Summary and Analysis Paragraphs of "Technology and Television" Articles

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timer Asked: Oct 21st, 2018
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Question Description

Now that you have read and annotated this week's articles, please use the following steps to complete this assignment:

Step 1: Using the methods you learned about in "Active Reading Strategies," from the Week 2 Module, type up a summary of each article. Each summary should be one paragraph, 150-300 words, and include the word count. Furthermore, be sure to introduce the author's name, article title, and source in the first sentence of the summary. Finally, you must integrate and highlight a minimum of 2 words/phrases from the "Templates & Transitions" handout located in the Week 5 module.

Step 2: Using the methods you learned about in the "T-GAP" handout from the Week 4 Module, the Introduction to Rhetoric lecture from the Week 8 Module, and the Rhetorical Analysis packet from this week's module, type up an analysis of each article. Each analysis should be one paragraph where you identify the author's tone, genre, audience, purpose, and rhetorical appeals/strategies, and provide your own opinion about/reaction toward that article. Consider putting key terms such as "tone" or "audience" in bold or underlining them so you can make sure you have included all of the required elements. Aim for about 150-300 words. Once again, be sure to identify the author's name and title of the article in the paragraph. Finally, you must integrate and highlight a minimum of 2 words/phrases from the "Templates & Transitions" handout located in the Week 5 module.

Step 3: Upload your document to this assignment submission area. Your document should contain a total of 4 paragraphs.

There is a grading rubric attached to this assignment link, which you can view before you submit your assignment.

