One-Page Response Paper About Chinese religion: Daoism

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You will read one chapter of a book which named Bresnan, Awakening Ch.14 and write another response paper this week, on Daoism. The response paper consists of a concise, one-page essay which explores an idea and makes an argument. An argument does not mean, necessarily, that you disagree with someone. An argument is nothing more than asserting a claim and supporting your claim with evidence. An argument consists of an introduction, a thesis, several premises, and a conclusion. The intro introduces and contextualizes your subject; the thesis is the claim you are making; the premises (singular: premise) are propositions demonstrating the evidence for your claim (the reasons to believe your argument); and the conclusion is a wrap-up segment that drives home the argument.

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Main purpose: You will write another response paper this week, on Daoism(Chapter 14: available in Awakening An Introduction to the History of Eastern Thought 6th Edition.pdf). The response paper consists of a concise, one-page essay which explores an idea and makes an argument. An argument does not mean, necessarily, that you disagree with someone. An argument is nothing more than asserting a claim and supporting your claim with evidence. An argument consists of an introduction, a thesis, several premises, and a conclusion. The intro introduces and contextualizes your subject; the thesis is the claim you are making; the premises (singular: premise) are propositions demonstrating the evidence for your claim (the reasons to believe your argument); and the conclusion is a wrap-up segment that drives home the argument. Essay-writing is a skill which will be necessary for your entire academic career, and it will serve you well in any/every job field after college. Format: MLA, do not use smaller than ten-point Times Roman type and remember to double space Writing recommendation: The purpose of the response papers is to develop your argumentative abilities and to ascertain your responses to twelve reading assignments. Here we are primarily concerned with those skills used in historical investigation and criticism, but the principles of research and analysis are the same in any other field of study as well, so that the intellectual ability gained by practice in using sources ought to benefit you in any field. For the purposes of these papers, you should primarily confine yourself to the weekly assignments from the textbooks and whatever additional texts assigned by me that may be posted on Canvas or found on the Internet. Remember to restrict yourself to only the readings of the week in question. You should confine your response to one page, no more. If you write more, I may simply draw a line across your paper where there is excess and not consider it. Remember that concision is a virtue in writing and that being able to fit what you want to say in a limited space is also a marketable skill. Do not use smaller than ten-point Times Roman type and remember to double space to leave room for comments by me. It is most important to narrow down the topic so that you can deal with it in enough detail, even in so short a paper. Papers which are insufficiently narrowed usually are superficial because there is not enough length to go into sufficient detail. Here you will have space for only a couple of points that you may present in reaction to the assigned passages or articles. You must not summarize the reading or try to cover it comprehensively; you have no space to do that. I already know what it says. You rather must show me your response to some particular point or points raised by the reading. Your response papers will be vastly better if you pay attention to the conventions of what is expected in such a paper, conventions which are universally recognized in the academic world. Basically, these conventions rest on the principle that your ideas should be stated as clearly and as briefly as possible. Clarity is plainly needed so that your ideas may be easily understood by the reader. Brevity enables you to pack the maximum meaning into the fewest lines. Both of these require you to work on the organization of your paper. This organization may be summarized as follows. A paper should begin with an introduction, alluding, if no other introducing idea comes to mind, to the importance of the subject and its worthiness for discussion. From here the writer moves toward the thesis sentence, which normally needs to be succinctly and forcefully presented at the most powerful point in the paper, at the end of the introduction. There, it gives the writer a sense of purpose, controlling and dominating what follows. Papers without a clearly-stated thesis often go off the subject or contain irrelevant material. The thesis is like a roof that covers all that the paper contains, or a foundation that supports the paper’s entire structure. What is irrelevant to the thesis