Templates & Transitions
*Using some of these templates (academic sentence starters) and transition words/phrases will
strengthen your argumentative writing as well as vary your sentence structure. It will also help
you connect your ideas more clearly for your reader.
X states, “_____________________.”
According to X, “_____________________.”
In his/her article, “_________________,” X maintains that “_____________________.”
In X’s view, “_____________________.”
Explaining Quotations in Your Own Words (Summary)
In X’s article, “____________________,” he/she asserts that ____________________.
X agrees that ___________________.
X claims that ____________________.
X explains that ____________________.
X demonstrates that ____________________.
X insists that ____________________.
X reminds us that ____________________.
X reports that ____________________.
X suggests that____________________.
X emphasizes the importance of ____________________.
Basically, X is arguing that __________________________.
In other words, X believes __________________________.
X’s point is that __________________________.
To put it another way, __________________________.
Providing Your Opinion about the Quotation (Analysis)
I agree that _________________ because my experience _____________ confirms it.
X is surely right about ____________ because ____________.
I wholeheartedly endorse what X calls ___________________.
X matters because ___________________.
X is important since __________________.
Common Transitions to Be Used in Any Paper
in other words
to put it another way
to put it succinctly
as a result
it follows, then
although it is true that
I concede that
to be sure
along the same lines
in the same way
as an illustration
to take case in point
on the contrary
on the other hand
as a result
Active Reading Strategies
Pre-Reading Strategies of Proficient Readers
Surveying/Skimming/Previewing: What Proficient Readers Do Automatically
Look for head-notes, biographical information about the author, and other explanatory
Survey the organization of the text; note the title; look for text divisions, section
headings, and subtitles.
Skim visuals; note relationship between visuals and specific text segments.
Identify author, publication type, and date.
Identify target audience.
Read first and last paragraphs to identify the topic and the author’s conclusion/thesis.
Identify terms that indicate the author’s position on the topic.
Note the length of text to budget time for reading sections or entire piece.
Drawing Conclusions from Pre-Reading Strategies
Making Predictions Based on Textual Clues and Prior Knowledge
Infer from the title and other external features what information/ideas this text might
Turn the title into a question and write out a one-sentence answer to the question after
reading the text (repeat procedure for any section headers).
Based on the previewing of the text, predict the author’s purpose for writing the text.
Based on the information gathered so far, predict the position (positive or negative) the
author will take on this topic.
Annotating the Text
Staying Actively Engaged with the Material during the Reading Process
Mark the pages and margins, using pens and/or highlighters.
o Use symbols, like arrows to connect ideas.
o Underline or highlight key words/phrases.
o Put a question mark next to ideas you aren’t clear on.
o Circle or put a box around words you need to look up in the dictionary.
o Write a summary of each paragraph or section.
Use post-its or flags to highlight sections or include notes beyond what you can fit in the
Aim to highlight about 15-20% of the text for each page.
Summarizing the Text
Retaining the Material after the Reading Process
An effective summary is a briefer version of a piece of writing in your own words. Learn
to use a dictionary and thesaurus effectively if you need help thinking of different ways of
Including than 3 consecutive words verbatim from the original source constitutes as
Avoid quotations unless there is a very specific phrase that needs to stay intact.
Always begin a summary with the title, type of source, author’s full name, and thesis
(overall main idea of the reading).
Stick to main ideas and major supporting details only.
Use present tense and 3rd person point-of-view.
Include the ideas in the same order the author did (chronological).
Use templates and transitions to connect ideas (avoid a “list” summary).
Avoid including your own opinion or misrepresenting the author’s original ideas.
According to Paul Insel and Walton Roth, in the article, “Exercise for Health and
Fitness,” published in The New York Times on August 4, 2012, physical fitness has many
benefits for our well-being and can only be achieved through a variety of regular exercise. First,
the authors define physical fitness as qualities which permit the body to accommodate various
“demands of physical effort.” Next, the authors explain the many aspects of physical fitness
which are Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and
body composition. In addition, the authors argue that exercise provides many benefits for
people. One example is improved physical traits (better heart functioning, a more effective
metabolism, improved body makeup—more muscle and less fat. Another is disease prevention
(like Cancer, Diabetes, etc.). And last is improvement in psychological and emotional wellness,
improved immune function, and prevention of injuries. Finally, the authors argue that exercise
can help people live longer, healthier lives.
R HETORICA L A NA LYSIS P ACKET
E NGLISH 120
A N A LYZ IN G R H ETO RI CA L S TRA TEG I ES
Rhetorical strategy – a particular way in which writers craft language so as to
have an effect on readers. Strategies are means of persuasion, ways of using
language to get readers’ attention and agreement.