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Templates & Transitions *Using some of these templates (academic sentence starters) and transition words/phrases will strengthen your argumentative writing as well as vary your sentence structure. It will also help you connect your ideas more clearly for your reader. Introducing Quotations     X states, “_____________________.” According to X, “_____________________.” In his/her article, “_________________,” X maintains that “_____________________.” In X’s view, “_____________________.” Explaining Quotations in Your Own Words (Summary)               In X’s article, “____________________,” he/she asserts that ____________________. X agrees that ___________________. X claims that ____________________. X explains that ____________________. X demonstrates that ____________________. X insists that ____________________. X reminds us that ____________________. X reports that ____________________. X suggests that____________________. X emphasizes the importance of ____________________. Basically, X is arguing that __________________________. In other words, X believes __________________________. X’s point is that __________________________. To put it another way, __________________________. Providing Your Opinion about the Quotation (Analysis)  I agree that _________________ because my experience _____________ confirms it.  X is surely right about ____________ because ____________.  I wholeheartedly endorse what X calls ___________________.  X matters because ___________________.  X is important since __________________. Common Transitions to Be Used in Any Paper Addition Elaboration Cause & Effect Concession also and besides furthermore in addition in fact indeed moreover so too actually by extension in short that is in other words to put it another way to put it succinctly ultimately accordingly as a result consequently hence it follows, then since so then therefore thus admittedly although it is true that granted I concede that of course naturally to be sure Comparison Example Contrast Conclusion along the same lines in the same way likewise similarly after all as an illustration consider for example for instance to illustrate specifically to take case in point although but by contrast conversely even though however in contrast nevertheless/nonetheless on the contrary on the other hand regardless whereas while yet as a result consequently hence in conclusion in short in sum to summarize Active Reading Strategies Pre-Reading Strategies of Proficient Readers Surveying/Skimming/Previewing: What Proficient Readers Do Automatically         Look for head-notes, biographical information about the author, and other explanatory material. Survey the organization of the text; note the title; look for text divisions, section headings, and subtitles. Skim visuals; note relationship between visuals and specific text segments. Identify author, publication type, and date. Identify target audience. Read first and last paragraphs to identify the topic and the author’s conclusion/thesis. Identify terms that indicate the author’s position on the topic. Note the length of text to budget time for reading sections or entire piece. Drawing Conclusions from Pre-Reading Strategies Making Predictions Based on Textual Clues and Prior Knowledge     Infer from the title and other external features what information/ideas this text might present. Turn the title into a question and write out a one-sentence answer to the question after reading the text (repeat procedure for any section headers). Based on the previewing of the text, predict the author’s purpose for writing the text. Based on the information gathered so far, predict the position (positive or negative) the author will take on this topic. Annotating the Text Staying Actively Engaged with the Material during the Reading Process    Mark the pages and margins, using pens and/or highlighters. o Use symbols, like arrows to connect ideas. o Underline or highlight key words/phrases. o Put a question mark next to ideas you aren’t clear on. o Circle or put a box around words you need to look up in the dictionary. o Write a summary of each paragraph or section. Use post-its or flags to highlight sections or include notes beyond what you can fit in the margins. Aim to highlight about 15-20% of the text for each page. Summarizing the Text Retaining the Material after the Reading Process          An effective summary is a briefer version of a piece of writing in your own words. Learn to use a dictionary and thesaurus effectively if you need help thinking of different ways of saying things. Including than 3 consecutive words verbatim from the original source constitutes as plagiarism. Avoid quotations unless there is a very specific phrase that needs to stay intact. Always begin a summary with the title, type of source, author’s full name, and thesis (overall main idea of the reading). Stick to main ideas and major supporting details only. Use present tense and 3rd person point-of-view. Include the ideas in the same order the author did (chronological). Use templates and transitions to connect ideas (avoid a “list” summary). Avoid including your own opinion or misrepresenting the author’s original ideas. Sample Summary According to Paul Insel and Walton Roth, in the article, “Exercise for Health and Fitness,” published in The New York Times on August 4, 2012, physical fitness has many benefits for our well-being and can only be achieved through a variety of regular exercise. First, the authors define physical fitness as qualities which permit the body to accommodate various “demands of physical effort.” Next, the authors explain the many aspects of physical fitness which are Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. In addition, the authors argue that exercise provides many benefits for people. One example is improved physical traits (better heart functioning, a more effective metabolism, improved body makeup—more muscle and less fat. Another is disease prevention (like Cancer, Diabetes, etc.). And last is improvement in psychological and emotional wellness, improved immune function, and prevention of injuries. Finally, the authors argue that exercise can help people live longer, healthier lives. R HETORICA L A NA LYSIS P ACKET E NGLISH 120 A N A LYZ IN G R H ETO RI CA L S TRA TEG I ES Rhetorical strategy – a particular way in which writers craft language so as to have an effect on readers. Strategies are means of persuasion, ways of using language to get readers’ attention and agreement. Some Common Rhetorical Strategies – • Appeals: Ethos, pathos, and logos • Organizational patterns • Rebuttals (counter-arguments/acknowledging opposition) When analyzing Rhetorical Strategies, remember to: 1. Identify rhetorical strategies. 