does not belong in the paper. The thesis also needs to be narrowed to deal with only the very specific point which you are trying to prove in your paper. In supporting your thesis, your method should be to draw a few bits of evidence from here and there in your sources, analyzing them yourself in your own words and integrating them together in your paper, in order to shed light on some single problem or question of broad interest. It is important that your paper be unified around a single point, but also that you use two or more of the different readings for the week to help make your point. There is no doubt that this takes effort; that is how we judge papers to be of truly good quality: clarity and succinctness, analysis and integration. The weak paper is often a patchwork, a result of what is sometimes called the ‘cut and paste’ method, containing bits more or less copied from the sources, even if paraphrased, but in no way digested or analyzed in the student's own words. This is not an original paper and does not show much effort. The paper must be analytical; you must put something of yourself, with your own ideas, into your work. Much better to present your own ideas than to merely copy and paraphrase. The sources are mainly to be used as evidence to back what you say. Furthermore, it is important that your thesis be argumentative. This means that you must stick your neck out and say something significant on the subject on your own, exposing your opinions to criticism, with only the evidence you cite from the sources to back you and save you from embarrassment. Therefore you should try to develop an argument from your evidence in a cogent series of steps that build inevitably toward your thesis sentence. Failure to argue leaves you with a flat, descriptive and usually pointless paper. On the other hand, an argument may be a subtle attempt to prove a point and need not be bombastic or harsh-sounding. We have already discussed most of what is significant for the paper in talking about the thesis. Turning next to the body of the paper, we see that it ought to consist of a series of paragraphs, each containing a point that supports the thesis sentence in some way. Each paragraph generally contains some evidence and some analysis which integrates the evidence together and brings out its importance and relevance to the thesis. It is possible, of course, to present a whole paragraph of evidence descriptively and to follow it up with a paragraph or more analyzing that evidence. But in a short paper it is usually better to integrate the evidence with the analysis step by step in each paragraph. Remember that no statement taken from a source ever speaks for itself. Rather, you must always draw the inference for your reader, explaining the significance of every bit of information cited by you from the sources, so that the reader can see what you are driving at. Failure to analyze sufficiently or to draw the inference is quite a common fault in student papers. In so short a paper as this, the body might consist of one or two paragraphs, not more. Finally, the paper's thesis ought to be clearly restated in a concluding paragraph. Then, in the last words of the paper, we should be told why what has just been proven is important. A forceful parting shot fittingly caps a good argument. Remember also to document your statements where necessary, especially quotations, but also other particular material. Documentation in this case can be either in the form or footnotes or of parenthetical notes in the text referring to page(s) of the source. Such documentation is an absolute requirement in all your papers. You should strongly limit your use of direct quotation in so short a paper, possibly not using any because it takes up so much space. Nevertheless, you may find it necessary to use a short quotation when, after all, you are reacting to the writer’s words. Example of response paper: Name Presponse Paper 1 date On Noah Feldman and Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī In “Shari’a and Islamic Democracy in the Age of Al-Jazeera,” Noah Feldman introduces us to Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī’s theories on the relationship between Islam and democracy. Citing al-Qaradāwī’s book, On the Fiqh of State in Islam, Feldman interprets a fatwa by al-Qaradāwī which addresses the question of the permissibility of democracy from the “Islamic” perspective. In the fatwa, Feldman explains, al-Qaradāwī demonstrates the feasibility of reading democracy as an obligation in Islam. According to Feldman, al-Qaradāwī asserts that one of the bases of the Shari`a is “that a means that is necessary for the completion of an obligatory end is itself obligatory.”1 Accordingly, if just governance is an obligatory end of the Shari`a, then the means to achieving the end of just governance is also obligatory. Given this, we would still need another step in order to make democracy mandatory for Islam. It would be a necessary premise that democracy be the only means of achieving the end of just governance. Accordingly, Feldman tells us that we can infer this second premise from his reading of al-Qaradāwī. He writes, “If one begins with the major premise that a means that is necessary for the completion of an obligatory end is itself obligatory, then provides the minor premise that democracy is necessary today for achieving the obligatory end of just governance, it follows that democracy is mandatory under today’s conditions.”2 Al-Qaradāwī makes the argument for the Islamic state. According to Feldman, alQaradāwī posits an Islamic constitutional democracy, i.e., an Islamic modern state. But can a modern state really be Islamic? Can there be an Islamic state? Wael Hallaq, in The Impossible State, points out that, “There can be no Islam without a moral-legal system that is anchored in a metaphysic; there can be no such moral system without or outside divine sovereignty; and, at the same time, there can be no modern state without its own sovereignty and sovereign will… If all these premises are true, as they ineluctably must be, then the modern state can no more be Islamic than Islam can come to possess a modern state.”3 That is, unless the modern state is completely reinvented and redefined, in which case it must then be called something else entirely. Hallaq tells us that sovereign will gives birth to the law, law being sovereignty’s most paradigmatic manifestation in the practice of governance. “Sovereign will,” however, “ceases to be operative should a state formally declare that its law is to be found provided by another country, another state, or another entity.”4 In alQaradāwī’s Islamic state, this is exactly the case; the law is to be found in another entity, the Shari`a. Feldman writes, “The constitution of the Islamic democracy, for al-Qaradāwī, must declare Islam the state religion and must make Islam a source or perhaps the source of the laws….”5 Thus the sovereign will of the state, in its capacity as lawgiver, ceases to be expressed in the law. In the Shari`a it is the divine will of God which is expressed rather than the sovereign will of the state. By definition, and as a condition of its existence as such, one of the properties of the state is its sovereign will. If sovereign will is not predicated of it as an entity, the state does not exist, qua state. In al-Qaradāwī’s model of Islamic governance, it is the divine will of God which is expressed in the law, rather than that of the state – for it cannot be true that both God and the state are sovereign over the same polity. Therefore, the entity governed by a specifically Islamic governance cannot be called a modern state, and should be called something else. LAWRENCE LAWRENCE Awakening Awakening: An Introduction to the History of Eastern Thought engages students with lively anecdotes, essential primary and secondary sources, an accessible writing style, and a clear historical approach. The text focuses primarily on India, China, and Japan, while showing the relationships that exist between Eastern and Western traditions. Patrick Bresnan consistently links the past to the present, so students may see that Eastern traditions, however ancient their origins, are living traditions and relevant to modern times. 2 LAWRENCE New to this Sixth Edition: A new introduction that provides a helpful overview of each of the nineteen chapters and important connections between them An improved explanation of the nature of Vedanta philosophy, and a more logical organization of the Key Elements of the Upanishads in Chapter 3 An extensive rewrite of Chapter 5, which deals with the subject of Ashtanga Yoga as expressed in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali A greatly improved presentation of Buddha’s “Four Noble Truths” in Chapter 10 A total recasting of the teaching of Nagarjuna in the Madhyamaka section of Chapter 12 A clearer and easier to understand presentation of the teaching of the Dao De Jing in Chapter 14 A major revision of Chapter 18 so as to clearly distinguish Chinese Chan from Japanese Zen Greater emphasis throughout, where pertinent, on the role of meditation practice in all Eastern traditions Revised and updated Questions for Discussion at the end of each chapter New photos and two newly produced videos prepared by the author for the book’s companion website: Patrick S. Bresnan is a retired professor of history and philosophy at De Anza College, Cupertino, California, where he created a four-quarter course, Introduction to Eastern Philosophy, dealing with the historical development of the major philosophical traditions of Asian countries. That, plus extensive travel and study in Asia, resulted in the production of the college-level text Awakening: An Introduction to the History of Eastern Thought. Other books by Patrick S. Bresnan include Them: The Adventures of a College Classroom Teacher (2012) and The Amazing Meditation Revolution: West Meets East (2013). 