Some Common Rhetorical Strategies –
• Appeals: Ethos, pathos, and logos
Rebuttals (counter-arguments/acknowledging opposition)
When analyzing Rhetorical Strategies, remember to:
1. Identify rhetorical strategies.
2. Describe how they work.
3. Describe why they are used – what purpose do they accomplish?
Note: When describing why a strategy is used, you may want to consider
alternative strategies, and think about how they would work differently. You may
also want to consider what would happen if the strategy were left out – what
difference would it make to the argument? This may help you figure out why the
particular strategy was chosen.
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
To Appeal to LOGOS
The argument itself; the
reasoning the author uses.
Types of LOGOS Appeals
• Theories / scientific
• Indicated meanings or
• Factual data &
• Citations from experts
• Informed opinions
• Examples (real life
• Personal anecdotes
Effect on Audience
Evokes a cognitive, rational
response. Readers get a
sense of, “Oh, that makes
sense,” or “Hmm, that really
doesn’t prove anything.”
How to Talk About It
The author appeals to logos
by defining relevant terms
and then supports his claim
with numerous citations from
The author’s logos appeals of
statistics and expert
testimony are very
To Develop or Appeal to
ETHOS (character, ethics)
How an author builds
Ways to Develop ETHOS
• Author’s profession /
• Author’s publication
• Appears sincere, fair
• Concedes to the
• Morally / ethically
• Correct grammar
• Professional format
Effect on Audience
Helps reader to see the
author as reliable,
and credible. The reader
might respect the author
or his/her views.
How to Talk About It
Through his use of
scientific terminology, the
author builds his ethos by
The author’s ethos is
effectively developed as
readers see that he is
sympathetic to the
struggles minorities face.
To Appeal to PATHOS
Words or passages an
author uses to activate
Types of Pathos Appeals
• Emotionally loaded
• Vivid descriptions
• Emotional examples
• Figurative language
• Emotional tone
Effect on Audience
Evokes an emotional
response. Persuasion by
(usually evoking fear,
How to Talk About It
When referencing 9/11,
the author is appealing to
pathos. Here, he is
eliciting both sadness and
anger from his readers.
The author’s description of
the child with cancer was
a very persuasive pathos
How Structure Can Further an Author’s Argument
To understand structure, consider the overall organization of the
essay and how it furthers the author’s persuasive strategies.
Examine the various parts of the argument. How do the separate
sections of the essay develop the claim? Try not to summarize or
simply list the main point of each paragraph. Focus on one or two
aspects of the essay’s organization and how it furthers the author’s
Authors use various organizational strategies to structure their
arguments. For instance, one way that authors might organize their
essay is in terms of a problem-solution-justification structure. The
opening section typically persuades the audience that a problem
exists, the second section offers potential solutions, and the final
section attempts to justify the solutions by showing how they help
to alleviate the problem. When investigating historical or social
arguments, writers typically examine the cause and effect of issues
and events to further their claims. Thus, writers will detail the way
specific events lead to certain outcomes. These are a just few of
the typical ways that writers organize their arguments.
Below is a list of common organizational strategies:
Definition (defining key terms)
Emphatic (order of importance)
Chronological (time order)
General to Specific
Abstract to Concrete OR Simple to Complex
Exemplification (organizing by examples)
Counterargument and Refutation
It is important that you can both recognize and utilize the following process for
counterargument and refutation.
3-Step Process of Refutation
Step 1: Acknowledge (“They say…”)
Step 2: Refute Using Support (“But…because…”)
Step 3: Conclude (“Therefore….”)
Sample Paragraph Using the 3-Step Process
Some of the moves have been underlined for you.
Advances in medical robot technology have led to improvements in the
quality of surgeries, which benefit patients. For example, the daVinci Robotic
Surgical System (DRSS) is a technologically advanced surgical system that is
used for delicate procedures such as prostate and kidney surgeries. Some
patients are skeptical of the device initially because they think the robot
performs the surgery on its own. However, the robot is only a tool for a human
surgeon. Furthermore, in his article, “Robotic Surgery Benefits Springfield
Hospital,” Kevin Stirling emphasizes the fact that “for patients requiring surgery,
the advantages and benefits of minimally invasive surgery with the daVinci
Robotic Surgical System are plentiful including but not limited to: less pain,
shorter recovery times, shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, fewer transfusions,
less scarring,…and overall improved clinical outcomes generally” (Stirling). In
other words, Stirling believes that the DRSS is an invaluable advancement in
medical technology that aids both patients and doctors immensely. I see eye
to eye with Stirling in his belief that the daVinci robot is a benefit to society.
Therefore, patients should try to overcome their apprehensions about this
technology since there are fewer risks and less recovery time.
T ONE , G ENRE , A UDI ENCE , & P URPOSE
*Being able to identify the following elements when reading an article, book, etc. is a
useful skill to have in college classes and for critical reading outside the college classroom.
