overcome with the cooperation of the different organizations. The comparison in time and cost for the precast box culverts and cast in site box culverts will not include the design stage of the project since for both cases the design time and cost will be nearly the same. That’s why the design stage will not be considered. 1.3 Report Layout The report has a layout which includes the introduction as the first part that includes an introductory about the concrete in general and some general information about culverts and box culvert in specific. Following the introduction comes the literature review that shows and presents all the information regarding the topic including description about the term concrete in site and precast concrete. In addition, several previous reviews on similar topic will be presented. The methodology is the part of the report which include the processes and procedures that are carried to meet all the objectives. After that, the results section comes which have all of the results from the study and the discussion of those results. A summary of the findings of the report is shown after the discussion of the results. Recommendations will be presented in order for improving the study to have more precise and specific findings regarding the topic. A summary of the report sections is shown below in table 1.3.1. Table 1.3.1: Report Layout. Chapter Discussion Topic 1 Introduction 2 Literature review 3 Methodology 4 Results and Discussion of Results 5 Recommendation and Future work 6 Conclusion 2. LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, previous reviews similar to the topic of this report will be discussed. In addition all information on some of the terminologies and facts related to the topic will be discussed in details. 2.1 Culverts A culvert could be a thwart wise and totally enclosed emptying structure that runs beneath a road or portion of land. The scale and sort of culvert depend upon the quantity of water flowing, the discharging location that the water will flow thereto, and the depth of the culvert. Some culverts may also function road surfaces, however they'll perpetually serve to carry water through a pipe or channel. Generally, choice and sort of material depends upon the comparative value, the structure’s location, labours’ skills, and time limitations set for the project (Juan Rodriguez, 2018). 2.1.1 Types of culverts Culverts can be constructed in many shapes and sizes. They are available in shapes such as round, elliptical, flat bottomed, pear – shaped and box like constructions. The selection of the type to be used for a certain project depends on a number of factors attributed mainly to hydraulic, upstream elevation, roadway height, and other conditions. Following are some of the culvert’s types: 2.1.1.1 Pipe Culverts Pipe culverts are considered to be one of the most common used culverts as this is reasoned to the price and easy installation. Pipe culverts can have different forms. Pipe culverts can be circular, elliptical and pipe arch. The usage of such type mainly depends on the site conditions and availability of such culverts. Most of the pipe culverts are made of concrete pipes as shown in figure 2.1.1.1.1 below. Figure 2.1.1.1: Pipe Culverts. The main positive facts about the pipe culverts is that it can be made as per requirement of strength when having an appropriate mix, proper thickness and reinforcement. In addition to that the pipe culverts are economical in term of the cost of their installation. Moreover, these pipe can withstand high values of stresses both compressive and tensile stresses. However, the main withdraw of the pipe culverts is that the crown get corroded due to the contact of bacteria and any other organics as well as due to the release of different severe gasses. This type of corrosion is called crown corrosion (Juan Rodriguez, 2018). 2.1.1.2 Pipe –Arch culvert Pipe- culverts are named based on the nature of their shape as the shape is a pipe shape but with an arch at the top. This kind of culverts are suitable for huge amount of water levels. Their main usage is for areas where the headroom is limited and have a hydraulic advantage at low flows. There are many advantages of using such type of culverts. One of the advantages is that it can assist improving hydraulic capacity at low flows. In addition, these culverts are easy to install and the structure in general is lightweight. Added to the previous advantages, pipe-arch culverts are suitable for providing aesthetic shape and therefore a nice appearance. (Monzur Rahman, 2016). Figure 2.1.1.2: Pipe-Arch Culverts. 2.1.1.3 Box Culverts Figure 2.1.1.3: Box Culverts. Box culverts are one of the most commonly existing culverts that are used among all other types of culverts. Box culverts are mainly constructed out of reinforced concrete. One of the most challenging thing about constructing box culverts is that the installation should be done on a dry surface to ensure a box culvert with a proper strength requirement. The box culverts have some advantages that make them the most common used culverts. One of the positive facts about box culverts is that the construction is very simple since it is a rigid structure. Another advantage of the box culverts is that the bottom slab of the culvert decreases the pressure, exhibited from the live loads and the weight of the structure, on the soil. The box culverts are economical choice of culverts as there is no need for separated foundations. This type of culverts can be used when the foundation of the location is week (Monzur Rahman, 2016). 2.1.1.4 Bridge Culverts Bridge culverts are sometimes called Multi-purpose Culverts due to the fact that it provide two functions. The bridge culverts have a foundation which is placed underground and a pavement surface placed at the top of the culverts. Mostly, this kind of culverts take the shape of rectangles. Figure 2.1.1.4: Box Culverts. The main advantages of bridge culverts is that it functions as a multi-purpose by providing a traffic passage as well as a water passage medium. It is considered a very strong structure with a highly strong foundation (Monzur Rahman, 2016). 