3 LAWRENCE Awakening 4 LAWRENCE An Introduction to the History of Eastern Thought Sixth Edition Patrick S. Bresnan 5 LAWRENCE Sixth edition published 2018 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2018 Taylor & Francis The right of Patrick S. Bresnan to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Previous editions published by Pearson Education, Inc. 2003, 2007, 2010, 2013 Fifth edition published by Routledge 2016 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this title has been requested ISBN: 978-1-138-06394-5 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-06395-2 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-16068-9 (ebk) Typeset in Goudy by Apex CoVantage, LLC Visit the companion website: 6 LAWRENCE Contents List of Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Part I Hinduism and Related Traditions of South Asia 1 India before the Vedas The Lay of the Land South Asia before the Vedic Age The Theory of Indo-Aryan Migrations Varna: The Caste System The Brahmin Caste Questions for Discussion 2 Veda and the Vedas Yajna: The Vedic Sacrifice The Vedic Pantheon An Overview of Vedic Cosmology Questions for Discussion 3 Introduction to the Upanishads Key Elements of the Upanishads An Overview of Vedanta Cosmology Questions for Discussion 4 The Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita and the Mahabharata The Opening Scene The Bhagavad Gita as Metaphor The Awakened Person Karma Yoga Raja Yoga Bhakti Yoga Questions for Discussion 7 LAWRENCE 5 Ashtanga Yoga The General Nature of Yoga The “Eight Limbs” of Ashtanga Yoga Questions for Discussion 6 Darshana The Orthodox Darshanas The Heterodox Darshanas Questions for Discussion 7 The Devotional Movement The Trimurti Ramanuja The Hindu Temple Questions for Discussion 8 A Millennium of Strife The Muslim Era The Modern Era Questions for Discussion Part II Shakyamuni Buddha and the Early Development of Buddhism 9 The Life Story of Shakyamuni Buddha The Palace Youth The Sadhu Years The Awakening The Teaching Years Questions for Discussion 10 Basic Teaching of Shakyamuni Buddha The Doctrine of Anatman The Four Noble Truths The Noble Eightfold Path Questions for Discussion 11 Theravada Buddhism The Early Centuries Ashoka Theravada Buddhism Questions for Discussion 12 Mahayana Buddhism Diversity and Religious Elements in Mahayana The Nature of Buddha Madhyamaka 8 LAWRENCE Yogacara The Bodhisattva Artistic Expression in Early Mahayana Questions for Discussion Part III Non-Buddhist Traditions of East Asia 13 Confucius and Confucianism Confucius Mencius Other Voices from the Period of a Hundred Philosophers Later Developments in the Evolution of Confucianism Questions for Discussion 14 Daoism Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tzu) Religious Daoism Questions for Discussion 15 Shinto The Shinto Creation Story The Shinto Shrine and Festival Historical Development of Shinto Questions for Discussion Part IV Buddhism in China and Japan 16 Early Buddhism in China Buddhism in the Tarim Basin Tiantai Buddhism Huayan Buddhism (Hua-Yen) Pure Land Buddhism Persecution and Recovery Questions for Discussion 17 Tibetan Buddhism The Establishment of Buddhism in Tibet The General Character of Buddhism in Tibet An Historical Overview of Buddhism in Tibet Questions for Discussion 18 Chan Buddhism Bodhidharma 9 LAWRENCE Huineng After Huineng Questions for Discussion 19 Zen Buddhism Japan before Zen Rinzai and Soto Zen The Zen Monastery Zen and the Arts Questions for Discussion Works Cited Index 10 LAWRENCE Figures 1.1 1.2 3.1 5.1 6.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.1 9.1 9.2 11.1 12.1 12.2 14.1 15.1 17.1 17.2 17.3 18.1 19.1 Map of South Asia An Indus seal (No. 1) showing the mysterious pictographs Sadhus leaving a temple in Nepal An Indus seal (No. 2) showing the figure in the posture of Bhaddhakonasana A beautiful sculptured example of a yab/yum; perhaps ninth-century Tibet Shiva, from an exterior panel of the Kandariya Mahadeva; Khajuraho, India Linga and Yoni; South India Shiva and Parvati from an exterior panel of the Kandariya Mahadeva The Kandariya Mahadeva; Khajuraho, India Tantric inspired exterior panel of the Kandariya Mahadeva A typical gopuram of the southern-style temple The Taj Mahal; Agra, India Map of Asia Shakyamuni Buddha with right hand in the posture of bhumisparsha (earth touching) A Theravadin monk Too bad this Thai stupa isn’t in color. The entire surface is covered in small gold tiles The great bronze Buddha at Kamakura, Japan The Daoist yin-yang symbol The famous Torii Gate at Miajima on the Inland Sea, Japan A Tibetan dorje A fine example of a modern thangka, painted in the traditional style The Potala; Lhasa, Tibet Bodhidharma The kare-sansui at Ryoan-ji Monastery; Kyoto, Japan All images are available to view in color at 11 LAWRENCE Acknowledgements And now the Sixth Edition, with a new publisher and a lot of great new people to thank. Let me just shine the thank-you spotlight on a few of the most prominent ones. Certainly the first in line is Andy Beck, Senior Editor for Philosophy a ...
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