DETERMI NI NG TONE
*Here are just some examples of the kinds of tone an author can take. Pay
close attention to the language (word choice) of an author.
Irritated, vexed, indignant, offended
Blunt, forthright, frank, abrupt
Provocative, defiant, questioning
Amusing, funny, jovial, joking
Intelligent, knowledgeable, thoughtful
Impartial, unbiased, open-minded, objective
Friendly, good-natured, affable
Dispirited, discouraged, unhappy
Satirical, disparaging, scornful, contemptuous
I D E N TI F Y I N G G E N R E
*Below is a chart that outlines the different genres (categories or types) of a
text. There are many genres and sub-genres—graphic novels, plays, social
media status updates, etc.—and by identifying the genre, we can determine
what we should be looking for or can gain from reading that text.
(Novel or Short Story)
(Book, Essay, or Article)
Magazine or Newspaper
Scholars or Professionals in the
Scholars or Professionals in the
Students, Professors, and
Others Educated Specialists in
Professional Writer, Scholar, or
Professional or Amateur Writer
E S T A B L I S H I N G T A R G E T A U DI E N C E
*It is important to look at the kinds of information and the word choices of the
author (s) when trying to identify what specific group of people were the
target audience. Consider:
Is it meant for the general public or a specific group of people?
o Are there terms only a doctor or a scuba diver is familiar with?
Is the audience expected to have a certain level of education?
o Look at the level of vocabulary being used.
Is there a specific age group being targeted?
o The kinds of examples and stories included in the source can help
CHOOSING ACCURATE VERBS TO DESCRIBE PURPOSE
I know what it says…but what does it do?
*The following verbs will be helpful when analyzing what an author is doing
(the rhetorical moves he/she is making), rather than what he/she is saying.
Professor Sarah Martin
17 October 2018
From Wasteland to Wonderland: TV’s Altered Landscape
By Jeff Greenfield
“The boob tube.”
“The idiot box.”
“The plug-in drug.”
“A vast wasteland.”
When I began writing about the television industry in the mid-1970s, these were some of the
kinder terms of endearment. To imagine back then a television universe where creativity is
unbound; where Hollywood’s most revered writers, directors, producers and actors clamor for
the chance to “do TV”; where talk of a new “Golden Age” abounds, would have required a
serious exercise in delusion, or the ingestion of controlled substances.
But it has happened. Why? For me, the answer lies in one essential fact: When technology
replaced scarcity with abundance, every core assumption about TV began to crumble. Everything
about the medium — how we receive it, how we consume it, how we pay for it, how we interact
with it — has been altered, and TV is infinitely better for it.
In the mid-1970s, all TV was divided into three parts, at least as far as almost every American
viewer was concerned. Every evening, the three broadcast networks, 1 CBS, 2 NBC and 3 ABC,
drew more than 9 out of 10 viewers. The only revenue came from advertisers, which led
countless chroniclers of the industry to the same surprising conclusion about the nature of the
“Remember,” the NBC executive Don Carswell told me, “we’re not selling the program. We’re
selling the audience for the program.” The bigger the audience — and the more desirable in
terms of buying power — the more the networks could charge.
What this meant was that every hour, every half-hour, every moment of prime time had to be
devoted to gathering the biggest possible audience. And that meant trying to shape the program
to attract as many as possible and, perhaps more important, to avoid offending as many as
One prominent programmer of the day, Paul Klein of NBC, had a theory about this. He called it
the “Least Objectionable Program” concept. Viewers, he said, didn’t watch a program, they
watched TV. They clicked on the set and browsed until they found something reasonably
This theory drove many in the creative community to distraction. For every All in the Family or
M*A*S*H* or Mary Tyler Moore, the overwhelming consensus, as expressed by Stan Kallis of
Columbia TV, was that “We’re basically bound, our hands are tied, by the fact that we’re a
medicine show. We’re here to deliver the audience to the next commercial.”
Further, any unsettling or disturbing fare would taint the mood of the audience — the audience
the networks were promising to deliver to advertisers. Set a comedy in a prison? O.K., but as the
noted programming wizard Fred Silverman warned, “Stay away from the hard stuff. Don’t scare
Forty years ago, I wrote in these pages that “The enormous pressures which force commercial
television into its relatively narrow boundaries are not likely to widen in the foreseeable future.”
I could not have been more wrong; in fact, the boundaries began to widen that very year.
The key to the old TV world was scarcity. Only so many channels could beam through the air
without running into each other. Only three networks had a nationwide distribution system of
microwave relays and AT&T “long lines.” Anyone trying to start another network found the
logistics and the cost prohibitive.
But in 1975, RCA introduced the first of two “Satcom” communications satellites, and the threenetwork monopoly was dead. Now competitors could deliver their fare to stations and cable
systems coast to ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment