Write an essay from a powerpoint!

timer Asked: Oct 21st, 2018
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The essay has to be about the content in the powerpoint, at the end of the powerpoint there is a reference slide which is were i got the info. You can look up information on those websites.

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FIRST ATOMIC BOMB DEVELOPMENT & CONTAMINATION INCIDENTS By: Heidy Sosa INDEX - The World’s First Atomic Bomb (Introduction) 3 - How it all began! 4 - The Manhattan Project 5 - Trinity 7 - Attack on Pearl Harbor 10 - Attack on Hiroshima 11 - Radiation Exposure 13 - Aftermath 16 - Reference 17 THE WORLD’S FIRST ATOMIC BOMB It all started during World War II, the Americans were trying to win the race against Nazi Germany to create the first atomic bomb. The establishment for development of the atomic bomb was named, the Manhattan Project. It led to the invention of two of the most destructive atomic bombs. The Japanese denied to surrender. Therefore, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japanese cities. One of them being Hiroshima and the other one was the city of Nagasaki. Causing great devastation. These attacks forced Japan to surrender and ended WWII , however, these attacks killed and injured over 200,000 people and also raised the questions about the implications of nuclear weapons. HOW IT ALL BEGAN! In 1938, German scientists discovered fission, which occurs when the nucleus of an atom breaks into two equal parts. Neutrons are released to break up atoms, causing a chain reaction. It was thought that fission could cause an explosion of great force. The Germans planned on building the first nuclear weapon to have advantage over all the other countries. As soon as Albert Einstein found out about Germanys desire to develop the first atomic bomb, he alerted the U.S. president in 1939; which at the time was Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein was hesitant at first. He thought that the government would reject the thought of creating a weapon that could potentially kill millions of people. However, he couldn’t allow Nazi Germany to have that advantage. Einstein explained the potential uses of the atomic bomb and ways that it would help scientists in their research. Due to his persuasion, president Roosevelt decided to create the Advisory Committee on Uranium in October of 1939. THE MANHATTAN PROJECT This project originated in Manhattan, New York, where scientists studied the different components of an atomic bomb. It was first founded in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Manhattan Project was started in response to fears that German scientists had been working on a weapon using nuclear technology. The project brought together scientists from the United States, Great Britain, and Canada to study the feasibility of building an atomic bomb capable of unimaginable destructive power. The U.S. military teamed up with the best minds of the scientific community to covert the concept of the atomic bomb to reality. At first, Roosevelt set up the Advisory Committee on Uranium, a team of scientists and military officials tasked with researching uranium’s potential role as a weapon. They focused on radioactive isotope separation and nuclear chain reactions. Overall, the U.S. spent two billion dollars on this project. On December 28, 1942, Roosevelt authorized the formation of the Manhattan Project to combine these various research efforts with the goal of weaponizing nuclear energy. Facilities were set up in isolated locations such as New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington, as well as Canada. J. Robert Oppenheimer was a physicist named director of the Los Alamos Laboratory in 1943. The Los Alamos Laboratory was were the first Manhattan Project bombs were built and tested. On April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died and Vice President Harry S. Truman became president. TRINITY On July 16, 1945, scientist, army personnel, and technicians anxiously waited for the first test bomb to drop. This test bomb took place in the desert of New Mexico, a location known as Jordana del Muerto. It was code-named “Trinity”. No one knew what to expect. Some scientists feared it would be the end of the world. The target in this test was a tower, as soon as the flashes, wave of heat, shock wave, and mushroom cloud 40,000 feet high, vanished, the tower was completely disintegrated and thousands of yards of surrounding land turned into a radioactive glass of a bright jade green color. The bomb was a success. The bright light from the Trinity test stood out for hundreds of miles. The men who created the bomb witnessed the explosion, and were astonished. Physicist Isidor Rabi expressed that he worried mankind had become a treat and upset the equilibrium of nature. The instability amongst the witnesses led to petitions. Some argued that the terrible thing they had created couldn’t be let loose in the world. Obviously, the petition got ignored. Two months after the Trinity test, the Germans surrendered. However, Japan refused to surrender. The last thing the U.S. wanted was a ground war with Japan, so they decided to drop the first atomic bomb. Little was known about the dangers of radiation exposure in the 1940s, so local residents were not warned or evacuated before the test. People in surrounding areas were exposed to radiation by breathing contaminated air, eating contaminated foods, and drinking affected water and milk. Some ranches were located within 15 miles of ground zero, and commercial crops were grown nearby. ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR Pear Harbor , Hawaii, the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific fleet was attacked by the Japanese on December 7, 1941. The U.S. declared war on Japan the next day and started World War II. At this moment, president Roosevelt decided it was the time to support the creation of the atomic bomb. Researchers built extraction systems, used their knowledge and skills to devise a process to magnetically separate uranium and plutonium isotopes, and on December 2, 1942 scientists were able to create the first successful chain reaction that allowed atoms to split in a controlled environment. Scientists worked diligently, but it took until 1945 to produce the first nuclear weapon. ATTACK ON HIROSHIMA On August 6, 1945, a uranium bomb named “Little Boy” was dropped. At 8:15 in the morning the bomb was dropped and at 8:16 over 66,000 people near ground zero were already dead. Around 69,000 people were injured, mostly burned or suffering from radiation sickness. The atomic bomb produced complete devastation. It left a “total vaporization” zone of one-half mile in diameter. The “total destruction” area to one mile, while the impact of a “severe blast” was felt for two miles. Anything that was flammable within two and a half miles was burned, and blazing infernos were seen up to three miles away. The force of the explosion was more than 15,000 tons of TNT, instantly devastating five square miles of the city. More than 67 percent of the city’s structures were destroyed or damaged. On August 9, 1945, Japan still refused to surrender , therefore, a second bomb named “Fat Boy” was dropped over Nagasaki. The two bombs combined killed more than 100,000 people and leveled the two Japanese cities to the ground. Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945, bringing an end to WWII. RADIATION EXPOSURE During the Trinity test bomb little was known about the dangers of radiation exposure in the 1940s, as a result, people in surrounding areas were exposed to radiation by breathing contaminated air, eating contaminated foods, and drinking affected water and milk. Around nearby ranches, exposure rates around 15 Roentgen per hour were measured just three hours after detonation. According to the Japanese people, the early symptons suffered from radiation injury resembled the symptons observed in patients receiving intensive roentgen therapy. The important symptoms reported by the Japanese and observed by American authorities were epilation (lose of hair), petechiae (bleeding into the skin), and other hemorrhagic manifestations, oropharyngeal lesions (inflammation of the mouth and throat), vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. Within the first few months after the bombing between 90,000 and 166,000 people died in Hiroshima, while another 60,000 to 80,000 died in Nagasaki. The most deadly long-term effects suffered by atomic bomb survivors was leukemia. An increase in leukemia appeared about two years after the attacks and peaked around four to six years later. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation estimates the attributable risk of leukemia to be 46% for bomb victims. Nearly seventy years after the bombings occurred, most of the generation that was alive during the attack has passed away. Individuals who had been exposed to radiation before birth, studies, such as one led by E. Nakashima in 1994, had shown that exposure led to increases in small head size and mental disability, as well as impairment in physical growth. AFTERMATH After the bomb denotated death was caused immediately, but effects would last for decades. Radioactive particles were brought by the rain from the fallout of the atomic bomb. The Japanese people who survived the blast, were affected this way, and more lives were lost to the effects of radiation poisoning. The effects from these bombs would continue to pass along in the following generations. An example of this would be that their children have a high rate of leukemia. The first atomic bomb revealed the true destructive power these weapons contain. This allowed the U.S. to learn and understand atomic bombs. It also helped figure out the effects they caused. REFERENCES ▪ https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/united-states-conducts-first-test-of-theatomic-bomb ▪https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/the-manhattan-project ▪https://www.livescience.com/1698-atomic-bomb-test-exposed-civilians-radiation.html ▪https://www.thoughtco.com/world-war-ii-the-manhattan-project-2360698 ▪https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(nuclear_test) ...
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Tutor Answer

School: University of Virginia


The attached paper entails the following parts:


The Manhattan Project


The attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Radiation Exposure and Aftermath



Institution affiliation:



During the World War II, the Americans Joined arms with Britain and France to
fight against the Germanys and the Japanese. The great scientist Albert Einstein was behind the
idea of America wanting to develop the atomic bomb. He had prior information that scientist back
in Germany were working on creating a deadly atomic bomb that would destroy millions. He then
wrote a letter- Szilard letter, to the then president Franklin Roosevelt persuading him to start
creating a nuclear weapon ahead of the Nazi Germany who had already started marking one.
Spurred by this among other reports, the president, then ordered the creation of the National
Defense Research Committee to work in nuclear research explorations in October 1939 (Lawton
The Manhattan Project
The National Defense Research Committee which had been formed earlier was later
changed in 1941 to the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). It is during this
same year that the Japanese attacked the Pearl Harbor making the then president Franklin
Roosevelt to declare war on Japan in the Pacific theater and Germany in Europe by joining forces
with Russia, France, and Great Britain. The OSRD was then joined by the Army Corps of

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