2. Describe how they work. 3. Describe why they are used – what purpose do they accomplish? Note: When describing why a strategy is used, you may want to consider alternative strategies, and think about how they would work differently. You may also want to consider what would happen if the strategy were left out – what difference would it make to the argument? This may help you figure out why the particular strategy was chosen. Logos, Ethos, and Pathos To Appeal to LOGOS (logic, reasoning) The argument itself; the reasoning the author uses. Types of LOGOS Appeals • Theories / scientific facts • Indicated meanings or reasons (because…) • Analogies • Definitions • Factual data & statistics • Quotations • Citations from experts & authorities • Informed opinions • Examples (real life examples) • Personal anecdotes Effect on Audience Evokes a cognitive, rational response. Readers get a sense of, “Oh, that makes sense,” or “Hmm, that really doesn’t prove anything.” How to Talk About It The author appeals to logos by defining relevant terms and then supports his claim with numerous citations from authorities. The author’s logos appeals of statistics and expert testimony are very convincing. To Develop or Appeal to ETHOS (character, ethics) How an author builds credibility & trustworthiness. Ways to Develop ETHOS • Author’s profession / background • Author’s publication • Appears sincere, fair minded, knowledgeable • Concedes to the opposition • Morally / ethically likeable • Appropriate language for audience and subject • Appropriate vocabulary • Correct grammar • Professional format Effect on Audience Helps reader to see the author as reliable, trustworthy, competent, and credible. The reader might respect the author or his/her views. How to Talk About It Through his use of scientific terminology, the author builds his ethos by appearing knowledgeable. The author’s ethos is effectively developed as readers see that he is sympathetic to the struggles minorities face. To Appeal to PATHOS (emotion) Words or passages an author uses to activate emotions. Types of Pathos Appeals • Emotionally loaded language • Vivid descriptions • Emotional examples • Anecdotes, testimonies, or Narratives about emotional experiences or events • Figurative language • Emotional tone (humor, sarcasm, disappointment, excitement, etc.) Effect on Audience Evokes an emotional response. Persuasion by emotion. (usually evoking fear, sympathy, empathy, anger) How to Talk About It When referencing 9/11, the author is appealing to pathos. Here, he is eliciting both sadness and anger from his readers. The author’s description of the child with cancer was a very persuasive pathos appeal. How Structure Can Further an Author’s Argument To understand structure, consider the overall organization of the essay and how it furthers the author’s persuasive strategies. Examine the various parts of the argument. How do the separate sections of the essay develop the claim? Try not to summarize or simply list the main point of each paragraph. Focus on one or two aspects of the essay’s organization and how it furthers the author’s argument. Authors use various organizational strategies to structure their arguments. For instance, one way that authors might organize their essay is in terms of a problem-solution-justification structure. The opening section typically persuades the audience that a problem exists, the second section offers potential solutions, and the final section attempts to justify the solutions by showing how they help to alleviate the problem. When investigating historical or social arguments, writers typically examine the cause and effect of issues and events to further their claims. Thus, writers will detail the way specific events lead to certain outcomes. These are a just few of the typical ways that writers organize their arguments. Below is a list of common organizational strategies: • • • • • • • • • • • Comparison-Contrast Cause-Effect Definition (defining key terms) Problem-Solution Classification/Division Emphatic (order of importance) Chronological (time order) General to Specific Abstract to Concrete OR Simple to Complex Point-by-Point Exemplification (organizing by examples) Counterargument and Refutation It is important that you can both recognize and utilize the following process for counterargument and refutation. 3-Step Process of Refutation Step 1: Acknowledge (“They say…”) Step 2: Refute Using Support (“But…because…”) Step 3: Conclude (“Therefore….”) Sample Paragraph Using the 3-Step Process Some of the moves have been underlined for you. Advances in medical robot technology have led to improvements in the quality of surgeries, which benefit patients. For example, the daVinci Robotic Surgical System (DRSS) is a technologically advanced surgical system that is used for delicate procedures such as prostate and kidney surgeries. Some patients are skeptical of the device initially because they think the robot performs the surgery on its own. However, the robot is only a tool for a human surgeon. Furthermore, in his article, “Robotic Surgery Benefits Springfield Hospital,” Kevin Stirling emphasizes the fact that “for patients requiring surgery, the advantages and benefits of minimally invasive surgery with the daVinci Robotic Surgical System are plentiful including but not limited to: less pain, shorter recovery times, shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, fewer transfusions, less scarring,…and overall improved clinical outcomes generally” (Stirling). In other words, Stirling believes that the DRSS is an invaluable advancement in medical technology that aids both patients and doctors immensely. I see eye to eye with Stirling in his belief that the daVinci robot is a benefit to society. Therefore, patients should try to overcome their apprehensions about this technology since there are fewer risks and less recovery time. T-GAP T ONE , G ENRE , A UDI ENCE , & P URPOSE *Being able to identify the following elements when reading an article, book, etc. is a useful skill to have in college classes and for critical reading outside the college classroom. I. DETERMI NI NG TONE *Here are just some examples of the kinds of tone an author can take. Pay close attention to the language (word choice) of an author. Tone Angry Biased Candid Casual Challenging Humorous Intellectual Neutral Personable Sad Sarcastic II . Synonyms Irritated, vexed, indignant, offended One-sided, partial Blunt, forthright, frank, abrupt Informal, easy-going Provocative, defiant, questioning Amusing, funny, jovial, joking Intelligent, knowledgeable, thoughtful Impartial, unbiased, open-minded, objective Friendly, good-natured, affable Dispirited, discouraged, unhappy Satirical, disparaging, scornful, contemptuous I D E N TI F Y I N G G E N R E *Below is a chart that outlines the different genres (categories or types) of a text. There are many genres and sub-genres—graphic novels, plays, social media status updates, etc.