2.1.1.5 Metal Box Culverts The Metal Box Culverts are made of a certain structural plate. They can be used as a replacement of the bridge culverts. The main advantages of the metal box culvert is that they are durable. Their construction requires less time compared to other types of culverts. They have the property to with stand deformation which ensure long life span of such type of culverts (Monzur Rahman, 2016). . Figure 2.1.1.5: Metal Box Culverts. 2.1.2 Materials Generally, box culverts are made with reinforced concrete, reinforced plastic, and metals. The selection of material is based on several factors including environmental matter, strength requirement, and application to be used. The three main materials that will be discussed are concrete, corrugated steel, and corrugated plastic. 2.1.2.1 Concrete Culverts is also created with either formed or cast-in-place reinforced concrete. This choice depends on the dimensions and complexness of the design of the culvert. Precast sections are made so that they can be easily managed in term of transporting, lifting and installing. Cast-in place concrete is the common and the most used method for making the culverts once the ready mix is prepared. The method is generally used especially when the culvert’s joints are not required. Precast concrete culverts is also created with high strength concrete, whereas cast-in-place concrete culverts could have special reinforcement at essential locations to resist high-applied loads and stresses (Bruce D. Wagener, 2014). - Precast concrete culvert is factory-made in eight standard shapes: circular, arch, horizontal elliptical, vertical elliptical, pipe arch, box sections as shown in Table 2.1.2.1. The concrete culvert is built for five different strength classification so that the higher the classification, the higher the strength of the culvert is. However, box culverts are not part of the classification as the box culverts are designed for different live loads and cover’s depth. - Cast in place concrete culverts are simply culverts that has been casted in the site of the project. The shape of such kind of concrete casting method is generally rectangular or arch culverts. The box culverts are the most common used culverts and normally the box culvert consists of multiple cells to accommodate with long spans. (ConnDOT Drainage Manual,2000). Table 2.1.2.1: Culvert's shapes, Sizes, and Common Uses. 2.1.2.2 Corrugated Steel The corrugated steel material is simply related to the corrugated sheet steel that are made in the factory. This type of culverts are produced with steel sheets that are factory made. Normally, for the large steel culverts, the sections are constructed and assembled using the structural plate products. This type of culverts are available in different sizes and shapes as can be seen in table 2.1.2.2. (ConnDOT Drainage Manual,2000). Table 2.1.2.2 : Corrugated Steel's Shape, Sizes, and Common Uses. 2.1.2.3 Plastic Plastic is a term of pipes that are related to metal pipes. Many materials can contribute in forming and establishing the plastic pipes. Those materials are used to produce the plastic pipes so that the resultant plastic pipe will have characteristics and properties according to the intended application of those pipes. In addition to the material used to make the plastic pipes, additives are also added to enhance some of the properties just like the concrete mix where the additives are used in the mix to enhance some of the characteristics of concrete. Therefore, the properties of the resultant plastic pipe will depends on the type of the base resin as well as the chemical and additives used (ConnDOT Drainage Manual, 2000). 2.2 Reviews on comparing between Precast and Cast-in-situ concrete There are similar studies, which were done to compare between precast and cast-in-situ concrete methods of establishing concrete structures. The summary of each study will be discussed and how to implement that on the objectives of the project. 2.2.1 Lanke,A., & Venkateswarlu, D. (2016). Design, Cost & Time analysis of Precast & RCC building. In this study, the author is explaining the different concepts of precast. One building was taken to design it for both as a precast building and as cast-in-situ building. Cost and duration were calculated for both method of concrete establishment building. The study was mainly done by going to ongoing building constructions and all the information were gathered from those two different buildings., From this analysis It was remarkably seen that the cost of precast building is significantly reduces & duration of construction is also much lesser than traditional method. From all this study we can be conclude that the precast concrete system is economical than conventional cast in place method but still there are some conditions which we have to take care of while using precast, those are quantity of construction, Distance of site from manufacturing unit, Type of building etc. In our study, culverts are the concerning structural object which is not the case as in the study above. However, this study can be a guide to the outcome of our study as the same type of elements for the building are expected to be used in the culvert such as the base of the culvert. Therefore, this study can show that is actually precast method would reduce time and cost of culverts when compared to cast-in-situ culverts. 2.2.2 Turai ,V., & Waghmare, A. (2016). A Study of Cost Comparison of Precast Concrete Vs Cast-In-Place Concrete. In this study, the author is showing the time and cost comparison between precast concrete and cast-in-situ concr ...
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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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