—and by identifying the genre, we can determine what we should be looking for or can gain from reading that text. Genre Textbook Journal Article Fiction (Novel or Short Story) Non-Fiction (Book, Essay, or Article) Magazine or Newspaper Article Blog Author Scholars or Professionals in the Discipline Scholars or Professionals in the Discipline Audience Students Professional Writer Students, Professors, and Others Educated Specialists in that Discipline General Reader Professional Writer, Scholar, or Journalist Professional Journalist General Reader (Possibly Educated) General Reader Professional or Amateur Writer General Reader III . E S T A B L I S H I N G T A R G E T A U DI E N C E *It is important to look at the kinds of information and the word choices of the author (s) when trying to identify what specific group of people were the target audience. Consider:  Is it meant for the general public or a specific group of people? o Are there terms only a doctor or a scuba diver is familiar with?  Is the audience expected to have a certain level of education? o Look at the level of vocabulary being used.  Is there a specific age group being targeted? o The kinds of examples and stories included in the source can help determine this. IV. CHOOSING ACCURATE VERBS TO DESCRIBE PURPOSE I know what it says…but what does it do? *The following verbs will be helpful when analyzing what an author is doing (the rhetorical moves he/she is making), rather than what he/she is saying. Acknowledges Amplifies Analyzes Argues Articulates Asserts Blends Challenges Clarifies Compares Compiles Concludes Constructs Contrasts Debates Deconstructs Defends Defines Differentiates Discusses Dissects Distinguishes Establishes Evaluates Exemplifies Explains Forecasts Gathers Generalizes Identifies Illustrates Incorporates Inspects Integrates Interprets Introduces Justifies Models Navigates Organizes Outlines Persuades Predicts Presents Proposes Proves Qualifies Questions Substantiates Suggests Summarizes Theorizes Traces Uses Matti 1 Sandra Matti Professor Sarah Martin English 120 17 October 2018 From Wasteland to Wonderland: TV’s Altered Landscape By Jeff Greenfield “The boob tube.” “The idiot box.” “The plug-in drug.” “A vast wasteland.” When I began writing about the television industry in the mid-1970s, these were some of the kinder terms of endearment. To imagine back then a television universe where creativity is unbound; where Hollywood’s most revered writers, directors, producers and actors clamor for the chance to “do TV”; where talk of a new “Golden Age” abounds, would have required a serious exercise in delusion, or the ingestion of controlled substances. But it has happened. Why? For me, the answer lies in one essential fact: When technology replaced scarcity with abundance, every core assumption about TV began to crumble. Everything about the medium — how we receive it, how we consume it, how we pay for it, how we interact with it — has been altered, and TV is infinitely better for it. In the mid-1970s, all TV was divided into three parts, at least as far as almost every American viewer was concerned. Every evening, the three broadcast networks, 1 CBS, 2 NBC and 3 ABC, drew more than 9 out of 10 viewers. The only revenue came from advertisers, which led countless chroniclers of the industry to the same surprising conclusion about the nature of the business. “Remember,” the NBC executive Don Carswell told me, “we’re not selling the program. We’re selling the audience for the program.” The bigger the audience — and the more desirable in terms of buying power — the more the networks could charge. Matti 2 What this meant was that every hour, every half-hour, every moment of prime time had to be devoted to gathering the biggest possible audience. And that meant trying to shape the program to attract as many as possible and, perhaps more important, to avoid offending as many as possible. One prominent programmer of the day, Paul Klein of NBC, had a theory about this. He called it the “Least Objectionable Program” concept. Viewers, he said, didn’t watch a program, they watched TV. They clicked on the set and browsed until they found something reasonably acceptable. This theory drove many in the creative community to distraction. For every All in the Family or M*A*S*H* or Mary Tyler Moore, the overwhelming consensus, as expressed by Stan Kallis of Columbia TV, was that “We’re basically bound, our hands are tied, by the fact that we’re a medicine show. We’re here to deliver the audience to the next commercial.” Further, any unsettling or disturbing fare would taint the mood of the audience — the audience the networks were promising to deliver to advertisers. Set a comedy in a prison? O.K., but as the noted programming wizard Fred Silverman warned, “Stay away from the hard stuff. Don’t scare people away.” Forty years ago, I wrote in these pages that “The enormous pressures which force commercial television into its relatively narrow boundaries are not likely to widen in the foreseeable future.” I could not have been more wrong; in fact, the boundaries began to widen that very year. The key to the old TV world was scarcity. Only so many channels could beam through the air without running into each other. Only three networks had a nationwide distribution system of microwave relays and AT&T “long lines.” Anyone trying to start another network found the logistics and the cost prohibitive. But in 1975, RCA introduced the first of two “Satcom” communications satellites, and the threenetwork monopoly was dead. Now competitors could deliver their fare to stations and cable systems coast to ...
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Summary and Analysis Paragraphs of "Technology and Television" Articles

Article 1
This Article named From Wasteland to Wonderland: TV’s Altered Landscape, is written
by Jeff Greenfield. The Article focuses on the development of the television network whereby
the challenges of its starting are highlighted. Initially, it is explained that the audience was the
target market and therefore, efforts were put to make the prime time interesting and attractive for
the audience. Tis also comprised of preventing occurrences whereby the audience are offended to
avoid instances where they avoid watching the television. This is following the statement that it
was not any profitable to run the news networks without advertising as it was the only source of
revenue for the networks. Greenfield argues that at the beginning of TV, the main focus was on
advertisements as they were the only source of income, but later on, programs became the norm
of the day. This is due to technological changes an...

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